Premium Essay

Gender Inequaity

In: Social Issues

Submitted By samma95
Words 1148
Pages 5
Gender Inequality in Bangladesh

Gender inequality can be defined as the unequal and biased treatment between men and women and is a common phenomenon in developing countries. Women in Bangladesh face obstacles and disadvantages in almost all aspect of their lives, including access to health and education, economic opportunity, political participation and control of finances. Gender inequality is a development issue as excluding women from access to resources, public services, or productive activities prevents a country from reaching their maximum productivity potential. It exists due to cultural, social, economic and legal factors. In the following paragraphs we can examine the types of inequality, their causes and the impact on development as well as few policy recommendations to improve the matter.

In Bangladesh 71.1 per cent of young women are employed in the agriculture industry whereas 20 per cent are in production and transport industries, and 3.8 per cent in service sectors. A recent study by the ILO finds that women in Bangladesh are often considered to be lesser or inferior participants in the labor market and are not valued much. For example despite women getting hired in the RMG sector of Bangladesh, they are usually mainly employed in less important, lower paid and lower skilled areas, which consist of little decision-making responsibility. As a result women are the first to be subject of cyclical unemployment and lose jobs in times of market fluctuations and/or reduced demand of products.

Another example would be that even though most female workers are likely to get employed in the agriculture sector, physical fitness has an effect on the earnings of women belonging to this sector. Women only get preferences in the works where less physical labor is needed and usually do tasks that pay lower wages. Agriculture can be an important engine of…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Gender

...Gender, Sexuality, and religious identity * Gender - what society expect male and female bodies to be doing (jobs, relationship, etc are appropriate) * Are culture with should nurture and men shouldn’t be very emotional * Sex is the biological features which distinctly separates males and females * In some cultures there are more than 2 sexes * In western cultures we like procreation * Sexuality – has do with your sex and gender and how you interact with others * Why does Christianity tie so closely to heterosexual relationships? The Jewish people didn’t let others join their religion so the only way they were going to increase the population is by having their own kids with a women. Men need to trust themselves as to who their offspring is and women can only have kids with one man * Homosexuals were not accepted * Masturbation was not accepted * You could not pull out while having sex * All of this was the worry of wasting the mans seed * Christians basically took this idea from Judaism * The fact that our sexuality is an identity is a modern thing * World religions are religions have a patriotically system and heterosexual system * EG. In catholic churches the priest are called “father”, and God is called the “holy father” * Mainstream – supports patriotically system * Marginal – does not support it * Confirmatory – those who accept the social systems around * Challenging – challenge social......

Words: 428 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Gender

...points. Total AO1 marks for Question 3: 11 Total AO2 marks for Question 3: 9 Total marks for Question 3: 20 11 Psychology B - AQA GCE Mark Scheme 2007 January series SECTION C: PSYCHOLOGY OF GENDER 4 (a) Outline what is meant by the term gender. [AO1 = 2, AO2 = 0] AO1 Two marks for an appropriate definition of the term. Possible answer: Gender refers to the social role/cultural attributes (AO1, 1) associated with masculinity and femininity (AO1, 1). Total for this question: 20 marks (2 marks) (b) What is meant by androgyny? Give an example of how a person might show androgynous behaviour. (3 marks) [AO1 = 1, AO2 = 2] AO1 One mark for definition of the term. Possible answer: Androgyny is used to describe an individual who possesses traits/attitudes/ behaviours regarded as both typically masculine and feminine. AO2 Two marks for an appropriate example. For example: a woman may be aggressive in her work-role (AO2, 1) but sympathetic as a mother (AO2, 1). (c) Describe one study in which content analysis was used to investigate gender. Indicate in your answer why the study was conducted, the method used, the results obtained and the conclusion drawn. (5 marks) [AO1 = 5, AO2 = 0] AO1 Any appropriate study in which content analysis was used to investigate gender, eg Manstead and McCulloch (1981); Lobban (1974). One mark – why the study was conducted (must go beyond the stem) One mark – information about the method One mark – identification of the results One......

Words: 5003 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Gender

...Gender gender is a range of physical, mental, and behavioral characteristics distinguishing between masculinity and femininity.[1][2][3] Depending on the context, the term may refer to sex (i.e. the state of being male or female), social roles (as in gender roles), or gender identity.[1][2][3][4] Gender studies is a branch of the social sciences. Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955. Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word "gender" to refer to anything but grammatical categories.[1][2] However, Money's meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s, when feminist theory embraced the distinction between biological sex and the social construct of gender. Today, the distinction is strictly followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences[5][6] and documents written by the World Health Organization (WHO).[4] In contrast, for many contexts, including some areas of social sciences, the meaning of gender has expanded to include "sex" or even to replace the latter word.[1][2] Although this gradual change in the meaning of gender can be traced to the 1980s, a small acceleration of the process in the scientific literature was observed when the Food and Drug Administration started to use "gender" instead of "sex" in 1993.[7] "Gender" is now commonly used even to refer to the physiology of non-human animals, without any implication of social gender roles.[2] In the English...

