Premium Essay

Have Western Liberal Democracies Effectively Responded to Challenges to Their Power? in Your Answer, Refer to at Least One Internal and One External Challenge.

In: Other Topics

Submitted By msra9rsa
Words 2309
Pages 10
Have Western liberal democracies effectively responded to challenges to their power? In your answer, refer to at least one internal and one external challenge.

In 1989 political scientist Francis Fukuyama declared “the end of history.”[1] Despite his language, Fukuyama was not an apocalyptic religious fundamentalist awaiting the rapture, but rather, he saw with the collapse of the Soviet Union the ultimate and final triumph of liberal democracy. Fukuyama draws on Marxist and Hegelian interpretations of the narrative of history as one of progress, in this case with its apex at the liberal democracy best represented by the United States of America. The triumphalism of this context may seem naïve in a post-9/11 world, but it should be seen in its original context of the decades long cold war between the US (and its allies) and the Soviet Union. These two sides came to represent an ideological conflict rather than a purely physical one, between liberal capitalist democracy and authoritarian communism, between free enterprise and central planning. Liberal democracy emerged victorious economically, politically and, Fukuyama would argue, philosophically. However, Fukuyama would be hard pressed to defend his near-eschatological optimism today, and Marxist critic Terry Eagleton has said that “the End of History is at an end.”[2] Rather than the comparatively monolithic opposition it experienced in the 20th Century, today the political dominance of liberal democracy is threatened by a wide variety of challenges, both internal and external, and, in the words of geographer John Agnew, the world has gone “from bipolar to multipolar.”[3]
This essay will address the question of how well liberal democratic societies have addressed these challenges, looking in particular at the Islamic world, the global financial crisis (and particularly the crisis of legitimacy…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The One with Answers

...Welcome to WritePoint, the automated review system that recognizes errors most commonly made by university students in academic essays. The system embeds comments into your paper and suggests possible changes in grammar and style. Please evaluate each comment carefully to ensure that the suggested change is appropriate for your paper, but remember that your instructor's preferences for style and format prevail. You will also need to review your own citations and references since WritePoint capability in this area is limited. NOTE: WritePoint comments are computer-generated writing and grammar suggestions inviting the consideration and analysis of the writer; they are not infallible statements of right/wrong, and they should not be used as grading elements. Also, at present, WritePoint cannot detect quotations or block-quotes, so comments in those areas should be ignored. Please see the other helpful writing resources in the Tutorials and Guides section of the Center for Writing Excellence. Thank you for using WritePoint. University of Phoenix Material Thesis Statement and Informal Outline Worksheet In this course, you [Eliminate second person (you, your) in academic documents and avoid addressing the reader directly. Prefer third-person pronouns (he, she, they, it)] will write a 700- to 1,400-word Personal Responsibility Essay [This title could be more inspiring. Labeling it a "paper" or an "essay" is redundant (what else could it be?), and only a few words as a...

Words: 638 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Power of One

...Oscar Silva Block 6 January/08/2013 The Power of One Essay "B" A civilization cannot be called civilized if it does not act that way. Exclusion takes away every sense of civilization within a community, and for a community to move forward, it should work together step by step, with every single member of it participating in an equal way, where everyone is treated as that they are, dignified human beings. because the practice of inclusion is the key to the forward movement of a society. Inclusion is the oil in a community's engine. The human race as unlimited as its potential is, does not have the need to reach utopia, human race needs to love. Without inclusion our world would be full of cataclysmic events just like the holocaust, apartheid, and many other results of exclusion throughout history. Inclusion not exclusion is the key to survival. The union within a community is what should be created among every single community, solidarity and team work to create a better life for everyone and also move towards prosperity equally. Peekay recognizes that the Afrikaners abuse the native South Africans and how they are excluded because of racial issues. there was nothing the Natives could do to stop the Afrikaners since they were more powerful, possible in weapons, but not in heart. the native South African Communities were gravely damaged since everyone lost hope on everything they stood for. although throughout these dark times, as the enemy's heart turned even more evil,......

