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Food Styling

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Hannah M. Brown
Mr. James Eichen
English IV P
16 February 2016 Food Studies
Food is the center of life across the globe, in various cultures. While it is vital to humanity’s survival, it has become far more than an important factor of health and nutrition. In food studies, the complex relationship between food and humans is explored. Food studies is more than just the study of food itself, as it is different from the traditional food­related areas like nutrition, molecular science and gastronomy. It is explored via multiple perspectives such as art, history, sociology, psychology, social justice and economics. With psychology having the largest connection to food studies, researchers can look deeply into eating and find a deeper meaning to help them understand humanity in a greater way.
A meal has the image of unity and brings people together. Food choices can tell stories of families, groups and individuals. “The ways in which foods are eaten in various nationalities signified unconscious attributes and qualities” (
“Thinking Made Easy”
). Humans live by symbols to make sense of this world, to help organize and to give meaning to our existence.
Every group, whether it is bound with religion or social status, thinks of itself as “special and exceptional and uses food to show it” (
Civitello
). During the Chinese New Year, traditional dishes are carried with great significance based upon superstitions affiliated with spirituality. The
Chinese “serve the fish whole with head and tail intact to represent a good beginning and a good

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end for the coming year. Serving fish this way is also supposed to symbolize wealth, as the
Chinese word for fish, ‘yu,’ sounds like the word for abundance” (
"10 Foods You Should Be
Eating"
). Everything about how humans cook and eat has extended meanings, such as in
American cultures, serving a whole broiled chicken at an important event would be an insult, yet in Taiwan, it is the focal point in an event. In the Muslim culture, the religious practice
“Ramadan is characterized with fasting months where in all Muslims regardless of demographical profiles are expected to fast from sunrise to sunset without any food or drink to take in” (
“Thinking Made Easy”
). In contrast to the Chinese tradition of indulgence in food,
Muslims use the time of fasting to purify their souls and refocus their attention on religious beliefs. After sunset, Muslims stay up throughout the night to partake in breaking the fast which includes having enormous dinner parties with friends and loved ones serving dishes that contribute to purification and washing of all sins. In conclusion, it is established that food is symbolic to one's culture and identity.
Food also defines individuals and groups that are influenced by history, economy, and politics. The foundation that our economy lies upon is the ancient trade system that involves agricultural goods and services. Food was apart of an enormous historical revolution. It can also be a political weapon considering “after the French objected to the United States invasion of
Iraq, some Americans refused to eat French Fries, but had no problem with Freedom fries ­ the same food, just renamed” (
Civitello
). Throughout history, the substance of a product can be irrelevant but it is the face of the matter that remains significant. As generations come and go, so do the products in which is consumed. Now people are paying more for less. “Rising prices in agricultural commodities have forced food makers to hike prices” (“
Food Industry”
). This

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makes certain products affordable to economic classes of people. “Economy serves as an important feature of food culture among communities. Practically, the richer the economy, the more diverse the assortment of food in relation to types, costs, etc” (“
Thinking Made Easy”
). As our population continues to grow, one can hope the food supply can grow with it. In the next 30 or so years, at the current population growth, the food production in the developing world will need to double.
The availability of food resources and the advancements in technology has combined throughout the world which has led to the transformation of food consumption. “Refrigeration, freezing and microwaving are examples of practical ways in which shopping and cooking has changed” ("Cultural Studies Essays”). Practicality and the convenience that stands within the society is continuously evolving which changes the way things are normally done. “
However, it must be recognised that the industry has grown in response to social change such as new working patterns, the rise of single households, and a highly stressed society eating ” (“Cultural Studies Essays”).
People are now encouraged to go towards packaged meals sold at stores which takes up a fraction of the time versus fresh fruits and vegetables that typically require preparation. “In the past cooking and buying of food were traditionally seen as the woman's role” (“Cultural Studies Essays”). Generally, women are now seen going to work full time to contribute to their families income, which decreases the time spent at home to cook and prepare meals. As time is of the essence, there are many factors that contribute to evolution of food to society.

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Social influences and factors intertwine with psychological needs when food is used more for the meaning rather than the nourishment it gives. As studied, food is affiliated with its presentation that creates this anticipation of the satisfaction of taste. “Food professionals whose job it is to turn even the most humdrum of foods into the most elaborate and sensual food fantasies” (
Kleiman
). While one is being drawn into an appealing dish, their traditional senses and regularities are completely disregarded or erased. “[As food stylists] perform their magic with texture, color and contrasts ­­ they can transform just about anything edible into something sublime” (
Kleiman
). The essence of comfort and happiness is perceived to be stuffed inside of the presented dish and will be obtained if it’s consumed. A food stylist's “job is to make food so luscious and appealing you want to dive into the page and eat it," (
Kleiman)
. Regardless of whether or not hunger is present, the appetite soars when one catches a glimpse at a meal prepared by a stylist. It is intentionally designed to provoke thought and has nothing to do with the taste itself.
Professional food stylists use inorganic materials to create these mouth watering objects that looks appealing by using a number of different methods. “Food stylists and photographers use many tricks to make food look delicious for advertisements and cookbooks. For instance, milk on cereal might be replaced with white glue. That way the cereal doesn’t get soggy. Or lemon juice might be added to a banana to keep it from turning brown”
(Silen)
. Therefore the art of perception is created. They alter the sense of reality and give a misleading view on the image they want you to see. “If you chomped into this mouth­watering meal, your taste buds would never trust you again”( . What is seen in this case, is far from what one would actually
Silen)
receive. “In reality, the burn marks are seared into the veggies using a very hot electric coil.

