Free Essay

Evolution

In: Film and Music

Submitted By lereece
Words 2640
Pages 11
The Transformation of Hip-Hop
African American playwrights are writing about difficult topics that affect the hip-hop generation. In this paper, I will focus on the transformation of hip –hop through theatre in the work of Robert Alexander, A Preface to the Alien Garden, and the work of Kamilla Forbes, A Rhyme Deferred. These playwrights reflect the evolution and different elements of the hip-hop culture. There are many similarities and differences between them regarding themes, intent, definition of hip hop generation and black theatre, the impact each play has on the hip-hop generation, and the historical context of each play. Both playwrights do an amazing reflecting an accurate depiction of the hip-hop generation, which embodies gangster rap, regular hip-hop music, dance, and music.
Kamilla Forbes is an actress, director, and playwright who wrote and directed Rhyme Deferred. She is the Founding Artistic Director of the Hip Hop Theatre Junction where she focuses on producing and creating works reflecting the hip-hop generation. Her thoughts and passion for hip hop and theatre and the idea that the new hip hop generation was not reflected through theatre, sparked her to began her story and write the play Rhyme Deferred. This highly energetic play engages the audience through dance and breaking down the “third wall” between the actors and the audience.
Rhyme Deferred is the story of two brothers, both rappers. The older brother, Kain, is a mainstream rapper and becomes successful. The younger and more talented brother, Gabe, struggles in the hip-hop underground as he attempts to develop his skills. As older brother Kain's popularity begins to fade, he returns to the streets to try to regain his credibility. Haunted by a greedy record label constantly pushing for more product, Kain resorts to stealing younger brother Gabe's notebook of rhymes in a desperate attempt to come up with fresh material (Drumming). The common good-brother-vs.-evil-brother motif here is couched in specific hip-hop terms. Gabe's journey reflects that of unsigned rap artists worldwide, and Kain's flamboyant similarity to Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs is none too subtle. Some common themes throughout this play include defining “hip-hop theatre”, energy, performance, homophobia, generational hip-hop, and fashion (Drumming). All of these themes contributes to Forbes goal to direct a play to reflects the new generation of hip hop as well as educate individuals on the progress that needs to be made with the hip hop culture (Drumming pg. 4).
Robert Alexander is a playwright, dramatice, and author of 29 plays, including A Preface to the Alien Garden. This dramatic and cut-throat play takes place in a crack house in Kansas city in which a group of young gangsters tell a story. This gangsta rap agitprop has a strong impact and is expressed through lots of provocative, profane language and rapping. Alexander incorporates Shakespearean, Western, and gangster ideas into one play. Some common themes throughout this play are aliens, hip-hop culture, gangsta rap, and the Book of Ezekiel (Outlaw Blues).
There are many similarities and differences between Forbes’ and Alexander’s plays and they both have a common goal to transform hip-hop through theatre. In Rhyme Deferred, hip hop is defined as movement and an engaging expression of the personal struggles African Americans who are apart of the new generation hip hop era; in the play this is presented through music, rhythm, beats, and rhymes. Because Forbes defines this hip-hop generation as engaging she makes the play come alive. She initially does this by having live deejays on stage throughout the play. These deejays provide music and beats throughout the play to help tell the story between the brothers. They also encourage audience participation. Forbes also has true music artists and poets play the main characters, Kain and Gabe. Kain and Gabe freestyle throughout the play, not only does this make the play come alive as a performance but it also accurately reflects to hip-hop generation described in the play. The B-boy dancers also contributed to play coming alive.
In A Preface to the Alien Garden hip-hop is defined differently than that in Rhyme Deferred. This play focuses on gangster rap music which is much more profane and hardcore than regular rap music. Alexander defines gangsta hip-hop as a reflection of a lifestyle of gang involvement, violence, drugs, sex, women, and music. All of the characters are involved in the Kansas City Crips called Slanging Zulus and they all have different roles in the “set” relating to the definition of gangsta rap. G Roc is a drug dealer, Crazy Mike is the hit man and the public relations person for the set, Candi is the “slut” of the gang, Slick Rick is a ex-gang banger who is looking to settle his life, Lisa is a member who loves the Book of Ezekiel and believes she’s been abducted by aliens, B Dog is the physical imposer, Ice Pick is a “stone-cold killer”, and Shelia is also a drug dealer (Elam).
