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History Notes 1302

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Washington Disarmament Conference – 2 November 1921, an international conference on the limitation of naval fleet construction begins in Washington. Under the leadership of the American Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes the representatives of the USA, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan pledge not to exceed the designated sizes of their respective naval fleets.

America First Committee – AFC was established September 4, 1940, by Yale Law School student R. Douglas Stuart, Jr., along with other students, including future President Gerald Ford, future Peace Corps director Sargent Shriver, and future U.S. Supreme Court justice Potter Stewart.[The America First Committee (AFC) was the foremost non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II. Peaking at 800,000 paid members in 650 chapters, it was one of the largest anti-war organization in American history.[1][2] Started in 1940, it shut down after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. Recent organizations with similar names are not in any way connected to this historic group.

The “Black Market” –

The Nye Committee – officially known as the Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, was a committee of the United States Senate which studied the causes of United States' involvement in World War I. It was a significant factor in heightening public and political support for neutrality in the early stages of World War II. Nye created headlines by drawing connections between the wartime profits of the banking and munitions industries to America's involvement in World War I. Many Americans felt betrayed and questioned that the war had been an epic battle between the forces of good (democracy) and evil (autocracy). This investigation of these "merchants of death" helped to bolster sentiments for isolationism

Albert B. Fall – Fall was appointed to the position of Secretary of the Interior by President Warren G. Harding in March 1921. Soon after his appointment, Harding convinced Edwin Denby, the Secretary of the Navy, that Fall's department should take over responsibility for the Naval Reserves at Elk Hills, California, Buena Vista, California, and Teapot Dome, Wyoming. This last setting became the namesake of the scandal to erupt in April 1922 when the Wall Street Journal reported that Secretary Fall had decided that two of his friends, oilmen Harry F. Sinclair (Mammoth Oil Corporation) and Edward L. Doheny (Pan-American Petroleum and Transport Company), should be given leases to drill in parts of these Naval Reserves without open bidding. His acceptance of kickbacks for the leases resulted in the Teapot Dome scandal. The investigation found Fall guilty of conspiracy and bribery, $385,000 having been paid to him by Edward L. Doheny. Fall was jailed for one year as a result—the first former cabinet officer sentenced to prison as a result of misconduct in office. Doheny was not only acquitted on the charge of bribing Fall, but Doheny's corporation foreclosed on Fall's home in Tularosa Basin, New Mexico, because of "unpaid loans" which turned out to be that same $100,000 bribe. Harry Sinclair was fined and served six months for contempt of court. Albert Fall died, November 30, 1944, after a long illness, in El Paso, Texas.

Warren G. Harding – 29th President of the United States (1921–1923). A Republican from Ohio, Harding was an influential self-made newspaper publisher. He served in the Ohio Senate (1899–1903), as the 28th Lieutenant Governor of Ohio (1904–1906) and as a U.S. Senator (1915–1921). He was also the first incumbent United States Senator and the first newspaper publisher to be elected President. His conservatism, affable manner, and "make no enemies" campaign strategy made Harding the compromise choice at the 1920 Republican National Convention. During his presidential campaign, in the aftermath of World War I, he promised a return of the nation to "normalcy". This "America first" campaign encouraged industrialization and a strong economy independent of foreign influence. Harding departed from the progressive movement that had dominated Congress since President Theodore Roosevelt. In the 1920 election, he and his running mate, Calvin Coolidge, defeated Democrat and fellow Ohioan James M. Cox in the largest presidential popular vote landslide in American history (60.36% to 34.19%) since popular vote totals were first recorded in 1824. President Harding rewarded friends and political contributors, referred to as the Ohio Gang, with financially powerful positions. Scandals and corruption, including the notorious Teapot Dome scandal, eventually pervaded his administration; one of his own cabinet and several of his appointees were eventually tried, convicted, and sent to prison for bribery or defrauding the federal government. Harding did however make some notably positive appointments to his cabinet. In foreign affairs, Harding spurned the League of Nations, and signed a separate peace treaty with Germany and Austria, formally ending World War I. He also strongly promoted world naval disarmament at the 1921–1922 Washington Naval Conference, and urged U.S. participation in a proposed International Court. Domestically, Harding signed the first child welfare program in the United States and dealt with striking workers in the mining and railroad industries. Also, the Veterans Bureau was cleaned up by Harding in March, 1923. The nation's unemployment rate dropped by half during Harding's administration. In August 1923, President Harding suddenly collapsed and died during a stop in California on a return trip from Alaska. He was succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge.

Calvin Coolidge – Succeeded Warren G. Harding

Herbert Hoover

Woodrow Wilson

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Jack Garner

Eleanor Roosevelt

Taft-Hartley Act

The Roosevelt Corollary

Theodore Roosevelt

Dollar Diplomacy

Good neighbor Policy

The Battleship Maine

The Open Door Policy

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

The League of Nations

The World Court

The Panama Canal

The Luisitania

Espionage Act

Sedition Act

The Scopes Monkey Trial

Kellogg-Briand Pact

The Tennessee Valley Authority

Hawley-Smoot Tariff


Boxer Rebellion

The Spanish American War

William McKinley

William Howard Taft

Domestic reaction to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

Reasons for the U.S. alignment in World War I

Members of the Democratic (Roosevelt) coalition of 1932 and 1936

Causes of the Great Depression

Effects of tariffs in the period after World War I, especially the Hawley-Smoot Tariff

Causes of the Economic boom of the 1920’s

The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

American intervention in the Dominican Republic

The Red Scare

The Major Military phases of World War II in European and Pacific Theaters

Economic conditions after World War II

The Spanish-American War

Development and nature of the Congress of Industrial Organizations

The Major Military phases of World War II in the European and Pacific Theaters

The process of transition to a peace time economy after World War II

The Election of 1948

Causes of the Korean War…...

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