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Some stylists apply eyeliner to make fake grill marks” ( ). Even with the falseness of an
Silen
advertised good, one still drawn to it. Possibly by the thought that a product can become a reality, provokes some to indulge in a product.

Consumers are lured into products by design of color combinations and usage. Certain

colors have been associated with effects towards the body and mind. “Colours reflect the target market of products and as a result we, as consumers, buy products that we feel reflect our needs”
(
"The Local Brand”
). Emotionally, our senses and feelings are involved in decision making influenced by the way something is presented in an arrange of different hues. Interior designers and artists have been aware of the phenomenon for quite awhile as they use psychology findings in their work. “White, which is used abundantly in many homes, restaurants, stores and more creates a mindless effect when it comes to your eating behaviors. Foods that are white are said to discourage your brain from caring about consumption” ( ). The various colors trigger
Smith
different emotions that alter your plan of action. “Blue is listed all across the web as a color used to suppress appetites. In fact, they go as far as to say to install a blue light bulb in your refrigerator to discourage your late night munchies or your in between meal snacks” ( ).
Smith
The usage of colors subliminally affects one's brain to alter eating habits. As food stylists continue to manipulate one's attraction towards a product, some increase or decrease the desire by using various contrasting colors.
The consumer market is continuously growing and evolving by using different methods to persuade buyers towards a products. “Countless studies have concluded the same thing: the better an object looks on the shelf, the more likely we are to take it home” (
"Unboxing Desire:
The Psychology”
). Marketers for corporations and companies use the art of packaging to their

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advantage. “The package design adds value to the package and to the product respectively”
(
"The Local Brand”
). Elements such as color and positioning contribute to the subconscious decisions of the buyer in contrast to the interest in the actual substance within the product itself.
“How consumers perceive the subjective entity of products, as presented through packaging and design attributes,influences the choice of purchasing and is the key to success for many packaged food product’s marketing strategies” (
"The Local Brand”
). As seen in stores or television, there are a variety of brands that sell the same product by using different methods of marketing. Using packaging as a lever to success, marketing companies can places a shiny emblem on a mediocre package with a guarantee it will sell more than your average competing brand.
With society being greatly influenced by those around, patterns have shown similar eating habits that exists in personal and religious affiliated groups. “One explanation for the effect of social norms on eating behavior is an individual's desire to fit in ­­ to identify with a given group and gain social approval, either to please the group or for the individual's own benefit” (
Spiegel)
. Friends typically share similar interests and preferences towards certain foods. Not to mention, “there is a great influence on children based on the eating habits of their parents” (
Hernandez
). From the start of a young age, society has been accustomed to consuming food that is approved by those around. “Even while eating on our own we are indirectly influenced in our choices by society—psychologists call these ‘social norms’. When norms are manipulated in experiments, people can be made to eat less or more at will” (
Spiegel
). Most studies even show that someone typically eats more when those around them are eating more as well as vice versa, people tend to eat less when those around them are taking in smaller portions.

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Considering the influence social norms have on society, one would think it could have a positive effect by pushing healthy eating habits.
Emotional eating is the idea that the emotions aside from hunger, affect how and what we eat. “In experiments, generally when people are put in a bad mood, they are more likely to reach for sugary and high­fat snacks.” (
“Food on the Mind: 20 Surprising Insights”
). This coincidently increases the bad mood and adds to the continuous cycle. “Negative emotions also make people prefer a snack rather than a proper meal and eat fewer vegetables” (
"Food on the Mind: 20
Surprising Insights"
). Snacking is the base for the concept of mindless eating. “Eating is so routine that we easily zone out from the experience. While our minds are wandering, though, our hands are shovelling it in faster and faster”(
"Food on the Mind: 20 Surprising Insights " ).
Supporting the phenomenon of mindless eating, by obtaining the sense of satisfaction through non­nutritious food. With this concept being so widely used, it has been tied to obesity.
Obesity as well as bulimia has resulted from the cause of mind driven cravings or lack of them. “Our minds love consuming concepts almost as much as our bodies crave food. Like our appetite for food, though, our appetite for ideas is only satisfied for a short period before we become hungry again”
("Why Do People"
). Considering the epidemic of obesity in the United
States, it is obvious that there is a significant issue. “Problems with appetite regulation can be mild and contribute to gradual changes in weight — or they can be severe such as anorexia and bulimia” (
"Nutrition and Healthy Eating")
. Appetites are driven by hormones that are released simultaneously in the body and they can be altered by a state of mind. Obesity is "one of the big common public health issues that falls right in the center of psychology" (“From Brain to
Mouth")
. Most cases of obesity are heavily linked to psychological disorders where the person is

