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Human Resources Management at Tertiary Education Level in Nigeria: Implication for Business Education

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HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AT TERTIARY EDUCATION LEVEL IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATION FOR BUSINESS EDUCATION

ABSTRACT
The paper observes that Nigeria higher education Institution have fallen short on expectations, their product (Tertiary Education level) lack the skills required by the labour market and this trend results in mass graduate unemployment since they would have assisted them to be self reliant. The study investigated the relevance of higher level business education, human recourses management and how it’s being handled at tertiary Education level in Nigeria.

The ever increasing pace of technological charges in the fields of business and economy generally has rendered the teaching of business skills and the training of skilled manpower ever more challenging. The problem posed by this development is the search for graduates and competent business educators with the knowledge and skills needed by employers of labour in business offices, industry and public sector.
The task of producing skilled human resource management at tertiary level, productivity and efficiency in society lies with skilled trainers and the quality of training institution. The implication of business education of a virile higher level skilled worked force for the economy is critically analyzed and recommendations are made to relevant public especially the university and its tutors.

INTRODUCTION
The rapid development of any nation depends largely on the caliber of its youths, most sector of a nation’s economy is managed by competent personal who are mostly young people.
The introduction of micro electronics, telecommunication equipment, internet and computers into modern offices calls for training development at tertiary level for compact youths who are equipped with the various skills needed by the labour market.
One of the goals of Nigerians tertiary education is the acquisition of both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individual to be self reliant and useful member of the society. It is the statutory duty of the Nigerian higher education to groom the required human capital through relevant man power, abilities, attitude, skills and knowledge. An outstanding capital assumption is that after finishing form tertiary education, graduates should be able to make a successful transition from these institutions of higher learning to become productive worker, self relevant entrepreneurs, responsible parent, good citizens, selfless leaders and live healthy life.
HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Human resource management is a function in organization designed to maximize employee performance in service of the employer’s strategic objective. Human resource is primary concern with low people are managed within organization focusing on policies and system. Human Resource management are typically responsible for a number of activities , including employee, recurrent now focus on strategic activities like merger and acquisition, talented management succession, planning industrial and labour relations and diversely and inclusion

Tertiary Education Human Resources management, the resources employed in the management process are both materials and human. In Usoro (2000) saw human resources as the people with different specialization roles and capabilities who are an integral part of the organization. Human resources constitute all people resident in the nation organization who are capacitated beyond the possibility of contributing to the social and economic well being of that nation or organization. They may be direct employees clients or customers, temporary employees or consultant part time persons or any person with different type of other relationship to the organization.

Functions of Human Resources Management
In this case an effort has made how the individual management skill & knowledge will be use in the organization in order to get things done effectively 1. Planning: Planning is a basic managerial function in management. Planning helps in determining the course of action to be followed for achieving various organizational objectives. It is a decision in advance, what to do, when to do, how to do and who will do a particular task. Planning is a process which involves thinking before doing. Planning is concerned with mental state of an intellectual. He thinks before undertaking a work. Other functions of management such as organizing, directing, coordinating, controlling are undertaken after planning. Planning as determination in advance of a line of action by which certain results are to be achieved in the organization as well. 2. Organizing: Management sets up the objectives or goal to be achieved by its personnel is energy of every individual which is channelized to achieve the enterprise objectives. The function of organization is to arrange the management with a view to control the activities of other factors of production. 3. Co-ordination: Co-ordination of intellectual resources is essential to channelize the activities of various individuals in the organization for the achievement of common goals. Co-ordination helps for orderly arrangement of knowledge management in the pursuit of common objectives. Co-ordination of management is a process of synchronizing knowledge from different sections or angles in order to achieve goals 4. Direction: When research supervisor, involved in directing his researcher and sharing the knowledge among his research students .similarly supervisors directs the student to refer so and so periodicals, books, magazines, etc. Management is an action or to utilize available resources by involving leadership, communication, motivation and supervision. 5. Controlling: Controlling in the management is a process of determining what is being accomplished to assess the performance of an intellectual whether the gather as per plan or not and establishment standard by finding out corrective action.

