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Hospitality and Marketing

In: Business and Management

Submitted By LizJane
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1. La méthodologie traditionnelle.

La méthodologie traditionnelle est également appelée méthodologie classique ou méthodologie grammaire-traduction. Elle était utilisée en milieu scolaire pour l’enseignement du latin et du grec. Puis elle a constitué une méthode d’apprentissage des langues modernes qui ont par conséquent été considérées comme des langues mortes. Elle a été largement utilisée dans l’enseignement secondaire français dans la seconde moitié du XIXème siècle. Il s’agit d’une méthodologie qui a perduré pendant plusieurs siècles et qui a contribué au développement de la pensée méthodologique. D’après Christian Puren, la méthodologie traditionnelle a donné lieu entre le XVIIIème et le XIXème siècles à des variations méthodologiques assez importantes, et a subi toute une évolution interne qui a préparé l’avènement de la méthodologie directe.
Le but essentiel de cette méthodologie était la lecture et la traduction de textes littéraires en langue étrangère, ce qui plaçait donc l’oral au second plan. La langue était conçue comme un ensemble de règles et d’exceptions que l’on retrouvait et l’on étudiait dans des textes et qui pouvaient être rapprochées de la langue maternelle. Cependant on accordait plus d’importance à la forme littéraire qu’au sens des textes, même si celui-ci n’est pas totalement négligé. Par conséquent il existe une langue “normée” et de qualité, celle utilisée par les auteurs littéraires qui devait être préférée à la langue orale et imitée par les apprenants afin d’acquérir une compétence linguistique adéquate. La culture était perçue comme l’ensemble des oeuvres littéraires et artistiques réalisées dans le pays où l’on parle la langue étrangère.
Au XVIIIème siècle, la méthodologie traditionnelle utilisait systématiquement le thème comme exercice de traduction et la mémorisation de phrases comme technique d’apprentissage de la langue. La grammaire était enseignée de manière déductive ( on présentait d’abord la règle, puis on l’appliquait à des cas particuliers sous forme de phrases). C’est à cette époque que s’est répandue l’utilisation d’un métalangage grammatical dans l’enseignement des langues; un métalangage dont l’héritage persiste encore aujourd’hui.
Au XIXème siècle, on a pu constater une évolution de la méthodologie provoquée par l’introduction de la version-grammaire dont les pratiques consistaient à découper en parties un texte de la langue étrangère et le traduire mot à mot à la langue maternelle. Cette traduction était le point de départ d’une étude théorique de la grammaire, qui n’occupait plus une place de choix dans l’apprentissage et ne pouvait donc plus être graduée par difficultés. Par conséquent, les points grammaticaux étaient abordés dans l’ordre de leur apparition dans les textes de base.
L’instruction de l’Education Nationale du 18 septembre 1840 donnait une explication très précise de la méthodologie traditionnelle et de son application en classe de langue étrangère dans les lycées de l’époque:
La première année (...) sera consacrée tout entière à la grammaire et à la prononciation. Pour la grammaire, les élèves apprendront par cœur pour chaque jour de classe la leçon qui aura été développée par le professeur dans la classe précédente. Les exercices consisteront en versions et en thèmes, où sera ménagée l’application des dernières leçons. (...) Pour la prononciation, après en avoir exposé les règles on y accoutumera l’oreille par des dictées fréquentes, et on fera apprendre par cœur et réciter convenablement les morceaux dictés. (...) Dans la seconde année (...) les versions et les thèmes consisteront surtout en morceaux grecs et latins qu’on fera traduire en anglais et en allemand, et réciproquement. (...) Dans la troisième année, l’enseignement aura plus particulièrement un caractère littéraire.[1]
Etant donné le faible niveau d’intégration didactique que présentait cette méthodologie, le professeur n’avait pas besoin de manuel, il pouvait en effet choisir lui-même les textes en fonction de leur valeur littéraire (subjective, bien évidemment) sans tenir vraiment compte de leurs difficultés grammaticales et lexicales. Dans ces conditions, il n’existait aucun schéma de classe et les activités se juxtaposaient dans un ordre aléatoire. C’est l’enseignant qui dominait entièrement la classe et qui détenait le savoir et l’autorité, il choisissait les textes et préparait les exercices, posait les questions et corrigeait les réponses. La langue utilisée en classe était la langue maternelle et l’interaction se faisait toujours en sens unique du professeur vers les élèves. L’erreur n’étant pas admise, le professeur la corrigeait systématiquement comme s’il s’agissait d’un outrage à la langue “normée”, la seule admissible.
Le vocabulaire était enseigné sous forme de listes de mots présentés hors contexte et que l’apprenant devait connaître par cœur. En effet, le sens des mots était appris à travers sa traduction en langue maternelle. On peut donc constater que la méthodologie traditionnelle proposait un modèle d’enseignement imitatif qui n’admettait aucune variation créative de la part de l’élève. La rigidité de ce système et les résultats décevants qu’il apportait ont contribué à sa disparition et à l’avènement d’autres théories plus attrayantes pour les élèves.
D’après C. Puren, dès le milieu du XVIIIème siècle, la demande sociale d’apprentissage des langues a évolué. On a alors besoin d’une connaissance plus pratique des langues étrangères. C’est ainsi qu’on assiste à la multiplication d’ouvrages didactiques qui se prétendent universalistes (ils visent des publics hétérogènes et souvent professionnels) et que l’on a appelé “cours traditionnels à objectif pratique” (CTOP). Dans ces cours, on remet en question la méthodologie grammaire-traduction et on prépare l’avènement de la méthodologie directe. Les CTOP intègrent autour d’un texte de base des contenus grammaticaux gradés et réduits par rapport à la méthodologie traditionnelle, ils multiplient et varient les exercices de réemploi des formes linguistiques enseignées, et introduisent au fur et à mesure des besoins des apprenants des listes de vocabulaire organisées par rapport à des thèmes de la vie quotidienne.
D’après Henri Besse, la méthodologie traditionnelle ne peut pas être considérée efficace puisque la compétence grammaticale des apprenants a toujours été limitée et que les phrases proposées pour l’apprentissage étaient souvent artificielles. Remise en question, la méthodologie traditionnelle coexistera vers la fin du XIXème siècle avec la méthode naturelle. Puis, à partir des années 1870 une interminable polémique va opposer les traditionalistes aux partisans de la réforme directe jusqu’en 1902, date à laquelle une instruction officielle imposera d’une manière autoritaire l’utilisation de la méthodologie directe dans l’enseignement national, ce que C. Puren nomme “le coup d’état pédagogique de 1902” et sur lequel nous nous pencherons plus tard. Rodriguez, Seara: L'évolution des méthodologies dans l'enseignement du français langue étrangère depuis la méthodologie traditionnel jusqu'à nos jours, 2004, 19 p. Dossier word
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