Words: 1332 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Myanmar in Afta, Opportunities and Challenges

...stamped with its admission to join as one member state of ASEAN community in 1997. Considered the resource both natural and human capacities, Myanmar, the late-emerged country in the region, anticipated its advantages stemming from joining in ASEAN. Following the participation in the ASEAN community and with the establishment of AFTA agreement signed on 28 January 1992 in Singapore, Myanmar oversights its opportunities in development through the link of commercial trading which allows the free flow of trade, labor and information. However, although the precise advantages retrieved from the ASEAN membership is seen from its current stance, Myanmar also faces with mixed challenges and opportunities in the whole progressive pace of development, particularly with the relation in AFTA. This research is designed with some objectives. By looking at the present situation and in the near future situation of Myanmar economic and trading; it is very necessary to considered about it. And we want to find out and analyze on the 1 Myanmar economic and trading whether it is the right time or not for Myanmar to implement AFTA policies in 2015. And this research will become a document the ASEAN mock protocol on May 26, 2012. This topic’s goals are focused on two main points, and these are the challenges and benefits to Myanmar to implement AFTA’s policies, in which the details of those points will be discussed in the text body. And we will look into the internal economic, and trading of......

Words: 5052 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Challenges and Prospects of Taxation in Ghana help increase revenue generated from income tax to the government, by pointing out the challenges faced by tax officials in discharging their lawful duties. Various challenges such as tax evasion on the part of the income taxpayers drastically reduce income tax revenue to the government. This has been a big problem for decades and needs to be properly addressed. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AND PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION After a thorough research on the revenue structure of Ghana, it became evident that revenue from tax was a big source of income to the government of Ghana, and needed much attention because; taxation in Ghana like most West African Countries faced numerous challenges such as Tax Evasion (which is the biggest challenge of Taxation). The main reason for initiating this project is to research on the various weaknesses of tax administration in Ghana, throw more light on the weaknesses, and proffer solutions as well as recommendations for government agencies to deliberate upon and make informed decisions. The study started with casual discussion among tax officials and tax payers concerning their views on taxation in Ghana and their expectations. It later developed into a full research when the researcher developed more interest in the topic, and decided to get more information from tax officials, government agencies, and other secondary documentations. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is under a ministry of Finance and Economical Planning of the......

Words: 12173 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

Is Managing Role Ambiguity the Number One Challenge Facing Employers in the Silicon Age?

...Generation Change: Is Managing Role Ambiguity The Number One Challenge Facing Employers in the Silicon Age? Generation Change: Is Managing Role Ambiguity The Number One Challenge Facing Employers in the Silicon Age? Are you struggling to keep your workforce motivated and harmonious in the face of constant change? Is your team struggling to deal with the ambiguity created by a fast-evolving market place? You aren’t alone, and a solution may be closer to home for your workforce than perhaps they first thought. A recent study conducted by Dr. Ben Searle of Macquarie University in Sydney has found significant links between workplace role ambiguity and an employees’ reported level of anger, anxiety and threat perception. Dr. Searle’s study involved 602 participants across a range of companies and industries fulfilling duties all the way up to managing director. The participant group was asked to self-report on perceptions of role ambiguity, experienced levels of anger, anxiety and workplace threat appraisal. In this study, participants were asked questions as to whether they fully understood what was expected of them at work on a day-to-day basis regarding particular tasks, or a range of tasks. This data was then compared with responses to questions which probed whether they had felt anxious or angry at work. Threat appraisal was determined by whether the respondent felt it was more or less likely that their work day was going to be a negative experience for......