WHAT IS TERTIARY EDUCATION AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
Tertiary education broadly refers to all post – secondary education, including but not limited to universities. Universities are clearly a key part of all tertiary systems, but the divers and growing set of public and private tertiary institution in every country – colleges, technical training institute, community colleges, nursing schools, research laboratories, centers of excellence, distance learning centers, and many more – forms a network of institution that support the production of the higher – order capacity necessary for development. What has the World Bank been doing to support tertiary education?
The World Bank has been active since 1963 in supporting the growth and diversification of tertiary education system in developing countries and in promoting essential policy reforms to make the sector more efficient, relevant, equitable, transparent, and responsive. In the 1970s much of the support provided by World Bank tertiary education projects was piecemeal, with a narrow focus on the establishment of new programs or on discrete quality improvement measures for existing teaching and research activities. An internal review of implementation experience with tertiary education project undertaken in 1992 and an assessment of recent and ongoing interventions in this sub-sector have offered critical insights into more productive ways of supporting tertiary education reforms and innovations.

Strategies Available for human resources management development at as tertiary level:
Technology changes and advances rapidly, it necessitates corresponding rapid changes in human resources needed. The prevailing business condition at any time determines the number and type of workers needed. In recognition of these above facts, there is need for training and retraining of business youths to meet the challenges of newer technologies to man Nigeria’s vehicle of industrialization. The teacher single handedly cannot carry out the transformation process of achieving quality output (graduates) delivery without enabling environment the need for universities to be well-equipped with modern up-to date machines, gadgets and related information technology initiatives. These equipments should be on a one-on-one basis to afford learners opportunity for prolonged and sufficient practice-training sessions. There is need for practical skills that would reduce unemployment among youths and raise the tone of social and economic structure in Higher Education. Human resources managers should strive to employment programmes have a high stability. The effective and intensive development of human resources among youths will solve the menacing unemployment problems. Intensive skills development is needed. There is need for early introduction of technological knowledge discovery and tertiary institutions, providing and maintaining technology too in these institutions. Developing educational programmes to emphasize critical thinking and knowledge discovery and link them to technical/vocational development and youth’s empowerment. Mentorization is another strategy available for human resources development. Mentoring is a practice in which a more experienced youth takes on a less experienced one for the purpose of guiding, supporting, advising and assisting him/her towards professional development or efficiency. The innovation of mentoring is very useful human resources development strategy because the youth learns from his/her mentor all that he/she could have gone elsewhere to learn. Another strategy is the need to set up a department of training and development in every youth institution. This department will be responsible for identifying training needs of staffs, designing and implementing training and development programs which will raise the performance level of youths in general and of business youth in particular. There is need for consultancy units to organize short-term course to improve the skills and competencies of business youths in the area of computer studies, use of modern audio-visual equipment and general maintenance of the computer and other office equipment. Finally, there is need to mount regular workshops, symposia, conferences, short courses and seminars, and attendance at these seminars conference workshop, etc., be made compulsory for business youths in order to update their knowledge and keep abreast with new devices, technological changes and innovations coming up in their area of specialization .

CONCEPT OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
Many educators and authors have different views about business education. Aina O (1986) conceived business education to include the sum total of knowledge, skills and aptitudes that required for successfully promotion and administering on business education enterprise. He gave the goal of business education as the production of man power who possess the requisite knowledge skills and aptitude for harnessing other resources and bringing them into a cooperative relationship that yields the goods and service demanded by society for the satisfaction of their part conceptualize business education as that education that prepares student for entry into advancement in jobs within business and prepares them to handle their own business affairs and function intelligently as consumers and citizen in a business economy. They opened that in education for business it is general education for all student.

Business education can be define as a composite of skills, which aim at training people who will have the competencies of being employed or be self-realizing in market, management accounting, office and secretarial skills.
It is careen oriented that aims at preparing people for gainful employment,

BUSINESS EDUCATION AT THE TERTIARY LEVEL
These is much more specialized for instance where business graduate from a college of education or faculty of education in university are prepared as educators and /or trainers, business graduate from polytechnics and business / social science faculties of universities are groomed for position in the public and private sectors. The objectives of business education generally are born out of the needs of industry, commerce and society these object lives are highlighted in the national policy on education (FRN, 2004) the inculcation of the right types of value and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society and the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities, both mental and physical as requirements for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his society.
Business education is one of such subject areas. Very few federal and state universities offer business education in Nigeria in its full program. Also, the qualities of equipment and faculty in the universities have both deteriorated and the existing ones and grossly inadequate for the large number of student admitted per programme.

Management – its implication on business education:
Business education is a blend of combination of relevant. Disciplines rationality organized in a synthetic form. In maintaining the tenor of business education with information, technology and management, one should adopt a balance approach to its development. This may also entail linkages between education, research and society. An essential prerequisite of educational planning and development in the autonomous environment should be free from outside influences, particularly political ones.
Business Educator should re-think approaches and strategies of training, and possibly consider adopting the competency based mode of educational delivery. Qualitative improvement of business education is also to generate businessmen of tomorrow with culture. We continue to import foreign technology and attitudes we fail to develop indigenous culture based on our ethos and goals.
The initial leadership has to come from our universities. This alone will ensure national outlook of our education.