Historical context is very significant when comparing these plays. Rhyme Deferred was written in the late 1990’s and performed in the early 2000’s. The hip-hop generation at this time was similar to that of the 1980’s. In this play, it is defined through what they wear, music style, and dance. Kain is wearing a flashy chain throughout the play reflecting the hip-hop generation, the dance style is B-boy, and the music style is rap music. The historical context is significant when discussing how a hip-hop generation is defined because it helps the reader put the play into perspective. A Preface to the Alien Garden was performed in the late 1990’s, early 2000’s but it was written much before it was performed. This play accurately reflects this time period through music and situation. Situation meaning that during the late 1990’s there were many gangs and gang related activity. In the hip-hop world during this time, two of the greatest gangster rappers were murders Biggie Smalls and Tupac. The play, A Preface to the Alien Garden, encompasses the ideas of gang affiliations and violence into his play.
Forbes and Alexander define hip-hop theatre very similarly in both of their plays. It is defined as the transformation of hip-hop through theatre. In Rhyme Deferred, since the focus is on generational hip-hop it is transformed through music, dance, and rhymes. The story of Kain stealing his brothers book of rhymes is another avenue in which hip-hop is transformed because it occurred frequently in hip-hop during the late 1990’s. Since Forbes does not use many props in this play, she uses the actors to transform the scene. For example in the notes of the play she says “using dance movement, the ensemble takes Kain through a mystical transition to the underworld of “the streets.” (Fire This Time). This quote shows how bodies were used to create the scenes. While in A Preface to the Alien Garden, the focus is on gangster rap therefore it is transformed through music, the characters lifestyles and roles, and rhymes. Alexander uses props to transform the scenes. For example, Lisa does graffiti in a specific area of the stage that is set up and covered with graffiti.
The impact the plays have on the current hip-hop generation is very different. Gangster rap is not very common although the language and the degradation of women in current gangster rap songs still exist. Therefore, there is less of an impact on the new hip-hop generation. Although the language in Alexander’s play was very profane, it would not shock the new hip-hop generation because that language is normal. Forbes play would have a larger impact on the hip-hop generation because it is engaging and depicts some of the same elements important to today’s hip-hop generation. Because it is so initially engaging with the deejays and B-boy dancers, the hip-hop generation would be more responsive. This play could have a positive impact on the hip-hop generation pushing them to enjoy hip-hop, reconsider negative thoughts regarding homophobia, and finally it encourages poets and rappers to continue to pursue their passions.
The author’s intent in both plays, A Preface to the Alien Garden and Rhyme Deferred are very different. Forbes intentions were to make her play for the hip-hop generation, engaging, and for her play to become a performance. She accomplished this by not relying on props and the setting but relying on bodies to create the scene. She also wanted use "hip-hop performance elements as theater conventions or theater tools." (Elam). She definitely achieved her goal by having the dual deejays at the end of each side of the stage. The beats and music were used as cues for the actors. “I’m most comfortable making others uncomfortable. To be comfortable in my world is to be complacent. Therefore my desire as an activist and an artist to provoke the complacent and to upset those with viewpoints that differ from my own. I live for a good fight, no matter how outnumbered or outgunned I may be.” (Elam) This quote explains Alexander’s intent in a nutshell. He wanted this play to be very profane and dramatic to accurately reflect the lives of individuals involved in gangs. His intentions were to “stir the pot” and anger some of his critics. To my knowledge, there are not many plays that reflect gangster rap culture, use vulgar language, and show elements of gangster rap that are often overlooked in theatre because of the backlash they might receive from it. Some of the elements of gangster hip-hop culture that most directors want to overlook in plays are the realistic language, violence, and degradation of women. Alexander takes a risk and depicts this in a dramatic way. Alexander’s intention was also to reinvent a play about the Black Panthers. “I wanted to chart the course of what happened with the guns in the '60s and '70s and what's going on with Black folks with guns now, with these young kids right now who are the descendants of these radicalized, revolutionary idealists who failed to pass the baton on to them, the next generation” (Rodriguez). The youth that joined the Black Panthers learned tough love and the Panthers became an extended family, it provided them with a sense of belonging and power through violence. He also did not want the readers or audiences to believe that the play’s intent was to glorify the gang culture. He made this clear in throughout the play; there were no heroes and the play ended with death. Another difference between Alexander and Forbes’ plays is the biblical reference. In A Preface to the Alien Garden, Lisa, also known as Fly Girl, often references the Book of Ezekiel. In Fire This Time (p 414), Lisa discusses the visions the Ezekiel had in relation to her believing that she has a connection with the Mother-ship and that it will come back for her. She also draws a connection between Ezekiel’s wheel is the big flying saucer that comes down from space. In Rhyme Deferred, the biblical reference made occurs between the main characters Kain and Gabe. Their relationship and problems mirrors the biblical story of Cain and Abel because they represent two sides of hip-hop; greed and ideals.