Words: 791 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

External and Internal Analysis

...External and Internal Environmental Analysis Yum Brands University of Phoenix Strategic Planning and Implementation STR / 581 March 17, 2014 Both external and internal environmental analyses are very important components for any organization’s strategy plan. A review of both of these environments enables the company to identify which ways to compete in the industry they operate. With this planning an organization may also identify what the companies’ weakness and strengths are. Both the internal and external environments are just as importantly equal. In today’s business the external environment is receiving an increasing amount of attention because of the recession being now a global concern. Yum Brands has suffered some changes by the external environments. Analyzing some important factors like external operating environments, along with remote, and industry are some topics covered. Identifying strengths is important and finding the weaknesses of Yum Brands of which may impact their ability to manage these factors will be discussed. Yum Brands is one of the top 10 fast food companies in the U.S. A clear leader in the quick-serve industry, Yum Brands operates about 18,000 restaurants domestically and almost 15,000 locations internationally. Yum Brands company sales accounted for $11million of annual sales in the fast food industry. This does not include franchise sales. Franchise fee accounted for $1.8 million which is approximately 4.5% of franchise sales. ...

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Matrix of Power Challenges

...THE MATRIX OF POWER CHALLENGES Solution clues - By ILO FAUSTINUS CHINEDU Power transformation – a review: Recently, the Minister of Power, Prof. Chinedu Nebo, recounted with deep regrets the confession of an apprehended hoodlum at Mmakor which reads thus: “This is a community without power, a community government have taken transformer to and this is a community Where the youths stole the transformer, melted millions of naira worth of equipment and sold it for N45,000”, (Nigerian Pilot, October 4, 2014). The scenario above is quite pathetic, yet it could not deter the high expectations of Mr. President towards the th realization of his power transformation agenda. This he reiterated at the 54 Nigeria’s Independence – anniversary and remarked that: “Our power sector reform is on course with the ultimate objective of generating enough electricity to power our homes, industries and businesses” The Federal Government of Nigeria has made huge direct investments, as private sectors, Government and Nongovernmental Organizations from all around the world pledge to effect support towards the attainment of the vision 20:20 of 20,000megawatts (MW)of electricity. However, according to the power statistics published by the Federal Ministry of Power on their website, the sector recorded a peak generation of 4,076.60MW on October 12, 2014. This is against the 4,517.6MW, highest peak generated power from the sector on December 23, 2012. Reacting to the disparity between generation and......

Words: 2104 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

It Is a Very Good One

...UNIT ONE INTRODUCTION TO CIVIC AND ETHICAL EDUCATION 1. INTRODUCTION 2. MEANINGS OF CIVICS AND ETHICAL EDUCATION The Notion of Civics The subject field of civics originates from the nature of human being itself i.e. from the natural behavior and level of interaction of human beings it self. One basic nature of human beings related with this statement is the fact that “man is a social animal” whose life is closely related to each other. Almost all instincts, demands and progresses of human beings are fulfilled in society. The superiority that human beings try to achieve over nature and other living things is the result of the social bond among human beings. If such bond is a requirement for the survival of human beings, then what should be the pattern of social interaction that exist among human beings is closely related with the subject matter of civics. In this regard civics is considered as a subject field which is mainly concerned with teaching citizens as to how they can live harmonious and peaceful life with other citizens and as to how they can resolve conflicts peacefully among them selves. The other basic nature of human being is the political view of philosophy by Plato that, “Man is a political animal”, which means no human being can escape from the deeds of politics and its dayto-day life is either directly or indirectly affected by it. For this reason human beings have to know the workings of politics, institutions that affect their day to day life, norms,......