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typically unaware of his or her decisions. Since the excessive problems with obesity and anorexia are relatively new, scientists and researchers are uncovering new explanations to why the brain drives one to or away from food.
Food studies have discovered that food has had a strong impact on people and groups within our society. As food it is responsible for the start of the economy by being the foundation of the ancient trade system that has evolved into the economy that is now in place, its significance has remained important. Food is known for joining families and friends together while being simultaneously being a symbolic representation of the various cultures and religious groups that are around the world. There are a numerous amount of factors that contribute to the attraction towards food that involve psychological and emotional elements. Food psychology is linked to the outbursts in obesity in the last few decades by food being marketed far more than ever before! The perception of how society views food at that given time, is seen to have influenced people to change their eating habits and routines. Something so nutritious for the human body has a far deeper meaning to humans and the human experience. With that being said, food can be a reflection on society and have a far greater impact than some can imagine.

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Work Cited
"10 Foods You Should Be Eating For Chinese New Year." The Huffington Post. N.p., n.d. Web.
28 Jan. 2016.
Civitello, Linda. Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food & People. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004.
Print.
"Cultural Studies Essays ­ Culture Food and Eating."
UKEssays
. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2016.

"Food on the Mind: 20 Surprising Insights From Food Psychology ­ PsyBlog." PsyBlog RSS.
N.p., 05 Feb. 2013. Web. 15 Dec. 2015.
"Food Industry, Food Sector, Food Trade." Food Industry, Food Sector, Food Trade. N.p., n.d.

Web. 28 Jan. 2016.
"From Brain to Mouth: The Psychology of Obesity." USATODAY.COM. N.p., n.d. Web. 15
Dec.
2015.
Hernandez, Acirema. Personal Interview. 27 January 2016.
Kleiman, D. "Food styling: The art of making the basil blush." New York Times 07 Nov.
1990: C1. Newspaper Source.
Web. 30 Oct. 2015.
"Nutrition and Healthy Eating." Overeating. Jennifer K. Nelson, R.D., L.D. and Katherine
Zeratsky, R.D., L.D., 30 May 2009. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.
"Packaging Design as a Marketing Tool and Desire to Purchase." Polyakova Ksenia, 2013. Web.
28 Jan. 2016.
Silen,Andrea. "Food That Fools You." National Geographic Kids

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429 (2013): 24. MAS Ultra ­ School Edition. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.
Smith, Sarah Rae. "How Color Affects Your Perception Of Food." N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
Spiegel, Alison. "Food Choices Influenced By Social Norms." The Huffington Post.
TheHuffingtonPost.com, n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
"The Local Brand." The Local Brand. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.
"Thinking Made Easy." Thinking Made Easy. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
"Unboxing Desire: The Psychology Behind Packaging." The Etsy Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec.
2015.
"Why Do People Watch Scary Movies, Stay in Ice Hotels or Eat Bacon­Flavoured Ice­Cream? ­
PsyBlog." PsyBlog RSS. N.p., 30 Apr. 2009. Web. 15 Dec. 2015.

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...Andre’s Hair Styling 05/15/2016 Draft A cost accounting system (also known as product costing system or costing system) is an outline utilized by businesses to guesstimate the cost of their manufactured goods for lucrativeness evaluation, inventory valuation and cost control. Appraising the precise cost of products is precarious for moneymaking operations. A company needs to recognize which products are lucrative and those that are not, and this can be determined when it has assessed the accurate cost of the product Andre’s Hair Styling Andre has asked you to evaluate his business, Andre’s Hair Styling. Andre has five barbers working for him. (Andre is not one of them.) Each barber is paid $9.90 per hour and works a 40-hour week and a 50-week year, regardless of the number of haircuts. Rent and other fixed expenses are $1,750 per month. Hair shampoo used on all clients is $0.40 per client. Assume that the only service performed is the giving of haircuts (including shampoo), the unit price of which is $12. Andre has asked you to find the following information. 1. Find the contribution margin per haircut. Assume that the barbers' compensation is a fixed cost. Show calculations to support your answer. To find the contribution margin per haircut the formula is: Contribution margin= Selling Price – Unit Variable Costs Selling Price= $12 Unit Variable Costs= $0.40 $12 - 0.40= $11.60 The Contribution Margin per haircut is $11.60 2. Determine the annual......

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Food

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