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Flying Technology

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Submitted By miaoyudabibi
Words 4275
Pages 18
Instrumentation & Avionics (Nov 10-13, 2015)
The following questions based on the knowledge of chapter 7
Pitot-static instruments
Airspeed and airspeed indicator
The altimeter and Altitudes
Gyroscopic instruments
Attitude indicator
Turn Coordinator
Heading indicator

1. When activated, an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) transmits on A. | 400 MHz (current models) and 121.5/243.0 MHz (older models) | B. | 406 MHz (current models) and 121.5/243.0 MHz (older models) | C. | 400 MHz (current models) and 121.5 MHz (older models) | |

1. Answer B is correct.
An ELT is an Emergency Locator Transmitter. ELTs are designed to automatically activate in the event of a crash and send out a signal that can be heard by SAR (Search and Rescue) personnel. * Modern ELTs operate on 406 MHz. These encode your aircraft's identification into the signal they send, and also encode your exact location if the ELT is coupled to an appropriate GPS. 406 MHz ELTs are monitored by orbiting satellites (global coverage) which are designed to alert appropriate SAR (search and rescue) personnel. * Older generation ELTs operate on 121.5 MHz. These do not encode an aircraft identification and also for other reasons have traditionally had a high false-alarm rate. While 121.5 MHz are still installed in many GA aircraft, it is recommended that operators switch to current generation ELTs.
In either case, the ELT is generally a brightly colored box (yellow, red, or orange, typically) mounted in your aircraft. One notable feature of ELTs is a switch to manually turn on the device in case of, for example, a forced landing in the wilderness that was not severe enough to activate the ELT but nevertheless requires search-and-rescue.

2. Refer to Figure: Figure 29The VOR receiver has the indications shown. What is the aircraft's position relative to the station? A. | East. | B. | North. | C. | South. | |

2. Answer C is correct.
First, recognize that the Illustration 1 shows a VOR indicator with full left needle deflection and a TO indication. This is equivalent to

Get in the habit of answering ALL of these VOR questions the same way. Learn the following system once and you can apply it for virtually all VOR questions. 1. Draw the VOR with north as up, and the four quadrants.

2. Draw an arrow with the letter "F" over it facing the heading at the top of the pictured instrument. So, in this case we draw it over 030o. Make sure the F faces DOWN, like the arrow.

3. Write the letters "R" and "L" from left to right at 90 degree points on each side of the compass rose from your F. Make sure that they face the same direction as your F. It's important that you practice this a few times so you don't get it backwards.

4. Draw a line ("CRS Line") through the arrow. This shows the line that would be if the needle on the instrument were centered. The L side of your CRS line corresponds to areas where the needle is to the left ("fly left" indication) and the R side of your CRS line corresponds to areas where the needle is to the right ("fly right" indication). Since our needle is deflected to the left, we know we are in the "L" half.

5. Split the area into two halves. The split should go through the center of the VOR and be perpendicular to your CRS line. We have drawn an ambiguity zone onto our drawing, though this is not needed for this particular question.

6. Now, write the word "From" in the half where your "F" is. Write the word "To" in the other half.

7. So where are we in relation to the VOR? We are in the "TO" half and we are RIGHT of course (indicated by the LEFT needle deflection." We are somewhere roughly SOUTH of the station. SOUTH is the best answer.

3. The pitot system provides impact pressure for which instrument? A. | Airspeed indicator. | B. | Altimeter. | C. | Vertical-speed indicator. | |

3. Answer A is correct.
The pitot tube provides impact (ram) air pressure for the airspeed indicator. The altimeter and the VSI utilize static port readings as their source of data. On training airplanes, the pitot tube is typically located under the left wing.

4. When making routine transponder code changes, pilots should avoid inadvertent selection of which codes? A. | 0700, 1700, 7000. | B. | 7500, 7600, 7700. | C. | 1200, 1500, 7000. | |

4. Answer B is correct.

The Aeronautical Information Manual, paragraph 4-1-19 states:
When making routine code changes, pilots should avoid inadvertent selection of codes 7500, 7600 or 7700 thereby causing momentary false alarms at automated ground facilities. For example, when switching from code 2700 to code 7200, switch first to 2200 then to 7200, NOT to 7700 and then 7200. This procedure applies to non-discrete code 7500 and all discrete codes in the 7600 and 7700 series (i.e. 7600-7677, 7700-7777) which will trigger special indicators in automated facilities. Only non-discrete code 7500 will be decoded as the hijack code.