Words: 348 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Gender

...Langford, W. (1997), “But he said he loved me” in “GENDER” (Jackson et al 2004) is the writing I will review in this section. Langford’s (Jackson et al 2004) study “But he said he loved me” was formulated with findings from fifteen in-depth interviews of women who are in a relationships. Langford argued that in the beginning of a relationship men are supportive and caring towards their partners but as the relationship progresses and gets older with the passage of time, men begin to distance themselves from their partners. The duty to protect mutual intimacy fell on women by default. As the relationship progressed it moved away from the aspects of love and caring more towards the fulfilment of physical needs of men. In such situations men resorted to an indomitable desire to objectify women as a tool to fulfil their sexual needs. Langford in her study argued that in the institution of marriage, gender inequality also exists through dominance of the normative heterosexuality. By gender inequality Langford means that a relationship is a combination of two individual people but in institution of marriage men dominate while women suffer. Langford (Jackson et al 2004) in her study brings Hegel’s ‘master/slave dialectic’ (P.230) where she compared the husband – wife relationship to that of master and slave. In Langford’s study she mentioned that in marriage men assume the position of masterwhile women are by default slave and hence women are compelled to do certain things to......

Words: 758 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Gender

...Gender Identity Every sexual thought, attraction,preference, development, feeling, memory, fantasy, and choice stem from complex brain activity. A complex genetic code determines body type; but that type does not always dictate sexual identity. Sexual identity is an even more complex development that encompasses hormone levels, social learning, individual perception, and attraction. Humans are born genetically male or female; but that does not necessarily control which sexual identity the individual will discover. Planned Parenthood (2012) defines gender identity as how a person feels about and expresses his or her gender; despite genetic or natural gender assignment. Some humans are genetically male or female and identify with the traditional gender roles; but others may find that the traditional cultural norms do not match their feelings or thoughts. Sexual identity is the sexual part of human expression that does not include ideas like sexual orientation, sexual preference, physical gender, or body type. If an individual considers his or her gender as female and is at ease with referring to his or her individual sexual characteristics in feminine terms, his or her gender identity is female. Gender identity has nothing to do with the physical characteristics of gender; but focuses on how the individual thinks (either masculine or feminine) and how he or she expresses those feelings. Ghosh (2012) explains gender identity as “self-identified, as a result of a......

Words: 1429 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Gender

...Unit 3: Gender Scavenger Hunt EDP 310: Gender Development 1) 1) Interview 4-5 females and 4-5 males (they can be friends or strangers). Ask each of them to think of adjectives that describe/symbolize men, and adjectives that describe/symbolize women. For each person you interview, list the first 4 words they think of for each gender. Keep a running list of the words (even if words are used multiple times). Bad language can be an issue here. If you feel uncomfortable with certain words, you do not have to list them, although you can count the number of inappropriate words that are used to describe each gender vs. more appropriate words. You can also count the number of positive words said vs. more derogatory words. Answer: When reading over the selections for this assignment I decided to pick option four. I found this assignment interactive and interesting. Seeing what the opposite sex think about each other. I interviewed eight people in total. Men: Andrew: He described women as: seductive, adorable, alluring, beautiful. He described men as: Tough, headstrong, rude, and egocentric. Joey: Joey was very harsh on describing women: Dumb, airheaded, blond, whores, and psychotic. He described men as: Sensitive, players, enticing and fuzzy. Hayden: Hayden likes men so his description on males were different then the two others: Smooth, velvety soft, warm, delicious. Description on girls: Ugly, stupid, mean, hurtful. Michael: Description on......

Words: 664 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Gender

...Gender Identity Frank Sagasta August 31, 2014 Psychology 265 Dr. David Mohr Abstract I will discuss the path of gender identity and the reviews of what certain people believe. You will see the three different influences of gender identity. These are the three areas of gender identity: anatomy of the genitals, relationship of child to parent, and biological. In addition to physical abnormalities due to genetic and hormonal influences or environmental influences. Something, interesting is the fact that most people believe that gender identity starts with the development through the time of puberty. Here're the factors that determine gender identity. Our gender identity is our psychological awareness or sense of being male or being female, and it’s one of the most obvious and important aspects of our self-concepts. Sex assignment “also called gender assignment” reflects the child’s anatomic sex and usually occurs at birth. A child’s sex is so important to parents that they usually want to know “Is it a boy or a girl?” before they count fingers and toes (Rathus, 2011). Our text was able to exhibit the gender identity that starts with the Y sex chromosome from the both sex. It also assisted with the understanding of the X chromosome from the mother and either a Y or X chromosome from the father, which will join. If the male transmits an X chromosome during fertilization, then the “zygote” will be female, and if the male transmits a Y chromosome, then......