The main task before business education therefore, is to uplift the level of business education from the present depth to the dizzy heights, if we direct the content and training of teachers with material stuff and precious thoughts, while introducing the new course like e-business, e-marketing e-banking and e-accounting, e-packaging, e-commerce, international economics, world trade and foreign languages.

The emphasis on quantitative and quantitative aspects of business education should therefore be considered a top priority on the eve of Indian society becoming a knowledge society in the beginning of this new millennium.

Every university in our country must establish a knowledge center and a knowledge manager, his job is to provide the much needed information and disseminate the relevant knowledge by extensive use to interactive technologies. Then only can we be able to build a strong knowledge and talent base.

CHALLENGES
Quantification of the qualitative knowledge, information technology and management, computer awareness are in itself great challenges. We must accept the challenge and provide leadership in the areas of business education. If business education fails to achieve this, the national development will come to standstill and meet its dead end. But we live in hope and hope never dies. It is this hope of better business education, training and culture that we aspire for on the eve of the onset of the twenty first century, the future of business education depends upon the abilities to convert opportunities into real benefits. This is what is urgently required today.

RECOMMENDATION
Skill acquisition programs should be organized for business education student at tertiary level in the field of business to train and empower them. This will enable them develop positive attitude towards work and labour.

A department of training and development should be set up in every higher educational institution.

CONCLUSION Human mind is the major resource for creation of wealth far more than the land and mineral resources. The wealthiest person of recent origin have used their minds rather materials to create their assets. The universities engaged in training of the minds should advise their students that the syllabi and the degree do not constitute the finality of the management system in any discipline. Some of it will become obsolete with time. The students should be encouraged continuously to engage in further learning not only in their domain but also in associated fields for success in their occupations. They should be able to keep peace with changing demands of the management system both in the content and context. Though the industrial revolution had by passed India, we cannot afford to deal with change challenge is to comprehend the nature of the challenge and educate ourselves and acquire the necessary skills so that we ourselves can lead the revolution. When we look at today’s major economic powers the average time needed to reach economic maturity is declining steadily. While Great Britain took about 150 years for the evolution of its industry, US did it in about 100 years; Japan was able to do it in 50 years. I believe we can, if we create the management skill knowledge for business education student at tertiary level and in corporations this would pave way to exploit the economic.

REFERENCES Aina, O. (1986) Report of the study panel in technical teacher production in Nigeria. Lagos; Federal Ministry of Education
Anao, A. R. (1986). The Role of Business Education in a Developing Economy. Business education journal 1, (1) 17-29 APQC (2001), American Productivity and Quality Center, APQC: The leading edge of knowing. E. B. Usoro, PHD (2000) Developing Human Resources in Tertiary Business Education. Flemming T. (1996), coping with a revolution: will the internet changing learning? Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand. Goodyear P., Salom G., steeples C. and Tickners. S. (2001), competencies for online teaching: A special report, educational technology research and development, vol.49; No1: pp 65-72 Harris D. (1996), creating A knowledge-centric information technology environment. In knowledge environment, http://www.dbharris.com/ckc.htm Pirolli P., Wilson M. (1998), Theory of Measurement of Knowledge Content Access and Learning Psychological Review, Vol. 105, No. 1, pp 58-82…...

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Free Tertiary Education in Malaysia

...FREE TERTIARY EDUCATION SHOULD BE PROVIDED BY THE MALAYSIAN GOVERNMENT FOR ALL MALAYSIANS. Based on the topic above, free tertiary education should be provided by the Malaysian government for all Malaysians because it gives a lot of benefits to the youths as well as to the nations. Education is the one of the most important elements in the development of a country. First of all, free tertiary education can ensure that the rights for all Malaysians to access for education are preserved. It has been mention in the Malaysian Federal Constitutions that all Malaysians have the right to access for education regardless of race, religion and culture. This will help to produce a knowledgeable and educated generation. For example, Malaysian citizens such as the aborigines that live in remote places also have the right to access for education in all levels. Besides that, free tertiary education can boost the education sector in our country. There will be more opportunities provided for the youths to further their studies in higher education which will also enhanced the healthy competition among students to enroll into universities. The higher education institutions in our country will compete with each other to provide the best facilities and services to the students for their convenience. Moreover, free tertiary education will contribute indirectly to the process of developing the nation. This is because more professionals and experts in important field is......

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