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Hello World

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By rahulrathod90
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January 30, 2009
The End of Solitude

By William Deresiewicz

What does the contemporary self want? The camera has created a culture of celebrity; the computer is creating a culture of connectivity. As the two technologies converge — broadband tipping the Web from text to image, social-networking sites spreading the mesh of interconnection ever wider — the two cultures betray a common impulse. Celebrity and connectivity are both ways of becoming known. This is what the contemporary self wants. It wants to be recognized, wants to be connected: It wants to be visible. If not to the millions, on Survivor or Oprah, then to the hundreds, on Twitter or Facebook. This is the quality that validates us, this is how we become real to ourselves — by being seen by others. The great contemporary terror is anonymity. If Lionel Trilling was right, if the property that grounded the self, in Romanticism, was sincerity, and in modernism it was authenticity, then in postmodernism it is visibility.

So we live exclusively in relation to others, and what disappears from our lives is solitude. Technology is taking away our privacy and our concentration, but it is also taking away our ability to be alone. Though I shouldn't say taking away. We are doing this to ourselves; we are discarding these riches as fast as we can. I was told by one of her older relatives that a teenager I know had sent 3,000 text messages one recent month. That's 100 a day, or about one every 10 waking minutes, morning, noon, and night, weekdays and weekends, class time, lunch time, homework time, and toothbrushing time. So on average, she's never alone for more than 10 minutes at once. Which means, she's never alone.

I once asked my students about the place that solitude has in their lives. One of them admitted that she finds the prospect of being alone so unsettling that she'll sit with a friend even when she has a paper to write. Another said, why would anyone want to be alone?

To that remarkable question, history offers a number of answers. Man may be a social animal, but solitude has traditionally been a societal value. In particular, the act of being alone has been understood as an essential dimension of religious experience, albeit one restricted to a self-selected few. Through the solitude of rare spirits, the collective renews its relationship with divinity. The prophet and the hermit, the sadhu and the yogi, pursue their vision quests, invite their trances, in desert or forest or cave. For the still, small voice speaks only in silence. Social life is a bustle of petty concerns, a jostle of quotidian interests, and religious institutions are no exception. You cannot hear God when people are chattering at you, and the divine word, their pretensions notwithstanding, demurs at descending on the monarch and the priest. Communal experience is the human norm, but the solitary encounter with God is the egregious act that refreshes that norm. (Egregious, for no man is a prophet in his own land. Tiresias was reviled before he was vindicated, Teresa interrogated before she was canonized.) Religious solitude is a kind of self-correcting social mechanism, a way of burning out the underbrush of moral habit and spiritual custom. The seer returns with new tablets or new dances, his face bright with the old truth.

Like other religious values, solitude was democratized by the Reformation and secularized by Romanticism. In Marilynne Robinson's interpretation, Calvinism created the modern self by focusing the soul inward, leaving it to encounter God, like a prophet of old, in "profound isolation." To her enumeration of Calvin, Marguerite de Navarre, and Milton as pioneering early-modern selves we can add Montaigne, Hamlet, and even Don Quixote. The last figure alerts us to reading's essential role in this transformation, the printing press serving an analogous function in the 16th and subsequent centuries to that of television and the Internet in our own. Reading, as Robinson puts it, "is an act of great inwardness and subjectivity." "The soul encountered itself in response to a text, first Genesis or Matthew and then Paradise Lost or Leaves of Grass." With Protestantism and printing, the quest for the divine voice became available to, even incumbent upon, everyone.