There are many limitations in both plays that can affect my personal critique. Some limitations include sound, rhythm, movement, and the use of space. In Rhyme Deferred, Forbes says “This piece in particular is not meant to be read (nor is any theatre piece), but even confining the piece o the page does it quite a disservice.” (Fire This Time). Reading this play is limiting because the reader cannot see or hear some of the most important aspects of the play, movement, dance, and the music. This limitation is also true in A Preface to the Alien Garden because the reader must imagine the music and the actors rhyming versus actually hearing the play. Reading the plays is also limiting because these plays are never performed exactly the same. More specifically in Rhyme Deferred, the main characters freestyle throughout the performance and that is not something a reader gets to witness. Since the characters in Forbes play create the scenes, the reader cannot see this but must read the stage directions to imagine it.
Personally, I really enjoyed reading both plays. I was surprised at how accurately both plays defined hip-hop. From reading and researching both plays a personal critique that I have is regarding the audience. Since both plays are about hip-hop they don’t appeal to all audience and should be produced mostly in community theatres. Alexander had many difficulties receiving aid and help producing his play because of it’s content. Another critique I have is the use of space in A Preface to the Alien Garden, I believe that it would have been more effective to use more body movement throughout the play because hip-hop is about movement. Unfortunately, I only read the play, which can skew my critique, and the stage directions did not suggest much movement.
Laurence Sasso reviewed A Preface to the Alien Garden describing it as “the soaring poetry of some of the rap duels and the plaintive speeches of Lisa and Rick as they bid to discover a way to escape their fates are testimony to Alexander's authentic talent, expressed with an authentic voice” (Amazon pg 2). This review is significant because it highlights the significance of rhymes in the play and Alexander’s skills as a playwright. Lauren Smith reviews Rhyme Deferred describing it as “spiritual and Shakespearean, a street-savvy, tradition-rich portal to the soul. Rhyme Deferred is a powerful performance piece that argues for Hip Hop's higher purpose.” (Amazon pg 5). This review is significant because it highlights how Forbes incorporated many different elements into a wonderful production.
In conclusion, both plays are very significant as they take a chance by creating a play about hip-hop. Although done in different ways, both subtle and profane, both playwrights accurately depict the hip-hop generation and transform hip-hop through theatre. This is significant because hip-hop is a huge reflection of African American culture because it gives African Americans an avenue to express themselves and show off or develop rhyming skills. These plays are also important to hip-hop culture because although it is changing the basic elements of hip-hop, music, expression, rhymes, beats, dance, are reflected in each play. Forbes plays shows some of the valleys and peaks of the hip hop world while Alexander’s play focuses more on the dark side of hip-hop. This is important for the reader and audience because it can suggest areas of improvement like violence and homophobia, and it can highlight important aspects of hip hop like rhyming.
References:
"Amazon.com: Online Shopping for Electronics, Apparel, Computers, Books, DVDs & More." Amazon.com: Online Shopping for Electronics, Apparel, Computers, Books, DVDs & More. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.
Elam, Harry Justin and Robert Alexander. "Rhyme Deferred." The Fire This Time: African-American Plays for the 21st Century. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 2004. N. Page. Print.
Elam, Harry Justin., and Robert Alexander. "A Preface to the Alien Garden." The Fire This Time: African-American Plays for the 21st Century. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 2004. N. page. Print.
"Outlaw Blues." Robert Alexander. N.p., 05 Apr. 1998. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.
Drumming, Neil. "Character Issues Rhyme Deferred Nails down the Fledgling Concept of Hip-hop Theater but Still Has to Figure out What Exactly It's Talking About." Washington City Paper. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Evolution

