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Established Theories in Intellectual Development

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Liza28
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Review on established theories in the areas of intellectual and social development A theoretical understanding of child development is essential, allowing us to fully appreciate the cognitive, emotional, physical, social and educational growth that children go through from birth and into early adulthood (Neufeld & Mate, 2005).
Some of the major theories of child development are known as grand theories; they attempt to describe every aspect of development, often using a stage approach, such as, Urie Bronfenbrenner, Eric Erikson and Jean Piaget.

Urie Bronfenbrenner (1979 - 2005) founded the Ecological Systems Theory which provides an understanding of how the complex relationship between the infant, the family, and society impact child development. Brofenbrenner’s theory looks at how each of the areas interplay in the development of humans and how all areas impact development instead of studying each area separately. Bronfenbrenner (1975) states that “as a child develops, the interaction within these environments becomes more complex. This complexity can arise as the child’s physical and cognitive structures grow and mature. So, given that nature continues on a given path, how does the world that surrounds the child help or hinder continued development?” Bronfenbrenner labeled five different aspects of the environment that influence children's development. These include the micro system, the mesosystem, the exosystem, the macro system, and the chronosystem.

The microsystem is the immediate environment the child lives in. Children's microsystems will include any immediate relationships they interact with, such as family, friends, classmates, teachers, neighbours and other people who have a direct contact with them. How these groups interact with the child will have an effect on how the child grows; the more encouraging and nurturing these relationships…...

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