But it is with Romanticism that solitude achieved its greatest cultural salience, becoming both literal and literary. Protestant solitude is still only figurative. Rousseau and Wordsworth made it physical. The self was now encountered not in God but in Nature, and to encounter Nature one had to go to it. And go to it with a special sensibility: The poet displaced the saint as social seer and cultural model. But because Romanticism also inherited the 18th-century idea of social sympathy, Romantic solitude existed in a dialectical relationship with sociability — if less for Rousseau and still less for Thoreau, the most famous solitary of all, then certainly for Wordsworth, Melville, Whitman, and many others. For Emerson, "the soul environs itself with friends, that it may enter into a grander self-acquaintance or solitude; and it goes alone, for a season, that it may exalt its conversation or society." The Romantic practice of solitude is neatly captured by Trilling's "sincerity": the belief that the self is validated by a congruity of public appearance and private essence, one that stabilizes its relationship with both itself and others. Especially, as Emerson suggests, one beloved other. Hence the famous Romantic friendship pairs: Goethe and Schiller, Wordsworth and Coleridge, Hawthorne and Melville.

Modernism decoupled this dialectic. Its notion of solitude was harsher, more adversarial, more isolating. As a model of the self and its interactions, Hume's social sympathy gave way to Pater's thick wall of personality and Freud's narcissism — the sense that the soul, self-enclosed and inaccessible to others, can't choose but be alone. With exceptions, like Woolf, the modernists fought shy of friendship. Joyce and Proust disparaged it; D.H. Lawrence was wary of it; the modernist friendship pairs — Conrad and Ford, Eliot and Pound, Hemingway and Fitzgerald — were altogether cooler than their Romantic counterparts. The world was now understood as an assault on the self, and with good reason.

The Romantic ideal of solitude developed in part as a reaction to the emergence of the modern city. In modernism, the city is not only more menacing than ever, it has become inescapable, a labyrinth: Eliot's London, Joyce's Dublin. The mob, the human mass, presses in. Hell is other people. The soul is forced back into itself — hence the development of a more austere, more embattled form of self-validation, Trilling's "authenticity," where the essential relationship is only with oneself. (Just as there are few good friendships in modernism, so are there few good marriages.) Solitude becomes, more than ever, the arena of heroic self-discovery, a voyage through interior realms made vast and terrifying by Nietzschean and Freudian insights. To achieve authenticity is to look upon these visions without flinching; Trilling's exemplar here is Kurtz. Protestant self-examination becomes Freudian analysis, and the culture hero, once a prophet of God and then a poet of Nature, is now a novelist of self — a Dostoyevsky, a Joyce, a Proust.

But we no longer live in the modernist city, and our great fear is not submersion by the mass but isolation from the herd. Urbanization gave way to suburbanization, and with it the universal threat of loneliness. What technologies of transportation exacerbated — we could live farther and farther apart — technologies of communication redressed — we could bring ourselves closer and closer together. Or at least, so we have imagined. The first of these technologies, the first simulacrum of proximity, was the telephone. "Reach out and touch someone." But through the 70s and 80s, our isolation grew. Suburbs, sprawling ever farther, became exurbs. Families grew smaller or splintered apart, mothers left the home to work. The electronic hearth became the television in every room. Even in childhood, certainly in adolescence, we were each trapped inside our own cocoon. Soaring crime rates, and even more sharply escalating rates of moral panic, pulled children off the streets. The idea that you could go outside and run around the neighborhood with your friends, once unquestionable, has now become unthinkable. The child who grew up between the world wars as part of an extended family within a tight-knit urban community became the grandparent of a kid who sat alone in front of a big television, in a big house, on a big lot. We were lost in space.

Under those circumstances, the Internet arrived as an incalculable blessing. We should never forget that. It has allowed isolated people to communicate with one another and marginalized people to find one another. The busy parent can stay in touch with far-flung friends. The gay teenager no longer has to feel like a freak. But as the Internet's dimensionality has grown, it has quickly become too much of a good thing. Ten years ago we were writing e-mail messages on desktop computers and transmitting them over dial-up connections. Now we are sending text messages on our cellphones, posting pictures on our Facebook pages, and following complete strangers on Twitter. A constant stream of mediated contact, virtual, notional, or simulated, keeps us wired in to the electronic hive — though contact, or at least two-way contact, seems increasingly beside the point. The goal now, it seems, is simply to become known, to turn oneself into a sort of miniature celebrity. How many friends do I have on Facebook? How many people are reading my blog? How many Google hits does my name generate? Visibility secures our self-esteem, becoming a substitute, twice removed, for genuine connection. Not long ago, it was easy to feel lonely. Now, it is impossible to be alone.

