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Everything You Need to Know About Hypothyroidism

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Everything You Need To Know About Hypothyroidism

Abstract
This paper describes in detail the disorder hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is an endocrine disorder that affects a lot of people in the United States. Women are mostly affected but men are also affected. This paper will discuss all the signs and symptoms, treatments, diet plans and a lot of other information about the disorder. This paper also discusses exactly what the disorder does and how it affects people. This disorder is very interesting.

Thyroid disorders are very hard to diagnose because they have vague symptoms until the disease has reached a severe level. The thyroid is a small gland in our necks that control growth repair and metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine to produce hormones throughout our body. According to Ignatavicius and Workman If our thyroid is not working properly it is hard to maintain adequate health. Women are more susceptible to suffer from thyroid disorders. If you have a low functioning thyroid you suffer from a disorder call hypothyroidism. This condition can originate in the thyroid or the pituitary gland. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) Hypothyroidism results when the thyroid fails to secrete an adequate amount of the thyroid hormone. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.)This condition may form in the thyroid or in the pituitary. The most common cause of this disorder in the United States is Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, which is an inherited disorder. In this disorder the thyroid is enlarged and it has a decreased ability to make thyroid hormones. Hashimoto’s is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks the body’s thyroid tissues. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) According to Ignatavicius and Workman some people can also get Secondary Hypothyroidism. Secondary Hypothyroidism can be a result from a surgery. Patients that were treated for hyperthyroidism can be left with a low functioning thyroid gland (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.)Medications that are used to treat hyperthyroidism may also cause hypothyroidism. There has been a connection between hypothyroidism and diabetes. Not to say that if you have one you will definitely have another, but the two disorders relate in a lot of ways. Diabetes and hypothyroidism are both endocrine disorders. Since hypothyroidism slows down the metabolic process it prevents the pancreas from do its very important job of producing insulin which activates cells to absorb blood sugar. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) Therefore having hypothyroidism puts you at risk for having diabetes. Diet modification is a major factor in making sure hypothyroidism doesn’t lead to diabetes. Eating a low carbohydrate and high protein diet can help. Also exercising regularly can help increase your metabolism. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) Hypothyroidism has also been linked to premenopausal women. This finding makes a lot of sense because going through menopause is a big hormonal change. Hormonal imbalances can act as a triggering episode for hypothyroidism. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) That is why women often get hypothyroidism more than men. Women go through stages of hormonal imbalance during perimenapause, menopause and pregnancy. According to Ignatavicius and Workman Even though women are more susceptible men also get hypothyroidism. Men have all the same symptoms of hypothyroidism as the women do except men also get sexual dysfunction. A lot of mean do not pay attention to the symptoms and they become undiagnosed. It is harder to diagnose mean with hypothyroidism because they do not go to the doctor as often as women. Men also overlook these symptoms as just being old age. Men as well as women have to place close attention to their bodies and what it is trying to tell them. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) Hypothyroidism is very dangerous in the elderly. One reason is because the symptoms of Hypothyroidism closely resemble that of normal aging therefore it may go misdiagnosed and untreated. Severe untreated hypothyroidism can lead to myxedemic coma. Myxedemic coma is very serious and life-threatening (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) Another risk factor for the elderly is that older adults that are taking thyroid replacement are more at risk for adverse effects associated with cardiac function. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) There are also a percentage of people that are born with hypothyroidism. In these cases it is called congenital hypothyroidism. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) In congenital hypothyroidism it affects infants from birth. In this form of hypothyroidism the thyroid gland fails to develop or work properly. The thyroid gland can be absent, abnormally located or reduced in size. If left untreated congenital hypothyroidism can be very serious for the infants. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) It can lead to intellectual disability and abnormal growth. If the infants are diagnosed and treated within the first month of birth they typically develop normally. In North America, Japan Europe and Australia congenital hypothyroidism affect 1in 3,000 to 4,000 newborns. In some cases congenital hypothyroidism is inherited. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) Hypothyroidism slows down the metabolic, physical and mental activity. Therefore the person feels lethargic, lacks energy, dozes frequently, is forgetful, has chronic headaches, the face has a masklike expression, is often irritable, the tongue may be swollen, edema of the eyelids, temperature and pulse are decreased, has cold intolerance, weight gain, dry skin, coarse hair, menstrual disorders, severe constipation, low pitch hoarse voice, may have impaired hearing. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) These symptoms can be very vague and do not necessarily bring the patient in to see the physician therefore early recognition is hard and the condition can go untreated for years. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) Hypothyroidism is not a curable disorder, but it can be treated and managed. Hypothyroidism is treated with thyroid replacement hormones for the majority of patients they are treated with levothyroxine sodium. This medication is used because it is the most stable form of thyroid hormone. This medication is given once a day. The therapy is monitored every six weeks to determine if the appropriate amount of the replacement is being given. The goal of the therapy is to maintain the TSH within normal limits. (Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L 2013.) Hypothyroidism can also be managed with diet. Eating foods high in iodine can help increase your thyroid stimulation. Iodine can be found in salt, kelp, seaweed and shellfish. Do not eat too much iodine because it can damage the thyroid. Constipation is a symptom of hypothyroidism therefore increasing fiber to the diet with whole grain can be very beneficial. Increasing more water consumption can also be helpful with constipation. Decrease intake of cabbage, strawberries, peaches, spinach, broccoli, greens, Brussels sprouts, pears, kale, mustard greens and cauliflower because it can cause enlargement of the thyroid gland which will decrease its function even more. I learned a lot about Hypothyroidism and it is very serious and should not be left untreated. Anybody who suspects that they have this disorder should go to their primary care physician as soon as possible.

References
Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L. (2013). Medical-surgical nursing: Patient-centered collaborative care. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders…...

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