Premium Essay

Harvard Referencing System

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Satay
Words 1636
Pages 7
Citing your references using the Harvard (Author-Date) system

Is this the correct guide for you?

Before using this guide, please check whether your Department, School or Faculty specifies the use of a particular referencing system and, if so, if it provides its own guidelines to that system.

Note that some Departments,Schools or Faculties may expect both a list of (cited) references and a (general) bibliography, rather than one single reference list/bibliography.

Why is it important to cite references?

• It is accepted practice in the academic world to acknowledge the words, ideas or work of others and not simply to use them as if they were your own. Failure to do this could be regarded as plagiarism - see http://www.brookes.ac.uk/library/skill/plagiarism.html

• to enable other people to identify and trace your sources quickly and easily

• to support facts and claims you have made in your text

1. In-text citations

The in-text citation is placed at the exact point in your document where you refer to someone else’s work, whether it is a book, journal, online document, website or any other source.

It consists of author (or editor/compiler/translator) and publication year, in brackets:

eg Agriculture still employs half a million people in rural Britain (Shucksmith, 2000).

An author can be an organisation or Government Department (common with websites):

eg (English Heritage, 2010)

If there are 2 authors, both names should be given:

eg (Lines and Walker, 2007)

If there are more than 2 authors, cite the first author, followed by ‘et al’ (in italics)

eg (Morgan et al., 1998)

For several documents by the same author published in the same year, use (a,b,c):

eg (Watson, 2009a)

If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, only the year of publication is…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Harvard Referencing Style

...Harvard Referencing Style BOOKS IN-TEXT EXAMPLE REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE NOTES Single author whose name occurs naturally in the sentence In a popular study, Kadolph (2007) explained how different fibres react when approaching a flame. OR Kadolph, S.J. (2007) Textiles, 10th edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Two books by the same author in the same year 2 authors As Kadolph (2007: 34) states, ‘During a burn test, cotton does not fuse or shrink from the flame’. According to Napier (1993b), a surprising number of sailors are unable to swim. Swales and Feak (2004) explore the types of essay organisation and characteristic functions. Napier, A. (1993a) Fatal storm, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Napier, A. (1993b) Survival at sea, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Swales, J. and Feak, C. (2004) Academic Writing for Graduate Students. 2nd edition, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press Fisher, R., Ury, W. and Patton, B. (1991) Getting to yes: Negotiating an agreement without giving in, 2nd edition, London: Century Business. 3 authors Fisher, Ury and Patton (1994: 36) suggest that when emotional issues cloud negotiation, ‘some thoughts are best left unsaid.’ OR ‘When anger and misperception are high, some thoughts are best left said.’ (Fisher, Ury and Patton, 1991: 36). Reference list: state the edition if not the first. In-text: put the page number for a direct quotation. Single inverted commas ‘’ are now preferred. Note the letters a and b to differentiate......

Words: 1937 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Harvard Referencing

...Page 1 Department of Lifelong Learning: Study Skills Series Referencing - The Harvard System (Download pdf version) Introduction As a student, it is important that you identify in your assessment when you are using the words or ideas of another author. The most accepted way of acknowledging the work of another author is to use a referencing system. At the Department of Lifelong Learning you are required to use the Harvard referencing system. The following guide tells you why you need to use a referencing system, shows you how to insert references in the text of your assignments, and shows you how to compile a reference list. While there are many variations on the ‘Harvard’ system, the one presented in this guide is the most simple. It does away with most usages of ‘p’ and ‘pp’ to signify page numbers and it replaces some of the commas with colons. Also, this guide is by no means an exhaustive list of all the referencing conventions that you will require in your academic life. Why you should use a referencing system As a part of an academic community, it is important that you show the reader where you have used someone else’s ideas or words. Failure to properly reference using the Harvard system may make the reader think that you are cheating by claiming someone else’s work as your own. In the academic environment, we call this plagiarism and it is seen as a very serious offence. Please remember that plagiarism is not just when you directly copy words from......

