Premium Essay

History of Hypothyroidism

In: Science

Submitted By tkissntree
Words 8586
Pages 35
SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Journal of Thyroid Research Volume 2011, Article ID 809341, 10 pages doi:10.4061/2011/809341

Review Article Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Substitution: Historical Aspects
J. Lindholm and P. Laurberg
Department of Endocrinology, Aarhus University Hospital, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark Correspondence should be addressed to J. Lindholm, j.lindholm@ofir.dk Received 15 January 2011; Accepted 17 March 2011 Academic Editor: Marian Ludgate Copyright © 2011 J. Lindholm and P. Laurberg. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The last part of the 19th century was a period of great achievements in medicine and endocrinology. The thyroid gland evolved from being considered a rudimentary structure to an organ related to specific diseases. The singular importance of iodine became acknowledged. Graves-Basedow’s disease was described. Surgical treatment evolved with extraordinary speed. Theodor Kocher observed that the clinical picture in patients after total thyroidectomy was similar to the one seen in cretinism. In 1850, the first case of hypothyroidism or myxedema was described. Less than 50 years later, effective treatment was introduced. Another 50 years later, autoimmune thyroiditis was ascertained as the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism (in areas with no iodine deficiency). This paper gives a short survey of the history of hypothyroidism and its treatment.

1. Introduction
During the 50 years preceding World War I, medicine saw a wealth of new ideas and novel procedures, not in the least within the field of endocrinology. Among major achievements of this period were the recognition of the importance of the pituitary gland, first suggested by Oscar Minkowski (1858–1931) [1] and…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

History

...“The mid-twentieth-century era of a dictatorship is a highly disturbing chapter in the history of civilization. The key development was not only the resurgence of authoritarian rule but also the rise of a particularly ruthless brand of totalitarianism that reached its full realization in the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, and Japan in the 1930’s. Stalin, Hitler, and Japan’s military leaders intervened radically in society and ruled with unprecedented severity” (McKay, History of World Societies, p. 907). Hitler came to power in 1933 in Germany. There are a few reasons why Hitler came to power from his incredible speaking to his many promises. Germany had just been through a war and had lost. With the ending of the war the Treaty of Versailles was a step toward establishing order. “More harshly the Allies declared Germany (with Austria) was responsible for the war and had therefore to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the war” (McKay, History of World Societies, p. 863). The government opposed and protested this Treaty, but there was no alternative. With this treaty in effect, living in Germany was very hard. The people of Germany were poor and needed someone to lead them out of this depression they had fallen into. Hitler promised to restore hope and to solve the problems of the depression. To Germans at the time Hitler made sense, uniting everyone. With Adolf Hitler came his National Socialism movement. National Socialism was shaped by Hitler’s beliefs......

Words: 531 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism

...Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones. This occurs when your body does not produce enough thyroid hormone. The main purpose of thyroid hormone is to "run the body's metabolism," it is understandable that people with this condition will have symptoms associated with a slow metabolism. There are two common causes of hypothyroidism. The first is a result of previous inflammation of the thyroid gland, which leaves a large percentage of the cells of the thyroid damaged (or dead) and incapable of producing sufficient hormone. The second major cause is the broad category of "medical treatments." The treatment of many thyroid conditions is surgical removal of a portion or all of the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism is diagnosed by a simple blood test to see how much thyroid is in the blood. This blood tests the levels of T4 and TSH (thyroid - stimulating hormone) in the blood. The signs and symptoms of Hypothyroidism are: fatigue, weakness, weight gain or increased difficulty losing weight, Coarse or dry hair, dry or rough pale skin, hair loss, cold intolerance (you can't tolerate cold temperatures), muscle cramps and frequent muscle aches, constipation, depression, irritability, memory loss, abnormal menstrual cycles and decreased libido. My father has suffered from this for years, cause by diabetes. He takes Levothyroxine, manages a strict diet and follows a rigorous exercise......