5. During flight, when are the indications of a magnetic compass accurate? A. | Only in straight-and-level unaccelerated flight. | B. | As long as the airspeed is constant. | | | |

5. Answer A is correct.
The magnetic compass is accurate during straight and level unaccelerated flight. The compass will read incorrectly when climbing or descending at constant airspeed. Likewise, the aircraft can be climbing, descending, accelerating or decelerating while making banked turns, any one of which could cause the compass indication to be incorrect.

6. How many Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are required to yield a three dimensional position (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and time solution? A. | 4. | B. | 6. | C. | 5. | |

6. Answer A is correct.
The Aeronautical Information Manual states:
Using the calculated pseudo-range and position information supplied by the satellite, the GPS receiver mathematically determines its position by triangulation. The GPS receiver needs at least four satellites to yield a three-dimensional position (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and time solution. The GPS receiver computes navigational values such as distance and bearing to a waypoint, ground speed, etc., by using the aircraft's known latitude/longitude and referencing these to a database built into the receiver.

7. How do variations in temperature affect the altimeter? A. | Higher temperatures expand the pressure levels and the indicated altitude is higher than true altitude. | B. | Lower temperatures lower the pressure levels and the indicated altitude is lower than true altitude. | C. | Pressure levels are raised on warm days and the indicated altitude is lower than true altitude. | |

7. Answer C is correct.

AC 61-23, chapter 3 states:
Variations in air temperature also affect the altimeter. On a warm day, the expanded air is lighter in weight per unit volume than on a cold day, and consequently the pressure levels are raised. For example, the pressure level where the altimeter indicates 10,000 feet will be HIGHER on a warm day than under standard conditions. On a cold day, the reverse is true, and the 10,000-foot level would be LOWER. The adjustment made by the pilot to compensate for nonstandard pressures does not compensate for nonstandard temperatures. Therefore, if terrain or obstacle clearance is a factor in the selection of a cruising altitude, particularly at higher altitudes, remember to anticipate that COLDER-THAN-STANDARD TEMPERATURE will place the aircraft LOWER than the altimeter indicates.

8. Refer to Figure: Figure 3Altimeter 3 indicates A. | 9,500 feet. | B. | 10,950 feet. | C. | 15,940 feet. | |

8. Answer A is correct.
The smallest hand (blue) points to the 1 (indicating close to 10,000 feet), the short fat hand (red) is between the 9 and 0 (indicating between 9,000 and 10,000 feet), the long hand (green) is at 5 (indicating 500 feet). Add 9,000, and 500 to arrive at 9,500 feet.

There is no way that the "10950" answer can be correct as the green hundreds pointer clearly points to "500" (not "50"). The red thousands pointer points to 9000, not 900. Similarly, 15940 cannot be correct.
Some of your have commented that the blue "10000" arrow actually points just over the "1" and have suggested that "19500" may be a better answer. First of all, yes, the FAA was a bit ambiguous and how they drew this and maybe were a bit inaccurate. But even if this is so, the best answer is still 10950. The pointers on the altimeter work like the hour hands on analog clocks.
This clock indicates 7:52 (or 7:53):

Notice how the hour hand is almost at 8. It doesn't just sit at "7" until 7:59 and then suddenly jump to 8 at 8:00. The 10,000 pointer works similarly. This must be like this, as in a real airplane sometimes you don't look at the instruments straight on and thus they must be readable despite any distortion that this may cause. Those of you who are "lining up the 10,000 pointer on the figure using a straightedge" don't fully "get" how an altimeter is supposed to work in practice: to wit, a straightedge is never required in flight to read the altimeter! 9500 is the best and closest answer although surely we concede that the FAA could have been more attentive in their figure making.

9. Refer to Figure: Figure 3Altimeter 1 indicates A. | 1,500 feet. | B. | 500 feet. | C. | 10,500 feet. | |

9. Answer C is correct.
The ten-thousand foot pointer (blue) is just above 10,000 feet. The thousand foot pointer (white) is between 0 and 1,000 feet, and the hundred foot pointer (green) indicates 500 feet.

10. Which instrument will become inoperative if the pitot tube becomes clogged? A. | Vertical speed. | B. | Altimeter. | C. | Airspeed. | |

10. Answer C is correct.
The pitot tube supplies ram (dynamic + static) air pressure for the airspeed indicator. The airspeed indicator effectively subtracts the reading of the static port (static air pressure) from the ram air pressure reading of the pitot tube to determine net dynamic air pressure, which it then displays as airspeed.