Words: 874 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Gender

...Gender 1100 I look back on my upbringing, as a whole, completely stable but as I view the events and periods of my life that have helped to shape who I am today, including my gender role, I realize it was far from simple. I have spent most of my life jumping around; my clear memories begin at about four years of age when my family moved to England for my father’s work. At home I was spending a majority of my time trying to keep up with my two brothers, only a year older than me. Being one of the boys was my goal when I was within the confines of my home. Outside of the house I attended an all girls school in which my feminism was emphasized. Manners lessons and ballet were the focal point of my education at the time, overall we young girls were expected to be as dainty and feminine as possible, I began to scoff at the idea of wearing anything but dresses and being utterly disgusted at what the boys my age were concerning themselves with. So even at such a young age my view on what a woman should be was very rigid and old fashioned while my desires when I left the public eye and were at home was to be just the opposite, I knew even then that my role at home would not do me any good while I was at school. As Janet Hyde writes about in her article, “The Gender Similarities Hypothesis”, gender differences have become overly emphasized and expected. From the age of four until eight when I moved back to the United States my expectations as a little girl were extremely firm,......

Words: 790 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Gender

...“Most people in Western cultures grow up learning that there are two and only two sexes, male and female, and two and only two genders, feminine and masculine” (Spade and Valentine – 3). For most cultures all around the world, this is their case. People have grown up learning strictly about these distinctions; people are labeled as male or female according to the sexual organs they were born with and must identify as feminine or masculine with their looks, without there being an in between or even a slight glimpse of a change occurring in society. It could be that they choose to turn their backs on these issues because of their culture, religions, and/ or personal beliefs or people are just not well informed of what these titles carry. For someone that does not struggle to conform with society’s ‘acceptable way’ of gender it is no issue to fit in when it comes to that part of their lives. However, to a transgendered person, for example, fitting into a certain gender/ sex is an everyday struggle. Sex and gender have become the main distinction all over the world; it would be very hard to get rid of this. Personally, I do not believe that there will ever come a day where the existing gender binary completely disappears but I do believe that changes may be done to it over time. In an issue like gender binary, nurture ironically beats nature. People are not born hating homosexuals, transgender people, bisexuals, etc., that sort of hatred is acquired throughout the years and......

Words: 3394 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Gender

... Gender What is male? What is female? The answers to these questions may depend on the types of gender roles one was exposed to as a child. Gender roles can be defined as the behaviors and attitudes expected of male and female members of a society by that society. Gender roles vary. Different cultures impose different expectations upon the men and women who live in that culture. The United States has experienced tremendous upheaval and revising of its traditional gender roles in the last generation. These changes in gender roles affect the home, the workplace, and the school, and they affect all Americans to some degree. Over the past few decades, Americans have made great strides in accepting and adjusting to new definitions of gender roles. Part of the cause is the increased number of women in the workplace. With the increased presence of women in the workplace, old attitudes and behaviors have had to change. Men and women are more aware of sexual harassment than previously; whereas 20 years ago a woman who refused to have an affair with her boss may have had to quit, she now has other options. Companies are now experimenting with policies that are family-friendly, such as flex time, job sharing, and on-site child care policies that benefit both men and women. In addition, women still earn far less money than men do for the same work, even though their salaries are vital to maintaining their families' economic health. A person's sexuality comes from within him or her,......

Words: 914 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Gender and Development

...the more compensation in terms of definition of what should be compensated and how. This is in regard of the employee in question, the job they do, the salary or wage they earn and the gender, race or any other affiliation they are associated with. In the long run, a research has shown that, unions end up pushing for compensation of both unionized and non-unionized workers in the respective state (Mishel, 2003) The government offers a platform where the unions’ battle with the private organizations with the employers asking for more privileges while the private sector is on the defense (S, 2002). As a result unions are seen as a threat to both the government and the employers on matters to do with the pushing for the rights of the employers in most of the states around the globe (Mike, 1986) This way, employees, labor unions, private employees and the government are very core in the compensation practices of any country as evident from the book by Freeman (Freeman R. , 1982). References Commisioner. (2005). Workers Compensation as a consideration by court on whether they should be taxed as social securities benefits. Summary Opinions. Freeman, R. &. (1999). What workers want. New York: ILR Press. Freeman, R. (1982). How much de-unionization contributed to the rise in male earnings inequaity: National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No 3826. Cambridge: Mass NBER. Meg, G. (2006). State compensation act summary: Best Review. Breaking Borders. Mike, D. (1986).......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Gender