Words: 43853 - Pages: 176

Premium Essay


...THE RESILIENCY CHALLENGE: CONSTRUCTING THE AGILE SUPPLY CHAIN FOR HEAVY INDUSTRY June 2014 By Lisa Harrington, President, lharrington group LLC and Associate Director, Supply Chain Management Center, Robert H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland 2 The resiliency challenge The engineering and manufacturing sector (E&M) is the definition of diversity. The companies that make up the sector manufacture everything from jet engines and drilling rigs to simple fasteners and filters. Broadly speaking, though, E&M firms fall into a number of sub-sectors including Aerospace and Aviation and Industrial and Construction Equipment. The overall sector, like all industries, faces a myriad of issues around volatility, including dealing with natural disasters and supplier disruptions. But these issues aren’t the only ones that keep sector executives up at night. E&M CEOs also worry about how to transform their frequently large and conservative companies into agile enterprises capable of meeting new competition and opportunity head on with faster, leaner and more resilient operations. Global market dynamics are driving the need for transformation. As emerging markets grow and new markets emerge, demand is dispersing geographically. Demand is also fragmenting as a result of increasingly complex requirements from customers both for new product customization and post-sale support and service. Customers want – and expect – more choice......

Words: 5054 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

For One

...Introduction Edward D. Mansfield and Brian M. Pollins Over the past few decades, there has been a surge of interest in the relationship between economic interdependence and political con›ict. One view that has gained considerable popularity and empirical support is that heightened interdependence fosters cooperative political relations. Voiced with increasing regularity in both academic and policy circles, this claim has been used to help justify the formation of the European Economic Community, Richard Nixon’s opening to China, Willy Brandt’s Ostpolitik, and Henry Kissinger’s conception of détente with the Soviet Union. Nonetheless, critics of this argument have not been stilled. Some observers maintain that, rather than fostering cooperation, increased interdependence generates political discord. Even more widespread is the argument that economic exchange has no strong bearing on the high politics of national security. This debate is hardly new. For centuries, the nature and strength of the links between interdependence and con›ict have been the subject of heated disagreement. Until lately, however, these links remained the subject of remarkably little systematic scrutiny. In recent years, a growing number of studies have attempted to ‹ll this gap in the literature, but they have yet to resolve various crucial questions. Most important, how and to what extent does interdependence in›uence political antagonism? What are the causal mechanisms driving this......

Words: 11753 - Pages: 48

Premium Essay

On What Grounds Have Liberals Supported Democracy?

...Liberals have justified democracy as they believe they must have a means of protecting themselves from the intervention of government. This is sometimes seen as protective democracy, and it, for example, allows tax-payers to protect their property by controlling the composition of the tax-making body – hence the principle of ‘no taxation without representation’. Utilitarians have also linked democracy to the ability of individuals to advance or defend their interests, meaning that political democracy promotes ‘the greatest happiness for the greatest number’. Democracy has also been endorsed on the grounds that political participation has educational advantages. By participating in political life, citizens enhance their understanding, strengthen their sensibilities and achieve a higher level of personal development. This is sometimes called developmental democracy. Mill believed in individuality and fulfilling potential. A more modern liberal defence of democracy draws on pluralist ideas in arguing that democracy is the best means of maintaining equilibrium within complex and fluid modern societies. As democracy gives competing groups a political voice, it binds them to the political system and so maintains political stability. Democracy is rule by the people. Its ‘liberal’ features are reflected in a network of internal and external checks on government in order to protect citizens against the state and guarantee liberty. Therefore, democracy in most of the western......

Words: 460 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Discuss the Use of the Scientific Approach in Psychology. Refer to at Least One Topic in Your Answer (12 Marks)

...In order for psychology to be considered as a science, the true meaning of a science needs to be considered. It is widely believed that for a subject to be a science, it must have the following; a common agreement of the subject matter that is being studied; theories constructed from hypotheses; empirical, objective methods of data collection and general laws. A paradigm is “a set of theoretical assumptions that are agreed upon by scientists which provide a means of making sense of the world in which we live”. This is according to Kuhn who is a philosopher in science who stated that to be a science there must be a unified and agreed upon subject matter. This should consist of three main factors; a set of theoretical assumptions that provide a model of the subject matter; a set of metaphors that compare the subject matter in a simple and understandable way and a set of methods for empirical enquiry that are agreed upon by scientists working within the paradigm. Physics, for example, meets the criteria of a paradigm because forces are measured using laboratory experiments in the simplest of ways. Kuhn believed that there were three stages to developing a paradigm. The first stage is a pre-science where there is no common understanding of the subject criteria, or there are too many different approaches, with too many alternative research methods. The next stage is a normal science where there is a unified set of beliefs and values which are commonly agreed on by all and......