Words: 630 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism

...Juana Davidson Hypothyroidism Professor Cocimano HTH 1105- 92016 To understand hypothyroidism, you must first understand the function of the thyroid. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly shaped organ at the base of your neck, measuring only 2-4 inches in diameter. (Sagmiller, 2) The principle role of the thyroid gland is to manufacture, store, and secrete the thyroid hormones, 1-thyroxine (T4) and triidothyroxine (T3). The thyroid is also responsible for storing much of the body’s supply of iodine, which is used to form T4 and T3. The hypothalamus detects a need for more thyroid hormone and signals the pituitary gland to make thyrotropin (TSH). The thyroid then adjusts its production of hormones based on the amount of TSH it receives. When the thyroid does not make enough hormones, hypothyroidism occurs. (Blanchard and Abrams-Brill) Simply put, hypothyroidism is the result of an underactive thyroid. Because the thyroid controls metabolism, regulates body temperature, affects body weight, muscle strength, energy level, and fertility (Sagmill, 206), an underactive thyroid can have significant effects on individuals who are diagnosed with hypothyroidism. There are an estimated 27 million people living with hypothyroidism, the majority being female. Women are nine times more likely to develop this disease, most cases occurring during the childbearing years. (Blanchard and Abrams-Brill, 1491) While not as common; men and children are still susceptible to the disease.......

Words: 2002 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

History

...This Time is Different: Comparing Al-Qaeda’s Unique Place in the History of Terrorism with the Freedom Fighters of the Irish Republican Army” Al Qaeda and the Irish Republican Army are two of the most complex and famous terrorist organizations in modern history. While both groups share some principles with one another, and undoubtedly have committed and continue to commit horrible acts, the world’s perception of each is undoubtedly different from the other. There is an apparent contradiction in Karl Heinzen’s famous quote: “If to kill is always a crime, then it is forbidden equally to all; if it is not a crime, then it is permitted equally to all.”[1] This difference in public perception is a result of several key tenets of each organization’s strategy and structure.       The IRA fights to protect and support the liberties of the Irish people, while Al Qaeda relies upon the religious doctrine of a radical Islamic minority to carry out jihad against Western infidels. Al Qaeda, while claiming to represent the entire Muslim world, has never had a real home or a consistent base to draw upon; inversely, a large proportion of the Irish people are steadfast in their support for the cause. Al Qaeda’s indiscriminate killing of innocent civilians has resulted in a falling out with a large percentage of its former supporters. Finally, the IRA had a distinct, tangible, and realistic goal of expelling the British from Ireland, while Al Qaeda seeks to establish a new caliphate based......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Hypothyroidism

...2013 Things That Can Go Wrong With the Human Body: Hypothyroidism Introduction: Over time, a significant amount of problems with the human body have evolved. These problems have been developed due to both environmental and genetic factors. Dietary changes and urbanization have also played a crucial role in the development of problems that may occur. Our bodies contain a number of functioning systems that are all imperative to our survival. Without these systems, our bodies would not function and in turn, we would cease to exist. The endocrine system serves as one of the body’s ways of sending messages to the brain. It includes a number of vital glands that keep our body’s performance stable and functional. The thyroid gland is one of the most important components in the endocrine system. It is located in the neck, just under the voice box. Its primary function is to release the hormones thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) which control body metabolism, by taking iodine from our food and converting it into these hormones. When the levels of T4 and T3 become too low, the pituitary gland must produce a Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) which then activates the thyroid gland to generate more hormones. (Norman, 2012). If the thyroid gland does not work properly, these hormones cannot be produced on their own. This condition is known as Hypothyroidism. This paper examines the types and causes of hypothyroidism, as well as the symptoms that may occur. Possible......