...United Nations Development Programme SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY ELIMINATION DIVISION WP 5 GENDER AND POVERTY* Nilüfer Cagatay May 1998 WORKING PAPER SERIES *The responsibility for opinions in these articles, studies and other contributions in this series rests solely with their authors, and publication does not constitute an endorsement by the United Nations Development Programme or the institutions of the United Nations system. Table Of Contents Introduction I. Women And Poverty: Are Women Poorer? II. From Women and Poverty to Gender and Poverty A. Engendering Poverty Analysis B. New Conceptualizations of Poverty C. From Consumption/Income Poverty to Human Poverty D. Are Women Poorer?: Revisiting the Question from a Human Poverty Perspective E. Assessing Gender Differences in Poverty: Quantitative versus Qualitative Approaches F. Do Gender Inequalities Increase Overall Poverty? III. What Is To Be Done? What Is Being Done? A. Gender Mainstreaming at UNDP B. Engendering Anti-Poverty Projects and Programmes Figures Figure 1: A Pyramid of Poverty Concepts Boxes Box 1: Chile: Targeting Female Headship for Combating Poverty Box 2: Gender and Poverty in Guinea: Human Poverty versus Consumption Poverty and Participatory Approach to Poverty Assessment Box 3: South Asia Poverty Alleviation Program (SAPAP): The Case of India Social Mobilization through Self-Help Groups 1 “The causes and outcomes of poverty are......

Words: 9679 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Gender

...1. Gender refers to the socially learned attitudes and behaviors associated with biological differences. Gender determines the expression of masculinity and femininity. People reinforce those gender expressions through social interaction. Social and culture shape gender roles and what is considered appropriate behavior for a “man” and “women”. For example, men are expected to be a leader and protector for family while women focus on home such as taking care of the house, cooking, raising children, being emotionally supportive of the husband. 2. Feminism is the belief in social, economic, and political equality for women. The first wave was the fight for women’s rights for legal and political equality. This effort of women led to the passage of women’s right to vote in 1920. The second wave focused on social and cultural inequalities. The book “Feminine Mystique” by Betty Freidan argues women were unhappy because of the feminine mystique. This was a damaging ideal of femininity and it restricted women to the role of housewife and mother, giving up on work and education. Feminists fought to provide opportunities and to ensure that women would have a choice in areas such as education, working, relationships or marriage, and control of their reproductive rights. The third wave reacted to the second wave. The third-wave feminists tended to be more global and multicultural, and its ideas beyond middle class, white women, addressing the different disadvantages women experience......

Words: 593 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Gender

...Gender and Sexuality: Each of us has a biological sex, whether we are female, male, or intersex. Our gender is our social and legal status as men or women. And sexual orientation is the term used to describe whether a person feels sexual desire for people of the other gender, same gender, or both genders. Each of us has a gender and gender identity. Our gender identity is our deepest feelings about our gender. We express our gender identity in the way that we act masculine, feminine, neither, or both. Gender and sexuality is major component of society and something which can’t be ignored. I was born and raised in country where we follow very strict and conservative norms and values. Brought up in such a country it interests me to see the freedom of sexual orientation being practiced because I have always seen and taught there is only one sexual orientation which is being attracted to other gender. There is certainly no chance or explanation that justices anyone sexual orientation and sexual fascination for same gender. Somewhat being the strictness of our religion and strict teachings we follow from our Holy Book. It is based on a vulgar action that even goes against evolution providing religious ground to state it wrong. • Gay marriage is anti-evolution and completely against nature. • All major religions of the world are opposed to it. • Gay sex is a form of idolatry where people worship each other. The mankind should not be endorsing these actions. • Gay marriage......

Words: 1496 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Gender

...Gender and Gender Role I always thought the definition of gender is the biological difference between male and female. When you fill out an application or other forms they always ask gender male of female. After reading about Gender in my Human Adjustment book I have a better understanding of what it means. The story Bound by Tradition by Tita de la Garza was enlightening, you know that there’s gender bias, but that you have people still adhering to that degree, to give up getting married because it’s a family tradition is mind boggling. The role of women from the beginning of time is that they were put on earth to fulfill the wishes of men, cook clean take care of home and children, while the man goes out and brings home the bacon so to speak and is the protector. The roles of women have been reversing, a lot of women go out to work while the man stay’s home. I don’t have much experience in this but a lot of my friends it’s the significant other who’s out there working because she has a better job, and she brings home more money than he dose. If they have children who are in day care it’s cheaper for him to stay home and take care of them, then both working. In many cases with inflation you need more than one income to survive, and women find they like going to work and being independent and not having to depend on a man to take care of them. In a lot of cultures the women are still subservient to men, but I think that with TV internet and other sources of information...

Words: 287 - Pages: 2