11. If it is necessary to set the altimeter from 29.15 to 29.85, what change occurs? A. | 70-foot increase in density altitude. | B. | 70-foot increase in indicated altitude. | C. | 700-foot increase in indicated altitude. | |

11. Answer C is correct.
The indicated altitude changes 1,000 feet for every 1" HG change in the altimeter setting (Kollsman window on the altimeter) in the direction of the altimeter setting change. So a change "up" from 29.15 to 29.85 is an increase of .7 of an inch of Hg, or 700 indicated feet.

Remember that when the altimeter setting goes UP, the indicated altitude goes UP, and vice versa.
Density altitude is the altitude relative to the standard atmospheric conditions (ISA) at which the air density would be equal to the indicated air density at the place of observation. In other words, density altitude is air density given as a height above mean sea level. "Density altitude" can also be considered to be the pressure altitude adjusted for non-standard temperature.
Both an increase in temperature, decrease in atmospheric pressure, and, to a much lesser degree, increase in humidity will cause an increase in density altitude. In hot and humid conditions, the density altitude at a particular location may be significantly higher than the true altitude.
In aviation the density altitude is used to assess the aircraft's aerodynamic performance under certain weather conditions. The lift generated by the aircraft's airfoils and the relation between indicated and true airspeed are also subject to air density changes. Furthermore, the power delivered by the aircraft's engine is affected by the air density and air composition.
Air density is perhaps the single most important factor affecting aircraft performance. It has a direct bearing on: * The lift generated by the wings: reduction in air density reduces the wing's lift. * The efficiency of the propeller or rotor: which for a propeller (effectively an airfoil) behaves similarly to lift on wings. * The power output of the engine: power output depends on oxygen intake, so the engine output is reduced as the equivalent "dry air" density decreases and produces even less power as moisture displaces oxygen in more humid conditions.
Aircraft taking off from high altitude airports, such as Denver, Colorado are at density altitude disadvantage. Aircraft taking off during hot weather conditions such as might be typical from an airport in New Mexico during summer are at a density altitude disadvantage. Aircraft taking off from a "hot and high" airport such as Mexico City, Mexico during the summer are at a significant aerodynamic disadvantage. The following effects result from a density altitude which is higher than the actual physical altitude: * The aircraft will accelerate more slowly on takeoff as a result of reduced power production. * The aircraft will need to achieve a higher true airspeed to attain the same lift - this implies both a longer takeoff roll and a higher true airspeed which must be maintained when airborne to avoid stalling. * The aircraft will climb more slowly as the result of reduced power production and lift.

12. When the course deviation indicator (CDI) needle is centered using a VOR test signal (VOT), the omni bearing selector (OBS) and the TO/FROM indicator should read A. | 0° FROM or 180° TO, regardless of the pilot's position from the VOT. | B. | 180° FROM, only if the pilot is due north of the VOT. | C. | 0° TO or 180° FROM, regardless of the pilot's position from the VOT. | |

12. Answer A is correct.

The Aeronautical Information Manual, paragraph 1-1-4 states:
The FAA VOR test facility (VOT) transmits a test signal which provides users a convenient means to determine the operational status and accuracy of a VOR receiver while on the ground where a VOT is located. The airborne use of VOT is permitted; however, its use is strictly limited to those areas/altitudesspecifically authorized in the A/FD or appropriate supplement.
To use the VOT service, tune in the VOT frequency on your VOR receiver. With the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) centered, the omni-bearing selector should read 0 degrees with the to/from indication showing "from" or the omni-bearing selector should read 180 degrees with the to/from indication showing "to."
Should the VOR receiver operate as an RMI (Radio Magnetic Indicator), it will indicate 180 degrees on any omni-bearing selector (OBS) setting. Two means of identification are used: one is a series of dots and the other is a continuous tone. Information concerning an individual test signal can be obtained from the local FSS.

13. Refer to Figure: Figure 4Which color identifies the normal flap operating range? A. | The yellow arc. | B. | The green arc. | C. | The white arc. | |

13. Answer C is correct.
The white arc identifies the normal flap operating range. Your instructor may remind you to "wait until the airspeed is in the white arc" before you lowerflaps.
The lower limit of the white arc to the upper limit of the green arc has no particular meaning, but indicates speeds ranging from the power-off stalling speed (with wing flaps and gear in a landing configuration) to maximum structural cruising speed. The green arc represents the normal operating range - a range from the power-off stall speed in a specified configuration (VS1) to the maximum structural cruising speed (VNO).