...The theory of evolution, formalized by Charles Darwin, is as much theory as is the theory of gravity, or the theory of relativity. Unlike theories of physics, biological theories, and especially evolution, have been argued long and hard in socio-political arenas. Even today, evolution is not often taught in primary schools. However, evolution is the binding force of all biological research. It is the unifying theme. In paleontology, evolution gives workers a powerful way to organize the remains of past life and better understand the one history of life. The history of thought about evolution in general and paleontological contributions specifically are often useful to the workers of today. Science, like any iterative process, draws heavily from its history. It is a FACT that the earth with liquid water, is more than 3.6 billion years old. It is a FACT that cellular life has been around for at least half of that period and that organized multicellular life is at least 800 million years old. It is a FACT that major life forms now on earth were not at all represented in the past. There were no birds or mammals 250 million years ago. It is a FACT that major life forms of the past are no longer living. There used to be dinosaurs and Pithecanthropus, and there are none now. It is a FACT that all living forms come from previous living forms. Therefore, all present forms of life arose from ancestral forms that were different. Birds arose from nonbirds and humans from nonhumans. No......

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Evolution

...Many different theories of human evolution cause people to think one way or another on how humans came about. The process of natural selection can easily be known as one of the most popular ideas that have dominated the beliefs of many people. Having a common ancestor is the act of descent with modification. There are many different species that are classified into groups depending on how they adapt. These groups of mammals have been given certain names depending on the lifestyle in which the species are adapted. These may range from living in water to being airborne, burrowing in the ground, open grassland, predation, and even trees. Cetaceans are the marine mammals. Chiroptera are the mammals that have the ability to fly, mostly known as the bat. Rodentia are the mammals known as the rodents. Ungulata are the mammals that are known as being hoofed. Carnivora are the mammals that are predators. Lastly, the primates are the mammals that are arboreal or live in trees.The common ancestor for humans happens to be those who adapted to living in trees. Humans are known as mammals. They have an adaptation that makes them survive called the mammary gland. This is an organ that produces milk to breast feed offspring. The word mammal in fact comes from mammary which is interesting enough why the young usually learn their first word as "mamma." All mammals happen to have a chemical that leads to the relationship between a mother and child. This hormone is called oxytocin. They are......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Evolution

...Search for Evolutionary Proof Arjumand Parham Sci 115 7/24/12 Dr. Freeman Search for Evolutionary Proof “Our ability to grasp, to build, and make out thoughts real lie inside this complex system of bones, nerves and vessels.” –Neil Shubin These things would only be possible through evolution. Evolution is any process of formation or growth and development, without it we wouldn’t be here today. Evolution though only an theory has an massive backing within the science community; many fossils, scientist and scientific studies have all but proved evolution indefinitely. The proof for evolution is massive and profound; fossils and carbon dating are absolute proof that creatures very similar to us not only lived but were evolving and walking around. African hominids such as the bipedal Australopithecus afarensis or “Lucy” are some of the most profound examples of evolutionary history. Unlike a common monkey Lucy was a bipedal specimen which meant she walked upright much like an human. What makes her such an amazing discovery is the fact that she was about three-million to almost four-million years old. Scientist from every side of the spectrum have gathered to try to make this theory fact. Neil Shubin paleontologist and archeologist said” We were not designed rationally, but are products of a convoluted history”. The history of the human body is convoluted in every sense of the word; there are approximately three-billion-five-hundred-million years of history in the......

Words: 447 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Evolution

...The beginning of the earth has been a mystery, boggling the minds of the erudite and the simple minded alike for years. The topic of creation vs. evolution has become increasingly controversial. In biology, Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is a change in the genetic material of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. Though changes produced in any one generation are normally small, differences accumulate with each generation and can, over time, become substantial changes in the population. Such similarities among species suggest that all known species are descended from a common ancestor (or ancestral gene pools process of gradual divergence). Evolution is supported in many different ways, but one major category pointing to its validity is fossils. Through fossil dating, hominoid fossils, and, evolution has become the theory accepted by the majority of those in the scientific forefront. Evolution is supported through fossil records. The study of the sequence of occurrence in rocks reveals the relative time in which organisms lived. This technique shows that one layer of rock is older or younger than another. Later through the discovery of radioactivity, scientists were given the opportunity to learn the age of fossils and rocks . Through these records, a vague timeline is illustrated of the evolutionary change that has been occurring over the past four billion years. This proves that the earth is much older then creationist would like to argue. A popular......