Words: 3770 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Harvard Referencing

...A Guide to Harvard Referencing The following is a guide to writing references in essays and reports. There are several different ways of writing references according to whether they come from a book, edited book or journal article. What is the Harvard System of Referencing? Harvard referencing is a system of in–text referencing which is used by academics and others to illustrate ideas, concepts, theories and arguments by drawing attention to supporting published evidence both in the text of any essay or report and at the end in a references section. 1 How to write references in the text of an essay/report Examples of Text: Benson, Roberts and Smith (1993) have suggested that there is a relationship between academic excellence and shoe size. They have argued that a student with large feet has the capacity to learn more in a lecture than a student with small feet. Support for this theory has come from Dawson (1976) and Franks and Miller (1991) who have found that men who wear size 8–10 shoes tend to score three points higher on Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) tests than men with shoe size ranges from 5–7. However, research suggests that women obtain a higher I.Q. score if their shoe size ranges from 3–4 in comparison to those with shoe sizes ranging from 5–7 (Bunion and Foot 1987). Despite such gender differences, Benson et al. believe that the relationship between I.Q. and foot size only occurs in industrialised societies and so “we should consider why foot......

Words: 1517 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Harvard System of Referencing

...Department of Library Services www.library.dmu.ac.uk The Harvard system of referencing Contents 1. Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plagiarism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Citation styles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collecting and organising references  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 3. Citations in the text  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference List/Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 3.1 References – Books (including electronic books) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 References – other sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journal articles (including electronic journals)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newspapers (including electronic newspapers)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......

Words: 3633 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Harvard Referencing 2009

...University of Abertay Dundee Guide to Harvard Referencing 2009 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 4 What is Harvard referencing? .............................................................................. 4 What is the difference between a bibliography and a list of references? ........ 5 What is a bibliography? .................................................................................... 5 What is the reference list? ................................................................................ 5 Citing references in-text ....................................................................................... 6 How do I cite references in-text? ..................................................................... 6 General advice on in-text citation .................................................................... 6 Quoting directly from the book, journal or website ....................................... 7 Paraphrasing (rewriting what has been said in the book, journal or website) .............................................................................................................. 7 General advice on the reference list (and bibliography) ................................... 8 Referencing books ................................................................................................ 9 What information do I need to include? ................................

Words: 5793 - Pages: 24

Free Essay

Harvard Referencing

...Harvard referencing: a guide for SoM students Introduction Academic work demands that you consider the work of other writers and researchers. To use their work without acknowledgement is to steal the ideas of other people and is called plagiarism. You should acknowledge the sources which have informed your work by citing them in the text of your work, and referencing them at the end of your essay, project report, dissertation or thesis. Otherwise, you run the risk of being accused of academic misconduct. There are several widely used methods for writing references. The School of Management uses the Harvard system. If you do not use this method properly you will lose marks. What sources of information should I be reading? Before you use any document, you should consider the quality of the information it provides. Articles published in refereed academic journals are the most authoritative, because they have been through a thorough checking process known as peer review. Books may not have been checked so rigorously by their publishers. Articles in newspapers and trade magazines are not checked as carefully as those in refereed academic journals so may not be as reliable. And information found on the Internet needs to be treated with caution, as anyone can put material there, accurate or otherwise! How do I put a citation in my text? To avoid being accused of plagiarism, you need to put a citation in the text you are writing whenever you mention another person’s work.......

Words: 3721 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Referencing - the Harvard System

...Referencing - The Harvard System Introduction As a student, it is important that you identify in your assessment when you are using the words or ideas of another author.  The most accepted way of acknowledging the work of another author is to use a referencing system.  Within the Business School you are required to use the Harvard referencing system. This guide therefore describes the Harvard referencing style, which uses an ‘alphabetical-by-author’ approach. What is referencing? It is a method used to demonstrate to your readers that you have conducted a thorough and appropriate literature search, and carried out appropriate reading. Equally, referencing is an acknowledgement that you have used the ideas and written material belonging to other authors in your own work. There are many styles that can be used to reference. Why you should use a referencing system As a part of an academic community, it is important that you show the reader where you have used someone else’s ideas or words.  Failure to properly reference using the Harvard system may make the reader think that you are cheating by claiming someone else’s work as your own.  In the academic environment, we call this plagiarism and it is seen as a very serious offence.  Please remember that plagiarism is not just when you directly copy words from another student’s or expert’s work.  Plagiarism also occurs when you re-word someone else’s ideas in your own work and you do not give credit to the original......