14. Deviation error of the magnetic compass is caused by A. | the difference in location of true north and magnetic north. | B. | northerly turning error. | C. | certain metals and electrical systems within the aircraft. | |

14. Answer C is correct.
AC 61-23C, Chapter 3 states:
A magnetic compass is very rarely influenced solely by the Earth’s magnetic lines of force. Magnetic disturbances from magnetic fields produced by metals and electrical accessories in an aircraft disturb the compass needles and produce an additional error. The difference between the direction indicated by a magnetic compass not installed in an airplane, and one installed in an airplane, is deviation.
If an aircraft changes heading, the compass’ direction-sensitive magnetized needles will continue to point in about the same direction while the aircraft turns with relation to it. As the aircraft turns, metallic and electrical equipment in the aircraft change their position relative to the steel needles; hence, their influence on the compass needle changes and deviation changes. Thus, deviation depends, in part, on the heading of the aircraft.
Although compensating magnets on the compass are adjusted to reduce this deviation on most headings, it is impossible to eliminate this error entirely on all headings. Therefore, a deviation card, installed in the cockpit in view of the pilot, enables the pilot to maintain the desired magnetic headings.

15. When operating under VFR below 18,000 feet MSL, unless otherwise authorized, what transponder code should be selected? A. | 1200. | B. | 7600. | C. | 7700. | |

15. Answer A is correct.

The Aeronautical Information Manual, paragraph 4-1-19 states:
Transponder Operation Under Visual Flight Rules (VFR). 1. Unless otherwise instructed by an Air Traffic Control Facility, adjust transponder to reply on MODE 3/A code 1200 regardless of altitude. 2. Adjust transponder to reply on MODE C, with altitude reporting capability activated if the aircraft is so equipped, unless deactivation is directed by ATC or unless the installed equipment has not been tested and calibrated as required by FAR Part 91.217. If deactivation is required and your transponder is so designed, turn off the altitude reporting switch and continue to transmit MODE C framing pulses. If this capability does not exist, turn off MODE C.

16. Refer to Figure: Figure 29The VOR receiver has the indications shown. What radial is the aircraft crossing? A. | 210°. | B. | 300°. | C. | 030°. | |

16. Answer C is correct.
The OBS is set to 210, the CDI is centered with a TO indication. This puts us on the 030radial FROM the station. Remember to think of the radials of a VOR as spokes radiating from the hub of a bicycle wheel.

17. What is an important airspeed limitation that is not color coded on airspeed indicators? A. | Never-exceed speed. | B. | Maneuvering speed. | C. | Maximum structural cruising speed. | |

17.Answer B is correct.
Maneuvering speed is not color-coded on airspeed indicators. Never exceed speed is indicated by the red radial line on the airspeed indicator. Maximum structural cruising speed is indicated by the top of the green arc.
Maneuvering speed is defined as the maximum speed at which the airplane controls can be moved through their full range of deflection without incurring structural damage due to excessive loads on the aircraft.

18. Deviation in a magnetic compass is caused by the A. | presence of flaws in the permanent magnets of the compass. | B. | difference in the location between true north and magnetic north. | C. | magnetic fields within the aircraft distorting the lines of magnetic force. | |

18. Answer C is correct.
Deviation in a magnetic compass is due to magnetic fields within the aircraft, caused by electrical equipment and the presence of metals, disturbing the lines of magnetic force.
The presence of flaws in a magnetic compass is simply not the cause of magnetic deviation. The difference in the location of true north and magnetic north causes magnetic variation, not deviation.
To recall that magnetic fields within the aircraft is the correct answer, recall that generally most aircraft magnetic compasses have a magnetic deviation correction card next to them that indicate the correct heading to steer to compensate for magnetic deviation errors. For example, the card might say that to fly heading 270 (actual magnetic), fly heading 269 as indicated on the magnetic compass.
If you tend to mix up the terms "variation" and "deviation", recall that a ship navigator's plotting tool looks like the letter "V." Variation is printed on charts because (while it varies from year to year), it is constant for all aircraft. Deviation is aircraft specific.

19. Which instrument(s) will become inoperative if the static vents become clogged? A. | Airspeed, altimeter, and vertical speed. | B. | Airspeed only. | C. | Altimeter only. | |

19. Answer A is correct.

20. Refer to Figure: Figure 29The VOR receiver has the indications shown. What is the aircraft's position relative to the station? A. | Southeast. | B. | West. | C. | East. | |

20. Answer A is correct.
First, recognize that the Illustration 3 shows a VOR indicator with full left needledeflection and an ambiguous TO/FROM indication. This is equivalent to

Get in the habit of answering ALL of these VOR questions the same way. Learn the following system once and you can apply it for virtually all VOR questions. 1. Draw the VOR with north as up, and the four quadrants.