Words: 651 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Evolution

...Menneskets evolution Beskriv nedenstående figur: (stamtræet) Dette stamtræ visser menneskets udvikling igennem flere millioner af år. Den viser for 18 millioner af år siden skete der en mutation og en art har udviklet sig i forskellige retninger. Stamtræet viser den evolutionære udvikling en monofyletisk gruppe, der består af mennesket og de tre store menneskeaber. Disse arter tilhører gruppen primater, der er en del af hvirveldyrene og herunder de placentale pattedyr. Som det ses på figuren har alle fire grupper en fælles stamform for ca. 18 mio. år siden. Herfra har orangutangen udviklet sig forskelligt fra mennesket, chimpansen og gorillaen. For ca. 6,1 mio. år siden udviklede gorillaen sig evolutionært i en anden retning end mennesket og chimpansen. Chimpansen er den tættest nulevende relaterede art til mennesket. Herudover ses det at australopithecus afarensis deler stamfar med mennesket, men uddør for omkring 2,5 mio. år siden. Figur 1. figur 2. Figur 3. Forklar princippet i DNA-DNA hybridisering – Brug herunder de tre ovenstående figurer. (Husk at være klare og præcise i sproget) DNA- DNA hybridisering er en analyse af slægtskabet mellem to arter fx mennesket og menneskeaberne. Hydriseringer sker uanset om DNA strengene er af forskellig oprindelse, men jo de to DNA strenge hybridiserer, jo tættere beslægtet er de to arter. For at DNA’et kan blive til et enkeltstrenget DNA opvarmes det, hvorefter det blandes sammen, blandingen afkøles og nogle af......

Words: 766 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Evolution

...Evolution within the field of Physical Anthropology is the Idea that “species change over time and have a common ancestry”(Park 2009, p36). With this in mind, the field of Physical Anthropology, also known as Biological Anthropology, can be used to explore and investigate the evidence of the human evolution. Within Biological Anthropology, evolution is observed as the change of humans and human ancestors over time. These changes that occur do not take place over night, nor do they happen over a decade. It takes thousands of years to produce changes in an organism to the effect that it would be classified as evolution. Physical Anthropologists study the remains of Hominins and other ancestors of humans to discover the link that connects us all. They also study other creatures to compare them to humans in an effort to understand where humans come from and what makes us human (Gonder, 2013). One way that Physical Anthropologists have found links of evolution from early Humans and Neanderthals is through dental evidence found and investigated by Professor Alan Mann. He concluded that modern humans did in fact evolve from Neanderthals by finding links in the dental history of each species. Though his evidence is disputed by some, like any other scientific evidence, there have been some that support him and have come to the same conclusion of the relationship between Humans and Neanderthals. One piece of evidence that supports his theory is from a group of researchers from......

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Evolution

... For this stop, Darwin a fact that characteristics ended up being picking the higher quality beak form above the fewer helpful types. Darwin can be both equally acknowledged with discovering co-evolution and also convergent development while in the getaway for the HMS Beagle (Loxton, 2010). Convergent development happened any time different types developed individually any time subjected to similar choice conditions. Thus, convergent development grew to become obvious in divergent types such as placental mammals and also marsupials; camel and also sharks and also for the pearly white's and also head associated with mammals. However, corp development happened any time 2 types demonstrated a intimately related evolutionary record (Pickrell, 2006). For instance, corp development happened concerning bug pollinators such as bees plus the blooming crops. References Loxton, D. (2010). Evolution. Toronto: Kids Can Press. Pickrell, J. (2006, September 4). Introduction: Evolution - life - 04 September 2006 - New Scientist. Science news and science jobs from New Scientist - New Scientist. Retrieved November 22, 2012, from http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9953-introduction- evolution.html?full=true Ruse, M., & Travis, J. (2009). Evolution: the first four billion years. Cambridge, Mass.: elknap Press of Harvard University Press....