As a result, we are losing both sides of the Romantic dialectic. What does friendship mean when you have 532 "friends"? How does it enhance my sense of closeness when my Facebook News Feed tells me that Sally Smith (whom I haven't seen since high school, and wasn't all that friendly with even then) "is making coffee and staring off into space"? My students told me they have little time for intimacy. And of course, they have no time at all for solitude.

But at least friendship, if not intimacy, is still something they want. As jarring as the new dispensation may be for people in their 30s and 40s, the real problem is that it has become completely natural for people in their teens and 20s. Young people today seem to have no desire for solitude, have never heard of it, can't imagine why it would be worth having. In fact, their use of technology — or to be fair, our use of technology — seems to involve a constant effort to stave off the possibility of solitude, a continuous attempt, as we sit alone at our computers, to maintain the imaginative presence of others. As long ago as 1952, Trilling wrote about "the modern fear of being cut off from the social group even for a moment." Now we have equipped ourselves with the means to prevent that fear from ever being realized. Which does not mean that we have put it to rest. Quite the contrary. Remember my student, who couldn't even write a paper by herself. The more we keep aloneness at bay, the less are we able to deal with it and the more terrifying it gets.

There is an analogy, it seems to me, with the previous generation's experience of boredom. The two emotions, loneliness and boredom, are closely allied. They are also both characteristically modern. The Oxford English Dictionary's earliest citations of either word, at least in the contemporary sense, date from the 19th century. Suburbanization, by eliminating the stimulation as well as the sociability of urban or traditional village life, exacerbated the tendency to both. But the great age of boredom, I believe, came in with television, precisely because television was designed to palliate that feeling. Boredom is not a necessary consequence of having nothing to do, it is only the negative experience of that state. Television, by obviating the need to learn how to make use of one's lack of occupation, precludes one from ever discovering how to enjoy it. In fact, it renders that condition fearsome, its prospect intolerable. You are terrified of being bored — so you turn on the television.

I speak from experience. I grew up in the 60s and 70s, the age of television. I was trained to be bored; boredom was cultivated within me like a precious crop. (It has been said that consumer society wants to condition us to feel bored, since boredom creates a market for stimulation.) It took me years to discover — and my nervous system will never fully adjust to this idea; I still have to fight against boredom, am permanently damaged in this respect — that having nothing to do doesn't have to be a bad thing. The alternative to boredom is what Whitman called idleness: a passive receptivity to the world.

So it is with the current generation's experience of being alone. That is precisely the recognition implicit in the idea of solitude, which is to loneliness what idleness is to boredom. Loneliness is not the absence of company, it is grief over that absence. The lost sheep is lonely; the shepherd is not lonely. But the Internet is as powerful a machine for the production of loneliness as television is for the manufacture of boredom. If six hours of television a day creates the aptitude for boredom, the inability to sit still, a hundred text messages a day creates the aptitude for loneliness, the inability to be by yourself. Some degree of boredom and loneliness is to be expected, especially among young people, given the way our human environment has been attenuated. But technology amplifies those tendencies. You could call your schoolmates when I was a teenager, but you couldn't call them 100 times a day. You could get together with your friends when I was in college, but you couldn't always get together with them when you wanted to, for the simple reason that you couldn't always find them. If boredom is the great emotion of the TV generation, loneliness is the great emotion of the Web generation. We lost the ability to be still, our capacity for idleness. They have lost the ability to be alone, their capacity for solitude.