Words: 2379 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Subclinical Hypothyroidism

...Valerie Van Beusekom Pharm D IV Paper Proposal I. Title: Subclinical hypothyroidism. The importance of screening, treating and management of patients with slightly elevated TSH levels when compared to reference ranges. II. Problem: Purpose of the Study:  Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as an elevated serum TSH level with a normal serum free T4 concentration. Whereas hypothyroidism is an elevated serum TSH level along with a decreased serum T4 concentration. In subclinical hypothyroidism the TSH level is usually above 4.5 mIU/L but not greater than 10 mIU/L. Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition discovered by thyroid screening. According to the review of Helfand and Redfern, 5% to 10% of adult women have an elevated TSH level.5 Controversy persists about screening for subclinical hypothyroidism and the TSH level at which treatment should be initiated. A 1998 position paper from the American College of Physicians questioned whether there were sufficient data to recommend treatment of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.6 A 2004 publication from the US Preventive Services Task Force found that the data were insufficient to recommend for or against screening in adults.7In 2002, a consensus development panel sponsored by the American Thyroid Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the Endocrine Society found insufficient evidence to support screening and recommended against treating patients with a TSH concentration......

Words: 1898 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

History

...Police of the World Joel Terry Doctor Alan Rogers Contemporary U.S. History – HIS 105 Strayer University - Lithonia Campus June 15, 2014 Police of the World Since gaining independence from the British in 1776, the United States foreign policy over the years has gone from expansionist to isolationism to defending democracy. With the responsibility of defending democratic rights for those who cannot defend themselves, the United States in my opinion has taken on the role of “policeman of the world.” This role became more evident with the use of U.S. military force in international incidents like U.S. intervention in the 2011 Libyan Civil War to oust Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, and U.S. involvement in the 2011 Yemeni Civil War protesting the leadership of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh. Despite the United States hailed, as a defender of democracy by some, their actions are usually not selfless. In both situations, protecting United States interests was a major factor. Both Libya and Yemen are hot beds for terrorist activity by radical groups like al-Qaeda. The United States monitors the activities of these groups in an effort to intercept information to thwart acts of terrorism, particularly against Americans. Leadership in these vulnerable countries is of great interest to the United States because some regimes are sympathetic to these militant groups. A lack of clear leadership in these countries also poses a threat to U.S....

Words: 308 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

History

...The Arabs: A History by Eugene Rogan Robert Irwin on an eloquent history of Arab hopes and disappointments * Share17 * * * * * ------------------------------------------------- Email * ------------------------------------------------- Robert Irwin * ------------------------------------------------- * ------------------------------------------------- The Guardian, Saturday 31 October 2009 An American Army helicopter flies past a mosque in Baghdad, Iraq. Photograph: Joe Raedle/Getty Images The Arabs: A History 1. The Arabs: A History 2. by Eugene Rogan 3. 4. ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Buy the book Bottom of Form by Eugene Rogan 532pp, Allen Lane, £25 Early on in his book Eugene Rogan, who teaches the modern history of the Middle East, confesses that in "any free and fair election in the Arab world today, I believe the Islamists would win hands down". Again, towards the end of this engrossing and capacious book, he reiterates that the "inconvenient truth about the Arab world today is that, in any free and fair election, those parties most hostile to the United States are most likely to win". Today, Arab fear of the west and resentment at the humiliating and socially damaging effects of westernisation fuels Islamism and the spread of terrorism. How have we come to this pass? Rogan answers this question by tracing the history of Arab hopes and ultimate disappointments from...