Words: 1177 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Evolution

...Evolution Abstract One paragraph… The discussion on the origin and fate of the universe continues to revolve around creationists and evolutionary ideas, though creationism positions arise mainly of religion and philosophy, while the evolution is postulated mainly from science. One wonders if possible convergence in these fields in the discussion, that is, if you can address both creationism and evolutionism from science, philosophy and religion. Theory of Evolution In science the theory of evolution explains the huge variety of life arising by postulating a process of transformation through changes in genes that lead to new adaptations to the environment. By studying the genetic structure of living beings is a verifiable fact that they are related to each other and, therefore, aims to have a common origin as the emergence of new species due to the accumulation of changes that do diverge and take different paths to adaptation to the environment. In the scientific world, biological evolution represents the interpretative key of the living world. Life began about 3500 makes 4000 million years in the form of single-celled organisms without nuclei and took about two billion years to produce the first eukaryotes (unicellular organisms with nuclei), so the start was given very slowly. However, in evolutionary history there are times with a high evolutionary rate as the Cambrian period (540 to 520 million years, they were many forms of multicellular life). They also......

Words: 2014 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Evolution

...Tanner Pardue #16 Video 1 essay: Is it correct to say the evolution is just a theory? Is Gravity just a theory? Many people would argue about weather Evolution is a fact or theory. There are certain characteristics that make a theory a theory and a fact a fact. A theory is something that is thought to have happened or why something happens etc. but a theory is something that hasn’t been proven. When someone’s theory is proven it is considered a fact. So with knowing this I must agree that Evolution is just a theory because there is no complete proof or evidence to prove support or back up the theory of evolution. Therefore due to the definition of a fact and theory evolution must be a theory. Too me Gravity is not a theory. I believe this because gravity has laws; each law explains how gravity works. When these laws are tested in both environments with and without gravity the laws are proven to be true and work. Therefore due to the definition of a Fact in my personal opinion gravity would be a fact since the laws of it can be proven to be true. Video 2 essay: Why was Darwin considered to be a “revolutionary”? Charles Darwin is one of the most famous biologists in history. With a Theory called Natural selection he helped prove that biology makes since and how all species evolve to be designed how they are over time. As he studied the Galapagos Islands off South America he observed many different species of animals. He looked at how they reacted around......

Words: 1535 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Evolution

...being taught in schools. Although we are known as a Christian country, religious ideas in public places are frowned upon or replaced. Now, scientific theories- evolution and the big bang- are being taught as fact to students across the nation. This is a growing problem because evolution is not a fact, only a weak theory based on misinterpreted evidence. There are two types of evolution being taught. One type, also known as natural selection or species adaptation, is when specific changes occur in one species. According to Roger Patterson, author of Evolution Exposed, natural selection is how a species changes, or evolves, in short periods of time. For example, one breed of dog evolved slightly to create the many different breeds of dogs we have now. This makes sense. Why? All dogs are similar to each other. You could say the same for birds, fish, cats, or any other animal. However, the theory of evolution says every living thing on the earth- plants, humans, animals and microscopic organisms- originated from only one organism. This is unrealistic. Natural selection can be tested and observed. On the other hand, the theory of evolution should not be taught as logical, evident factual information because it has not been scientifically proven as most of the non-Christian scientific world would tell you. Along with evolution, a theory for the origin of life, we have the Big Bang Theory, a theory for the origin of our universe. According to Dr. Jason Lisle, author of The......

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Evolution

...Evolution is what has allowed humans beings to become the complex organisms that we are today. This long and interesting process has taken millions of years to occur. There is a significant amount of evidence found in living and non living species that the first human ancestors lived approximately 6 million years ago. There is still a few holes in the theory of evolution that can’t quite be explained yet, but scientist have a pretty clear understanding of where, why and how humans evolved. The family Hominidae or hominids, is defined as including humans and the great apes. Scientists further split up this family into two sub-families, one of which is the hominins, which includes humans and their ancestors since the time of divergence from the common ancestors of humans, chimpanzees, and bonobos. The oldest known human ancestor is A. tchadensis. The first evidence of this species was named Toumai and was found in Chad, Africa. It is believed that A. tchadensis inhabited the part of Africa that we now call Chad about seven to six million years ago. Based on Toumai’s cranial characteristics it is believed that this species was bipedal. Fossils have also been found from a different species in Ethiopia. According to the fossil records this species called A. ramidus lived about 4.4 million years ago and were definitely bipedal. The famous fossil of “Lucy” unveiled yet another species that is a common ancestor of humans called A. afarensis. A. afarensis live approximately 3.3......