And losing solitude, what have they lost? First, the propensity for introspection, that examination of the self that the Puritans, and the Romantics, and the modernists (and Socrates, for that matter) placed at the center of spiritual life — of wisdom, of conduct. Thoreau called it fishing "in the Walden Pond of [our] own natures," "bait[ing our] hooks with darkness." Lost, too, is the related propensity for sustained reading. The Internet brought text back into a televisual world, but it brought it back on terms dictated by that world — that is, by its remapping of our attention spans. Reading now means skipping and skimming; five minutes on the same Web page is considered an eternity. This is not reading as Marilynne Robinson described it: the encounter with a second self in the silence of mental solitude.

But we no longer believe in the solitary mind. If the Romantics had Hume and the modernists had Freud, the current psychological model — and this should come as no surprise — is that of the networked or social mind. Evolutionary psychology tells us that our brains developed to interpret complex social signals. According to David Brooks, that reliable index of the social-scientific zeitgeist, cognitive scientists tell us that "our decision-making is powerfully influenced by social context"; neuroscientists, that we have "permeable minds" that function in part through a process of "deep imitation"; psychologists, that "we are organized by our attachments"; sociologists, that our behavior is affected by "the power of social networks." The ultimate implication is that there is no mental space that is not social (contemporary social science dovetailing here with postmodern critical theory). One of the most striking things about the way young people relate to one another today is that they no longer seem to believe in the existence of Thoreau's "darkness."

The MySpace page, with its shrieking typography and clamorous imagery, has replaced the journal and the letter as a way of creating and communicating one's sense of self. The suggestion is not only that such communication is to be made to the world at large rather than to oneself or one's intimates, or graphically rather than verbally, or performatively rather than narratively or analytically, but also that it can be made completely. Today's young people seem to feel that they can make themselves fully known to one another. They seem to lack a sense of their own depths, and of the value of keeping them hidden.

If they didn't, they would understand that solitude enables us to secure the integrity of the self as well as to explore it. Few have shown this more beautifully than Woolf. In the middle of Mrs. Dalloway, between her navigation of the streets and her orchestration of the party, between the urban jostle and the social bustle, Clarissa goes up, "like a nun withdrawing," to her attic room. Like a nun: She returns to a state that she herself thinks of as a kind of virginity. This does not mean she's a prude. Virginity is classically the outward sign of spiritual inviolability, of a self untouched by the world, a soul that has preserved its integrity by refusing to descend into the chaos and self-division of sexual and social relations. It is the mark of the saint and the monk, of Hippolytus and Antigone and Joan of Arc. Solitude is both the social image of that state and the means by which we can approximate it. And the supreme image in Mrs. Dalloway of the dignity of solitude itself is the old woman whom Clarissa catches sight of through her window. "Here was one room," she thinks, "there another." We are not merely social beings. We are each also separate, each solitary, each alone in our own room, each miraculously our unique selves and mysteriously enclosed in that selfhood.

To remember this, to hold oneself apart from society, is to begin to think one's way beyond it. Solitude, Emerson said, "is to genius the stern friend." "He who should inspire and lead his race must be defended from traveling with the souls of other men, from living, breathing, reading, and writing in the daily, time-worn yoke of their opinions." One must protect oneself from the momentum of intellectual and moral consensus — especially, Emerson added, during youth. "God is alone," Thoreau said, "but the Devil, he is far from being alone; he sees a great deal of company; he is legion." The university was to be praised, Emerson believed, if only because it provided its charges with "a separate chamber and fire" — the physical space of solitude. Today, of course, universities do everything they can to keep their students from being alone, lest they perpetrate self-destructive acts, and also, perhaps, unfashionable thoughts. But no real excellence, personal or social, artistic, philosophical, scientific or moral, can arise without solitude. "The saint and poet seek privacy," Emerson said, "to ends the most public and universal." We are back to the seer, seeking signposts for the future in splendid isolation.