Words: 1343 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hypothyroidism

...Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones. This occurs when your body does not produce enough thyroid hormone. The main purpose of thyroid hormone is to "run the body's metabolism," it is understandable that people with this condition will have symptoms associated with a slow metabolism. There are two common causes of hypothyroidism. The first is a result of previous inflammation of the thyroid gland, which leaves a large percentage of the cells of the thyroid damaged (or dead) and incapable of producing sufficient hormone. The second major cause is the broad category of "medical treatments." The treatment of many thyroid conditions is surgical removal of a portion or all of the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism is diagnosed by a simple blood test to see how much thyroid is in the blood. This blood tests the levels of T4 and TSH (thyroid - stimulating hormone) in the blood. The signs and symptoms of Hypothyroidism are: fatigue, weakness, weight gain or increased difficulty losing weight, Coarse or dry hair, dry or rough pale skin, hair loss, cold intolerance (you can't tolerate cold temperatures), muscle cramps and frequent muscle aches, constipation, depression, irritability, memory loss, abnormal menstrual cycles and decreased libido. My father has suffered from this for years, cause by diabetes. He takes Levothyroxine, manages a strict diet and follows a rigorous exercise......

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Hypothyroidism

...Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy Lydia Lebron Composition I ENG201 Jersey College School of Nursing Teterboro Campus Professor Toni S. Taylor, MSW Winter 2013 January 24,2014 Abstract Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is very dangerous for both mother and unborn child. There are several complications that the fetus can develop if left untreated. Many times hypothyroidism goes undiagnosed due to its symptoms similar to pregnancy. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in pregnancy for fetus brain and developmental growth as well as the mother’s health. With the right medical management hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy can prevent fetal birth defects by mandated prescreening before, during, after pregnancy postpartum thyroiditis, educating the patient about medical treatment, medication and diet requirements and restrictions. Introduction “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”—Benjamin Franklin. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is often overlooked. Women with thyroid problems are asymptomatic and not routinely screened even during and after pregnancy (Braverman, 2012). Thyroid hormones play a critical role during pregnancy both in the development of a healthy baby and maintaining the health of the mother. With proper management, hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and postpartum thyroiditis during pregnancy can prevent fetal birth defects and health complications to the mother by mandatory......

Words: 1603 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

The Difference Between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

...The Difference Between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism First let’s break these words down, so we may better understand them. Thyroid=thyroid gland, Ism=process;condition, hypo=deficient;below;under;lessthan normal, hyper=above;excessive. Hypothyroidism is a condition when there is a deficiency of thyroid hormones in the body. Hyper- thyroidism is characterized by excessive amounts of thyroid hormones in the body. These conditions are extremely difference cases. There are many signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as brady- cardia- decreased heart rate, constipation, intolerance to cold, memory problems, coarse dry hair, slow speech movements, puffy face, loss of eyebrow hair and heavy menstrual periods. Medications like lithium carbonate, genetic, decreased level of iodine in the body, disturbances in pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and infections. These are mainly causes of hypothyroidism. Treatment for this condition includes thyroid hormones such as thyroxine; which is a T4 hormone of the thyroid gland. Hyperthyroidism is caused by any growth present in the thyroid gland. Thyroid glands can be affected by a disorder called Grave’s disease, which is a immunological disorder. A sign of hyperthyroidism is a classical feature of protruding eyeball. Hyperthyroidism can also lead to thyrotoxicosis-the over production of a hormone by the butterfly-shaped gland in the neck. There is a treatment for hyperthyroidism. Anti-thyroid drugs...

Words: 341 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Htn, Ckd & Hypothyroidism

...Case Study Two: HTN, CKD, & Hypothyroidism Managing Co-Morbidities in Primary Care Primary care providers treat many patients with co-morbidities. It is important for primary care providers to utilize the most current evidence-based research and guidelines to treat and manage patients with co-morbidities in order to reduce risk factors and improve overall health. The following case study will be utilized to apply current guidelines for the treatment and management of hypertension (HTN), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypothyroidism including patient education, monitoring, and clinical end points. Case Study A 45 year old African American male returns for a six month follow-up for blood pressure (BP) control. The patient complains of on-going symptoms over the past few months of dry cough, sleep disturbances, fatigue, constipation, weight gain, and dry skin. The patient denies pain, shortness of breath, edema, or sputum production. Pulse is 80 and regular, BP is 148/110, and BMI is 28. He is six feet tall and weighs 205 pounds. Labs reveal TSH of 5.2, free T4 of 0.8, free T3 1.8, Creatinine 2.1, BUN 22. Family history includes stroke, heart attack, and high cholesterol. Current medications are daily multivitamin, Lisinopril 10 mg once daily, over-the-counter (OTC) Robitussin, and OTC laxative as needed (University of Phoenix, 2014, Week Seven Case Study). The patient can be diagnosed with uncontrolled HTN, subclinical hypothyroidism, and may have chronic......