Words: 720 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Evolution

...*Q: What is Evolution? - Descent from modification * Macro Evolution (Large Scale Evolution) * Common Ancestor - descent of different species over many generations * OVER LARGER TIMESCALE (ex. Speciation) * Micro Evolution (Small Scale Evolution) * Changes in gene (allele) frequency in population from one generation to the next * May be over shorter time period (generations) * BOTH OF THESE IMPLY: * 1. Common Ancestry * 2. Changes through time *Natural selection occurs when 3 conditions are met; results in evolution * 1. There is variation in a trait * (Ex. Beetle color) * 2. The trait is heritable * (Ex. Brown beetles tends to have brown babies) * 3. There is differential reproductive success, and not all individuals reproduce to their full potential * (Ex. Green beetles are selected against by natural and Brown beetles are selected for- so they reproduce more) *Adaption: A trait that increases the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce compared with individuals without the trait Adaption in an evolutionary context: An inherited trait that makes an organism more fit in its abiotic and biotic environment, and that has arisen as a result of the direct action of natural selection for its primary function. Ex. Mimicry of the non-toxic king snake to evade predators Natural selection leads to Adaptions * Adjustments or changes In behavior,......

Words: 4620 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Evolution

...Evidence of Evolution Introduction: Evolution is usually defined as the change over time in one or more inherited traits found in populations of organisms. Inherited traits are particular distinguishing characteristics. Evolution may occur when there is variation of inherited traits within a population. The major sources of such variation are mutation, genetic recombination and gene flow. This process has produced all the diversity of living organisms. Charles Darwin characterized the result as endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful. It has always been debated if there is any evidence of evolution and in what fields, in this report we will give a brief summary concerning: • DNA Evidence of Evolution • Biological Evidence of Evolution DNA Evidence of Evolution: DNA molecules are complex molecules which contain the assembly instructions for every living creature. Certain aspects of DNA have been interpreted as evidence for Darwinian evolution. DNA evidence for evolution includes mutations, genetic similarities among species, so-called “Junk DNA” and “Pseudogenes.” The fact that mutations can corrupt DNA is important for the Darwinian paradigm because in order for an organism to eventually evolve into an entirely different organism, changes must be made to the creature’s genome over time. But Darwinian evolution needs more than just change. It needs an increase in genetic information. Critics point out that genetic mutation does not appear to provide a...

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Evolution

...Evolution Evolution is something that made us human beings today; it had a great impact in our world and made us who we are. Natural selection is something that has to do a lot with evolution. Natural selection defines something, most likely specie that experiences a huge change in characteristics and traits such as looks, movements and the way they live. Adaptation is also something that relates hugely to evolution. Adaptation is when species become comfortable with the environment around them. Adaptation allows them to improve their conditions of living and it permits them to live easier (Sheiner, p. 1106). Natural selection and adaptation are both things that occur in the process of evolution. When species go into the process of evolution they experience both natural selection and adaptation because they go through an amount of characteristically and environmental changes. Evolution, adaptation and natural selection all had major impacts on our world and how it turned out to be today. Without evolution, our world would be completely different, as us humans would not exist. Species are important factors of evolution. By watching “Walking with Cavemen” and reading “Natural Selection” by Scheiner I was able to understand and observe the changes throughout time, and how us humans were created. Species like boisei, ergaster, and afarensis have made impacts on the way we are. We learnt many things from them and adapted to our environment similar to them. In......

Words: 258 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Evolution

...ION * PART A. Examine the mechanisms of evolution. * Evolution is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient ancestors (Evolution, N.D.) The four mechanisms that allow evolution to take place are genetic drift, gene flow, mutations, and natural selection. All of these mechanisms happen naturally and are necessary for evolution to take place. Genetic drift is the random change in gene or allele frequency with which an allele variation occurs in a small population. Genetic drift is simple change. Two different genetic drifts that can change the size of a population are the bottleneck effect and the founder effect (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). The bottleneck effect occurs during drastic changes in an alleles population causing the population to have some alleles that may be underrepresented or eliminated completely (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). Chance may affect the alleles population for generations until the population will become large enough to allow sampling errors to be considered insignificant (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). Genetic drift in a new colony is called the founder effect (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). It is likely to occur when a few individuals colonize an isolated area (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). When a colony migrates away from a larger population its gene pool becomes least representative of the larger colony it migrated from (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). Gene flow is the genetic exchange of......

Words: 661 - Pages: 3