Words: 3768 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Referencing Harvard

...L3 Language Literacies Learning Harvard referencing guide UniSA This guide will help you apply the Harvard referencing style to your writing at UniSA. It is designed to help you understand the conventions and principles of this style and make decisions about referencing. There are many different versions of the Harvard style. This guide presents one consistent version for use at UniSA, which conforms to the Australian Government standard guidelines presented in Snooks & Co (eds) 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, Wiley & Sons, Australia. Table of contents What is referencing? ......................................................................................................................... 2 How do we reference? ...................................................................................................................... 3 Sample extract from an essay ............................................................................................................ 5 What if your source does not match? ................................................................................................ 7 Harvard referencing UniSA examples ................................................................................................. 8 Print ................................................................................................................................................... 8 Book ..............................................

Words: 8716 - Pages: 35

Free Essay

Harvard Referencing 2014

...An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre Academic Communication The Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style (author-date) is based on Commonwealth of Australia 2002, Style manual: for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, Milton, Qld. This document can be found on CQUniversity’s referencing Web site at http://www.cqu.edu.au/referencing (click on Harvard). Other information about academic writing is available via the Academic Learning Centre’s Moodle site. Maintained by Academic Learning Services Unit Edition T1 2014 Published by CQUniversity Australia COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA WARNING This Material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of CQUniversity pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice. CQUniversity CRICOS Codes: 00219C – Qld; 01315F – NSW; 01624D – Vic Table of Contents Why reference/cite? .....................................................................................................1 How to reference ..........................................................................................................1 In-text references.....................................................................................

Words: 13581 - Pages: 55

Premium Essay

Harvard Referencing Examples

...arvInformation Services Academic Skills Know-how Harvard Reference examples The Harvard referencing system is the most frequently used style at Staffordshire and is also known as the Author-Date style. It emphasises the name of the creator of a piece of information and the date of publication, with the list of references in alphabetical order at the end of your piece of work. Some Faculties or subject areas use a different style of referencing, so you should check your module handbook for confirmation of what style is required by your tutor for a particular assignment. This guide provides examples of how a wide range of information sources should be referenced according to the Harvard style, including the order of the elements and punctuation used. For each source there are examples of how to cite within the text and how to write your list of references. If you cannot find the type of information you wish to reference included in this document please contact us at ask@staffs.ac.uk. Punctuation when using Harvard Punctuation can vary when using Harvard. Hence you might find that some Harvard references will have complete full stops after each part of the reference and some may not. The generally accepted rule when using Harvard is to be consistent with your style and use of punctuation throughout your assignment. References used: Harvard formats used in this document have been based on the following texts which can be found in the Library: BRITISH STANDARDS......

Words: 8276 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Taruc Harvard Referencing

...Harvard  Referencing  System  Tunku Abdul Rahman College  Compiled by    Dr Chook Ka Joo  Quality Assurance Department  Tunku Abdul Rahman College    and    Mr Johnny Chin Fui Chung  School of Social Science and Humanities  Tunku Abdul Rahman College    2010 For Internal Circulation Only  CONTENTS                Page      1.0  INTRODUCTION  1  THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING REFERENCES  1  REFERENCING SYSTEM  1  THE HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM  2  CITATION IN THE TEXT  2  THE REFERENCE LIST  6  EXAMPLES OF REFERENCING  9    2.0    3.0    4.0    5.0    6.0    7.0    REFERENCES              For Internal Circulation Only  TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE    HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM      1.0   INTRODUCTION    Referencing or citing means acknowledging the source of information and ideas  you  have  used  in  your  assignments  (e.g.  essay,  report,  project,  research  paper,  etc.).    This  is  a  standard  practice  at  all  institutions  of  higher  learning  including  Tunku Abdul Rahman (TAR) College.     This learning guide on Harvard referencing system was developed based on the  following references:      Curtin University Library 2007, Harvard Referencing.    Fisher, D & Hanstock, T 1998, Citing References.    Saunders,  M,  Lewis,  P  &  Thornhill,  A  2005,  Research  Methods  for  Business  Students.   ......