Solitude isn't easy, and isn't for everyone. It has undoubtedly never been the province of more than a few. "I believe," Thoreau said, "that men are generally still a little afraid of the dark." Teresa and Tiresias will always be the exceptions, or to speak in more relevant terms, the young people — and they still exist — who prefer to loaf and invite their soul, who step to the beat of a different drummer. But if solitude disappears as a social value and social idea, will even the exceptions remain possible? Still, one is powerless to reverse the drift of the culture. One can only save oneself — and whatever else happens, one can still always do that. But it takes a willingness to be unpopular.

The last thing to say about solitude is that it isn't very polite. Thoreau knew that the "doubleness" that solitude cultivates, the ability to stand back and observe life dispassionately, is apt to make us a little unpleasant to our fellows, to say nothing of the offense implicit in avoiding their company. But then, he didn't worry overmuch about being genial. He didn't even like having to talk to people three times a day, at meals; one can only imagine what he would have made of text-messaging. We, however, have made of geniality — the weak smile, the polite interest, the fake invitation — a cardinal virtue. Friendship may be slipping from our grasp, but our friendliness is universal. Not for nothing does "gregarious" mean "part of the herd." But Thoreau understood that securing one's self-possession was worth a few wounded feelings. He may have put his neighbors off, but at least he was sure of himself. Those who would find solitude must not be afraid to stand alone.…...

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...มาตรฐานสินค้าเกษตร มกษ. 4004-2555 THAI AGRICULTURAL STANDARD TAS 4004-2012 ข้าว RICE สานักงานมาตรฐานสินค้าเกษตรและอาหารแห่งชาติ กระทรวงเกษตรและสหกรณ์ ICS 67.080.10 ISBN 978-974-403-674-2 มาตรฐานสินค้าเกษตร มกษ. 4004-2555 THAI AGRICULTURAL STANDARD TAS 4004-2012 ข้าว RICE สานักงานมาตรฐานสินค้าเกษตรและอาหารแห่งชาติ กระทรวงเกษตรและสหกรณ์ 50 ถนนพหลโยธิน เขตจตุจักร กรุงเทพฯ 10900 โทรศัพท์ 0 2561 2277 โทรสาร 0 2561 3357 www.acfs.go.th ประกาศในราชกิจจานุเบกษา ฉบับประกาศและงานทั่วไป เล่ม 129 ตอนพิเศษ 173 ง วันที่ 16 พฤศจิกายน พุทธศักราช 2555 (2) คณะกรรมการวิชาการพิจารณามาตรฐานสินค้าเกษตร เรื่อง ข้าว 1. นางสาวงามชื่น คงเสรี 2. นายธีรยุทธ ว่องลีลาเศรษฐ์ กรมการค้าต่างประเทศ กระทรวงพาณิชย์ 3. นางสาวสุทัศนีย์ ราชเรืองระบิน กรมการค้าภายใน กระทรวงพาณิชย์ 4. นายไพฑูรย์ อุไรรงค์ กรมการข้าว 5. นายวิเศษศักดิ์ ศรีสุริยะธาดา กรมส่งเสริมการเกษตร 6. นางชื่นสุข เมธากุลวัฒน์ สานักงานคณะกรรมการคุ้มครองผู้บริโภค สานักนายกรัฐมนตรี 7. นางสาวอิงอร ปัญญากิจ สานักงานมาตรฐานสินค้าเกษตรและอาหารแห่งชาติ 8. นางสาวกัญญา เชื้อพันธุ์ สานักวิจัยและพัฒนาข้าว กรมการข้าว 9. รองศาสตราจารย์ประภา ศรีพิจิตต์ คณะเกษตร มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์ 10. นายสุเมธ เหล่าโมราพร สภาหอการค้าแห่งประเทศไทย 11. นายประลอง ภิรมย์อยู่ สมาคมชาวนาไทย 12. นายวิชัย ศรีประเสริฐ สมาคมผู้ส่งออกข้าวไทย 13. นายชาญชัย รักษ์ธนานนท์ สมาคมโรงสีข้าวไทย 14. นายเลิศ บุญสด ศูนย์ข้าวชุมชนจังหวัดสุรินทร์ 15. นางมนทิชา บุญอาพล สานักกาหนดมาตรฐาน สานักงานมาตรฐานสินค้าเกษตรและอาหารแห่งชาติ ประธานกรรมการ กรรมการ กรรมการ กรรมการ......