2. Draw an arrow with the letter "F" over it facing the heading at the top of the pictured instrument. So, in this case we draw it over 030o. Make sure the Ffaces DOWN, like the arrow.

3. Write the letters "R" and "L" from left to right at 90 degree points on each side of the compass rose from your F. Make sure that they face the same direction as your F. It's important that you practice this a few times so you don't get it backwards.

4. Draw a line ("CRS Line") through the arrow. This shows the line that would be if the needle on the instrument were centered. The L side of your CRS line corresponds to areas where the needle is to the left ("fly left" indication) and the R side of your CRS line corresponds to areas where the needle is to the right ("fly right" indication). Since our needle is deflected to the left, we know we are in the "L" half.

5. Split the area into two halves. The split should go through the center of the VOR and be perpendicular to your CRS line. We have drawn an ambiguity zone onto our drawing - While you need not do this for most VOR questions, for this one you do since the TO/FROM reading is ambiguous.

6. Normally, we'd write the word "From" in the half where your "F" is. Write the word "To" in the other half. While we don't need to do this here because of the ambiguous indication, we do it anyway for completeness.

7. So where are we in relation to the VOR? We're on the ambiguity (grey area between the TO and FROM) and with a LEFT needle deflection. Clearly we are SOUTHEAST of the station.

21. If Air Traffic Control advises that radar service is terminated when the pilot is departing Class C airspace, the transponder should be set to code A. | 0000. | B. | 4096. | C. | 1200. | |

21. Answer C is correct. The Aeronautical Information Manual, paragraph 4-1-14 states:
When receiving VFR radar advisory service, pilots should monitor the assigned frequency at all times. This is to preclude controllers' concern forradio failure or emergency assistance to aircraft under the controller's jurisdiction. VFR radar advisory service does not include vectors away from conflicting traffic unless requested by the pilot. When advisory service is no longer desired, advise the controller before changing frequencies and then change your transponder code to 1200, if applicable. Pilots should also inform the controller when changing VFR cruising altitude. Except in programs where radar service is automatically terminated, the controller will advise the aircraft when radar is terminated.

22. Refer to Figure: Figure 4What is the caution range of the airplane? A. | 0 to 60 knots. | B. | 100 to 165 knots. | C. | 165 to 208 knots. | |

22. Answer C is correct.
The caution range of the airplane is indicated by the yellow arc on the airspeed indicator. In this case, the caution range is 165 to 208 Knots.

23. What does the red line on an airspeed indicator represent? A. | Never-exceed speed. | B. | Maneuvering speed. | C. | Turbulent or rough-air speed. | |

23. Answer A is correct.
The red radial line on an airspeed indicator represents never exceed speed, or VNE. This speed should never be exceeded under any flight conditions, as there is the real potential for over-stress on the airframe, structural failure, or loss of controllability at higher speeds.

24. Refer to Figure: Figure 7The proper adjustment to make on the attitude indicator during level flight is to align the A. | horizon bar to the level-flight indication. | B. | horizon bar to the miniature airplane. | C. | miniature airplane to the horizon bar. | |

24. Answer C is correct.
During level flight, adjust the miniature airplane to the horizon bar on the attitude indicator. No direct adjustment of the horizon bar itself is possible.

25. Refer to Figure: Figure 4The maximum speed at which the airplane can be operated in smooth air is A. | 100 Knots. | B. | 165 Knots. | C. | 208 Knots. | |

25. Answer C is correct.
The maximum speed at which the airplane can be operated in smooth air is the red radial line (or the top of the yellow arc) on the airspeed indicator. In this case, it is 208 Knots. Of course, as this is also the never-exceed speed of this aircraft, actually operating such an aircraft at 208 Knots would not generally be recommended.

Figure 3 - Altimeter | Private Pilot Airplane/Recreational Pilot - Transition (PAT) - | |

Figure 4 - Airspeed Indicator | Private Pilot Airplane/Recreational Pilot - Transition (PAT) - | |

Figure 7 - Attitude Indicator | Private Pilot Airplane/Recreational Pilot - Transition (PAT) - | |

Figure 29 - VOR | Private Pilot Airplane/Recreational Pilot - Transition (PAT) - | |…...

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