Words: 5087 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Harvard Referencing

...Harvard Referencing There are 2 stages, these include: 1) Citing – What you do in the text of your essay e.g. highlighting words you’ve incorporated from someone else’s work 2) Referencing – All the details of the source of information you’ve used at the end of your work in a separate section For both directly copying, and changing an idea into your own words, you need to indicate the source of information in brackets at the end of your sentence. For a direct quote, these brackets must contain 3 pieces of information: * The authors name * The year their work was published * The page number i.e (Kovmi, 2009, p.5) For an indirect quote (changed into your own words), you just need to include the authors name and year of publication. The reference section at the end of your work must include all the information of the source of information. Each source of information in your reference section should always start with the same information as the citation in your essay. When writing your reference section, ensure you order it alphabetically by the author’s names. Referencing a book The order of information for referencing a book is: 1) Author/s/Editor 2) Year of publication in round brackets 3) Title in italics 4) Edition (if relevant i.e. not the first edition) 5) Place of publication: publisher 6) Series and volume number (if relevant) For example: Pears, Richard, and Shields, Graham. (2010) Cite the right: the essential......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Harvard Referencing Guide

...1.1 Introduction to Referencing Referencing is the process of recording details of the secondary sources (books, journal articles, electronic sources etc) you refer to in a piece of work. You need to acknowledge these sources for two reasons – • firstly to protect yourself against any accusations of plagiarism. The University of Hertfordshire’s UPR 17-1 defines plagiarism as “ the representation of another person's work as the candidate's own, either by extensive unacknowledged quotation or paraphrasing or by direct copying of another person's work” • secondly to allow you and whoever is assessing your work to be able to easily trace the original source if need be. You need to refer to your sources in two places- • in the body of your work • in the list of references at the end. What follows shows you how to do this for various types of material: books, journals and electronic resources, preceded by a section on how to deal with quotes. The Harvard system of referencing is used for printed sources. At present, this does not cover electronic sources, but we will be using a commonly used set of guidelines for the latter. Please read through the handout, and try the practical exercises in Parts 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 1.2 Using Quotations The following guidance on using quotations applies to all forms of material – books, journals and electronic items. It is appropriate to use quotations to support or illustrate points you wish to make in your assessed work...

Words: 2514 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Harvard Referencing

...Harvard Referencing 2007 Note: this page is only an introduction to the Harvard referencing system. Curtin University Library provides a modified version of the author-date system presented in: Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual: For authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, n.p. For referencing electronic sources, refer to the American Psychological Association's Publication manual: American Psychological Association 2001, Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edn, APA, Washington, DC. Note: A modified APA style is used for electronic sources to fit in with the Harvard referencing style provided by Curtin University Library as the Style manual does not cover this area fully. The information and examples contained on this page are chiefly derived from the above publications. It is very important that you check your department or school's assignment guide as some details, eg. punctuation, may vary from the guidelines on this page. You may be penalised for not conforming to your school's requirements. What is Referencing? Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works must be referenced. There are many acceptable forms of referencing. This information sheet provides a brief guide to the......

Words: 3356 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Harvard Style Referencing

...If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, only the year of publication is given: eg This concept is discussed by Jones (1998) … If there is no author, use a brief title instead: eg (Burden of anonymity, 1948) For websites, if there is no author or title, use the URL: eg (http://www.xxxxxxx.org, 2010) If the date cannot be identified, use the abbreviation n.d.: eg (Labour Party, n.d.) Page numbers should be included when there is a need to be more specific, for example when making a direct quotation. Use the abbreviation p. (for a single page) or pp. (more than one page): eg As Kelvin stated (1968, p.100) ‘the value of…’ If referencing a secondary source (a document which you have not seen but which is quoted in one of your references) the two items should be linked with the term ‘cited in’: eg …economic development (Jones, 2000, cited in Walker, 2004, p.53). NB for above example of secondary sources: You would only be able to include the source you have actually read in your reference list – in the above example you could only give full details of Walker unless you have read Jones yourself. It is good practice to try to read the original source (Jones) so that you can cite and reference it in addition to the source which quoted it (Walker). Handling Quotations in the text Short quotations may be run into the text, using single quotation marks: eg As Owens stated (2008, p...

Words: 1649 - Pages: 7