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Hello World

...Hello world. This is the thing I say everytime I wake up in the morning to enjoy and acknowledge the beautiful things that have been endowed to me in my precious life. I have seen people complaining even about the pettiest problem and showing as if they are the greatest sufferer in the whole world. All such things adds up the already increasing pool of negative energy that we carry around with us increasing it bit by bit level by level and this thing is contagious as it keeps on growing and transmitting So acknowledge everyday what GOD has given you and live the fullest of your life to bring the best of you. Hello world. This is the thing I say everytime I wake up in the morning to enjoy and acknowledge the beautiful things that have been endowed to me in my precious life. I have seen people complaining even about the pettiest problem and showing as if they are the greatest sufferer in the whole world. All such things adds up the already increasing pool of negative energy that we carry around with us increasing it bit by bit level by level and this thing is contagious as it keeps on growing and transmitting So acknowledge everyday what GOD has given you and live the fullest of your life to bring the best of you. Hello world. This is the thing I say everytime I wake up in the morning to enjoy and acknowledge the beautiful things that have been endowed to me in my precious life. I have seen people complaining even about the pettiest problem and showing as if they......

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Hello World

...compliment them which will make the client smile therefore raise their self-esteem. A care assistant can help to give clients a sense of approval by regularly asking the clients of they wanted to do something, for example walking or gardening, this will help to make the clients feel loved and cared for by others. Also if clients have received a new haircut or new clothes then the care assistant should complement them and praise them for how they look. Lastly a care assistant should find out different things about the clients that they are caring for as a way to get to know them better and be able to talk about their interests more with them. Kitchen staff and the chef can show a positive attitude to clients by smiling at them and saying hello whenever they see them, this will give clients a positive feeling towards the kitchen staff and chef. Privacy Being undisturbed by others in situation that can cause embarrassment to a person. A care manager has the job and responsibility of keeping all client’s personal information and details safe and secure away from anyone that does not have authority of access. They should also make sure that they are respectful towards clients, for example knocking before entering their rooms gives the client their own sense of privacy in their own room. A care assistant can show privacy towards their clients by not discussing their personal information to anyone during work unless necessary and not outside of work. They should also give......

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Hello World

...Hello World This is just a sample essay.   Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words, consectetur, from a Lorem Ipsum passage, and going through the cites of the word in classical literature, discovered the undoubtable source. Lorem Ipsum comes from sections 1.10.32 and 1.10.33 of "de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum" (The Extremes of Good and Evil) by Cicero, written in 45 BC. This book is a treatise on the theory of ethics, very popular during the Renaissance. The first line of Lorem Ipsum, "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet..", comes from a line in section 1.10.32. The standard chunk of Lorem Ipsum used since the 1500s is reproduced below for those interested. Sections 1.10.32 and 1.10.33 from "de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum" by Cicero are also reproduced in their exact original form, accompanied by English versions from the 1914 translation by H. Rackham. There are many variations of passages of Lorem Ipsum available, but the majority have suffered alteration in some form, by injected humour, or randomised words which don't look even slightly believable. If you are going to use a passage of Lorem Ipsum, you need to be sure there isn't anything embarrassing hidden in the middle of text. All the Lorem Ipsum generators on the Internet tend to......