Words: 1285 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Discuss the Challenges of an Ageing Population in One County That You Have Studied

...The country I have studied is the UK which is an MEDC in Northern Europe. An ageing population is where the country has an increasing average age of the population together with an increasing proportion of people over the age of 65. In 2014, for the first time in the UK, there are more people aged over 65 than 16 and with the rising life expectancy this creates many challenges for the UK economy and society. Firstly, with the rising life expectancy which is currently at 81, there have been implications on health as in 2002 it was said that males spend 15 years of their life with a disability and females spend 17.5 years which is an increase in years compared to 1981. This is causing strain on the NHS as for them to cope with the increasing years of disabilities and increasing heart disease, cancers and diabetes. Social services also have extra strain and pressure which has to be coped with. It is proven that the elderly visit their doctor more often and have more home visits. They also occupy hospital beds for longer and the government of a country has to find money to pay for this care. However, by having an ageing population, businesses such as BUPA who provide private healthcare insurance are striving as the elderly are regarded as good business and an opportunity for firms to grow. Therefore, they are helping enhance the economy. Another benefit for the UK is that many UK seniors still do part or full time work as a way to keep themselves active and to supplement......

Words: 740 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Do Not Have One as of Now

...2008). In recent years, the challenge has been compounded by a changing business landscape characterised by complex organisational structures, globalisation, new regulations, and the pressure to innovate rapidly. Successful creation *Corresponding author. Email: ISSN 0020–7543 print/ISSN 1366–588X online ß 2010 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080/00207540903232797 5944 T. Laosirihongthong et al. and execution of competitive strategy requires not only the vision and commitment of top management but a consistent operations strategy, particularly as it relates to processes, human resources, and supply chain relationships. Companies are increasingly restructuring their processes, human resources, and supply chain practices to be consistent with evolving long-term company objectives. Operations practices alone are insufficient to sustain a firm’s competitive edge. Similarly, competitive strategy does not equate to competitiveness absent matching processes, human resource practices, and effective relationships with supply chain members. Linkages between competitive strategy and operations strategy have been studied widely (e.g., Ward and Duray 2000, Fynes et al. 2005, Brown et al. 2007). However, the effect of the alignment between competitive strategy and operations strategy, and in particular how operations strategy is deployed via specific practices, on firm performance has received relatively less attention. One dimension of......

Words: 7916 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

The Challenges Students Have Balancing

...The challenges students have balancing family, work and school. Hollywood has built an image that college students are all 18 year old kids, who are getting another four year free ride from their parents, without having to live at home. In the real world many college students are adults and have their own family and expenses. College students struggle in their everyday life balancing time for family, friends and jobs. Finding the time and energy to study is probably the most difficult struggle students have while in college and a common reason why students drop out. The challenges students have balancing time for their families are cooking, cleaning, and spending time with their children and husband. Cooking for a family requires time whether it is Breakfast, lunch or dinner. Students may feel that they just do not have the time to cook dinner for their family, instead they may decide to buy fast food because it is quick and convenient, which is a poor choice because it leads to unhealthy lifestyle. Poor eating habits cause problems physically and mentally. Cleaning after a family is a big job and requires time and energy that one simply does not have after working an eight hour shift. Spending time with family could be limited and may cause conflict between married couples. Students with children unintentionally neglect their responsibilities as a parents which are playing with their kids, driving them to school or games, attending birthday parties or important......

Words: 651 - Pages: 3