Words: 1894 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Everything You Need to Know About Hypothyroidism

...Everything You Need To Know About Hypothyroidism Abstract This paper describes in detail the disorder hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is an endocrine disorder that affects a lot of people in the United States. Women are mostly affected but men are also affected. This paper will discuss all the signs and symptoms, treatments, diet plans and a lot of other information about the disorder. This paper also discusses exactly what the disorder does and how it affects people. This disorder is very interesting. Thyroid disorders are very hard to diagnose because they have vague symptoms until the disease has reached a severe level. The thyroid is a small gland in our necks that control growth repair and metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine to produce hormones throughout our body. According to Ignatavicius and Workman If our thyroid is not working properly it is hard to maintain adequate health. Women are more susceptible to suffer from thyroid disorders. If you have a low functioning thyroid you suffer from a disorder call hypothyroidism. This condition can originate in the thyroid or the pituitary gland. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) Hypothyroidism results when the thyroid fails to secrete an adequate amount of the thyroid hormone. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.)This condition may form in the thyroid or in the pituitary. The most common cause of this disorder in the United States is Hashimoto’s...

Words: 1204 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Differences Between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

...Differences between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism Before you talk about the differences between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism you first have to know what the purpose of the thyroid. The thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped gland that produces hormones for your body to function. These hormones helps help the brain, heart, muscles and many other major organs. The thyroid gland is located in the front of your neck at the base of your throat. Hypothyroidism means under active thyroid and it does not produce enough hormones needed for the body. It makes your body slow down. Symptoms are fatigue, dry skin nails and hair, constipation, weight gain, heavy mensural flow, irritability, bradycardia (decreased heart rate), increased respiratory rate. In blood testing hypothyroidism shows decreased levels of T3 and T4 and increased levels of TSH. Hypothyroidism is treated by supplements of thyroid hormones and are lifelong treatments. Hyperthyroidism means over active thyroid and produces too much hormone. This causes the body to go into over drive and speed up. Symptoms are sweating, feeling hot, and racing thoughts, anxiety, fatigue, increased bowel movements, insomnia, muscle weakness, soft nails, increased moisture of the skin, tachycardia (increased heart rate). In blood testing the T3 and T4 levels are increased and the TSH levels are decreased. The treatment for hyperthyroidism is by anti- thyroid drugs and is taken lifelong. There are auto immune diseases that......

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

History

...Giovanny Veloz US History 3/28/12 On March 26th I visited the American Museum of Natural History. After 3 hours of roaming around I couldn’t find much that pertained to this history class so my friend that works there was able to sneak me into the American Historical Society right next door. This was a goldmine of information and exhibits pertaining to history during all different types of eras. Right in front of the museum was a life size statue of Abraham Lincoln and to my surprise, he was really tall. One document that really caught my eye was a rare handwritten copy of the Thirteenth Amendment, signed by Lincoln himself. I was intrigued by this document because all I was doing was looking at this piece of paper and imagining Lincoln sitting down actually signing this with a feather and some ink. Trying to picture yourself living back in those days is The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution declared that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction”. The Emancipation Proclamation, which went into effect on January 1, 1863, was a major step towards the abolition of slavery, helping to fulfill the promise of the Declaration of Independence and renew the nation’s founding philosophy of human liberty. Due to the Civil War, Lincoln realized that changing the Constitution itself would not be sufficient...

Words: 640 - Pages: 3