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Hello World

...“Do not impose on others what you do not wish for yourself.” – Confucius Applying the Golden Rule - refusing to engage in intentional and avoidable harm - promoting the overall welfare of host country citizens - avoiding violation of host country norms Scenario: Company X in host country allows unsafe practices such as workers climbing high-rise structures without proper harnesses and safety lines or operation of loud machinery without hearing protection (ear plugs). By home country’s safety regulations, these practices are deemed unsafe and clearly violate the golden rule. Switching roles with the workers, you would not want to put your life on the line every time you climb structures to do your job. Or you would not want your hearing to be impaired after years of operating loud machinery without hearing protection. Therefore, there is a clear violation of the Golden Rule. Another scenario will be in the case of exploitation or slave labour. Goodin’s 5 conditions: 1) Imbalance of power between the exploited and the dominant 2) Exploited party needs the resources provided by dominant party to protect his vital interest 3) Dominant party exercises discretionary control over this vital resource 4) Only access to this resource is through the exploitive relationship 5) Resources provided by the exploited are used without adequate compensation By the Golden Rule, it is safe to assume that no one would want to be exploited or be enslaved and be stripped of......

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Hello World

...A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs "Hello, World!" (or some variant thereof) on a display device. Because it is typically one of the simplest programs possible in most programming languages, it is by tradition often used to illustrate to beginners the most basic syntax of a programming language. It is also used to verify that a language or system is operating correctly. Purpose This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) A "Hello, world!" program has become the traditional first program that many people learn. In general, it is simple enough so that people who have no experience with computer programming can easily understand it, especially with the guidance of a teacher or a written guide. Using this simple program as a basis, computer science principles or elements of a specific programming language can be explained to novice programmers. Experienced programmers learning new languages can also gain a lot of information about a given language's syntax and structure from a "Hello, world!" program. In addition, "Hello, world!" can be a useful sanity test to make sure that a language's compiler, development environment, and run-time environment are correctly installed. Configuring a complete programming toolchain from scratch to the point where even trivial programs can be compiled and run can......

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Hello World

...Chapter Three Summary: Ender woke up to a father who was disappointed and Ender could tell he was. But before Ender headed to school an International fleet officer came to the house to have a talk with Ender. Colonial Graff came to inform that Ender nearly beat a kid too death, but wanted him to also inform them that Ender passed and was eligible to enter battle school. Ender was shocked at what has just happened because of the whole monitor incident. Enders parents were very angry with Colonial Graff for just not wanting Ender to needing him after what he has done. Colonial Graff told them it was part of the last test and that he has passed. He said that Ender didn’t just beat him, but he needed to so he can protect him self from harm. So Ender went with him because he felt that it was what he was born for. Reflection: This made me feel angry with Colonial Graff because not only did he convince Ender, but also he lied to him about what his family thinks of him. I think the outcome would have been different if Ender just stayed with his family and moved on too his abnormal life. If I were to predict what will happen next I would say Ender is going to the battle school were he will learn to become the next commander. Question/Answer: Would Colonial Graff really let Ender stay home instead of going to battle school? I believe that he wouldn’t because he said that he would even tell him......

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Hello World

...information is highlighted in ‘Important’ boxes that will ensure you don’t miss any vital suggestions and advice. Troubleshooting guide This book offers quick and easy ways to diagnose and solve common problems that you might encounter, using the Troubleshooting guide. The problems are grouped into categories. Spelling We have used UK spelling conventions throughout this book, with the exception of all code, which ALWAYS uses US spellings. You may also notice some inconsistencies between the text and the software on your computer which is likely to have been developed in the USA. We have however adopted US spelling for the words ‘disk’ and ‘program’, within the main text, as these are commonly accepted throughout the world. vi Task steps 1 Open the HTML page from the previous task. This chapter closes with one final, simple but important task. You can add comments in your HTML pages. Comments are notes to yourself and are not rendered by browsers. Computer programmers use comments extensively in their programs. Comments describe what the code is doing and allow people to view the code later and figure it out. HTML comments serve the same purpose. Comments are different from HTML tags. HTML comments begin with a . Everything between is considered a comment and is not rendered by browsers. 2 Add a comment within the body element. (7) (8) 3 Save and view in your browser. Jargon buster Extension – Letter following a......

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