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BANK RECONCILIATION STATEMENTS
. . .

this chapter covers

In the last chapter we balanced the cash book of a business to find out the balance of the bank account. In this chapter we look at the way in which a business deals with any differences between the balance of the bank account in the cash book and the closing balance of the bank account shown by the bank statement for the same period. These differences are explained by a document known as a bank reconciliation statement: which lists • • items which are in the cash book but not on the bank statement items which are on the bank statement but not in the cash book

This process is an important one: it enables the business to update its cash book and also helps to prove the accuracy of the bookkeeping of the business and the bank.

OCR LEARNING OUTCOMES unit 3: MAINTAINING THE CASH BOOK Assessment objectives
4 Prepare a Bank Reconciliation Statement (a) Compare transactions that appear on both Cash Book and Bank Statement (b) Update Cash Book from details of transactions appearing on Bank Statement (c) Balance the bank columns of the Cash Book to calculate the revised balance 5 Complete a Bank Reconciliation Statement (a) Enter correct date of the statement (b) Enter the balance at bank as per the Cash Book (c) Enter details of unpresented cheques (d) Enter sub-total on reconciliation statement (e) Enter details of bank lodgements (f) Calculate balance as per Bank Statement

bank reconciliation statements

247

T H E N E E D F O R A N A C C U R AT E C A S H B O O K
Most organisations keep a record of their cash and bank transactions in a cash book (see Chapter 13). The cash book contains a record of both the cash account and the bank account and shows the balance in each account at the end of a period. Once the cash book has been balanced off it is usual to check the details with the records of the firm’s bank transactions as recorded by the bank. To enable this check to be made the cashier will need to ensure that the cash book is completely up-to-date and a recent bank statement has been obtained from the bank. Often,when a comparison is made between the bank balance as shown in the firm’s cash book with that shown on the bank statement, the two balances will be different. It is for this reason that a bank reconciliation statement is prepared to reconcile (‘tally up’) the two balances. The reconciliation may identify errors that may have been made in either the firm’s cash book or in the bank’s records. Any corrections can then be made. An example of a bank reconciliation statement is shown below. As you can see, it is a very simple calculation. The process of drawing up a bank reconciliation statement will be explained in full on pages xx-xx.

CECILIA WHOLESALE LIMITED Bank Reconciliation Statement as at 31 October 2004 £ Balance at bank as per Cash Book Add: unpresented cheques Taverner Trading Company Puccini Partnership B Britten Ltd 60 100 80 240 765 Less: outstanding lodgements 220 300 520 Balance at bank as per bank statement 545 £ 525

248

Level 1 Bookkeeping

T H E B A N K S TAT E M E N T
A bank statement is a copy of a bank account as shown by the bank records. Bank statements are sent out to customers on a regular basis, for example every month. This enables the customer to check their funds in the bank (or borrowing on overdraft) regularly and to update their own records of transactions that have occurred. It could be, for example, that the bank has not previously notified them of a certain deduction from the account, for example bank charges. An example of a bank statement is shown below: If you are not familiar with the details of payments – eg SO (standing order), DD (direct debit), BGC (bank giro credit), BACS (Bankers Automated Clearing Services) – you should read the last chapter which introduces these terms.

STATEMENT

National Bank PLC
5-6 Christmas Square Mereford MR1 7GH

Account Account Number Sheet Date Date 2004 01 Oct 01 Oct 07 Oct 07 Oct 13 Oct 15 Oct 17 Oct 20 Oct 20 Oct 23 Oct 24 Oct 27 Oct 31 Oct 31 Oct Details

Teme Computers 12037661 17 31 October 2004 Debit Credit Balance

Balance Cheques 619651 619652 RT Telecom (DD) 619653 Mereford City Council (SO) GH Trading (BGC) Cheque Cash Tombenco (BACS) Unpaid cheque 619654 Bank charges

590.53 298.64 100.00 154.00 58.90 240.00 230.00 127.80 450.00 120.50 127.80 45.75 24.30

405.93 996.46 697.82 597.82 443.82 384.92 144.92 374.92 502.72 952.72 1073.22 945.42 899.67 875.37

CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR

bank reconciliation statements

249

W H Y D O Y O U N E E D A B A N K R E C O N C I L I AT I O N S TAT E M E N T ?

reconciliation
‘Reconciliation’ between the cash book and the bank statement final balance simply means an explanation of the differences. This explanation takes the form of a written calculation (see page xx for an example). The process can be seen as follows: cash book (bank columns)

bank reconciliation statement

bank statement

Differences between the cash book and the bank statement can arise from: • timing of the recording of the transactions • errors made by the business, or by the bank We will explain each of these in turn.

timing differences – items recorded in the cash book
When a business compares the balance according to its cash book with the balance as shown by the bank statement there is often a difference. This difference can be caused by the timing of payments. For example: • A cashier may send cheques out to suppliers, some of whom may pay in the cheque at the bank immediately while others may keep the cheque for several days before paying it in. When this happens the cashier will have recorded all the payments in the cash book. However, the bank records will only show the cheques that have actually been paid in by the suppliers and deducted from the business bank account. These cheques are known as unpresented cheques. • With another type of timing difference – known as outstanding lodgements – the firm's cashier records a receipt in the cash book as he or she prepares the bank paying-in slip. However, the receipt may not be recorded by the bank on the bank statement for a day or so, particularly if it is paid in late in the day (when the bank will put it into the next day's work), or if it is paid in at a bank branch other than the one at which the account is maintained.

250

Level 1 Bookkeeping

timing differences – items not recorded in the cash book payments in Another timing difference may also occur when the bank has received a direct payment from a customer of the business. In this instance the bank will have recorded the receipt in the business’s account at the bank but the business will be unaware of the payment and will not, therefore, have recorded the receipt in the cash book. This type of payment includes: – standing order and BACS (Bankers' Automated Clearing Services), ie incoming payments received on the account, eg payments from debtors (customers) when the payment has not been advised to the business bank giro credit amounts received by the bank, eg payments from debtors (customers) when the payment has not been advised interest and refunds credited by the bank

– –

payments out Another reason why the balance of the cash book and the balance of the bank statement may not agree is because the bank may have deducted items from the customer’s account, but the customer may not be aware of the deduction until the bank statement arrives. Examples of these deductions include: – – – – standing order and direct debit payments which the customer did not know about bank charges for running the account interest charged for overdrawn balances unpaid cheques deducted by the bank – ie stopped and 'bounced' cheques (see page xx)

differences caused by errors
Sometimes the difference between the two balances may be accounted for by an error on the part of the bank or an error in the cash book of the business. It is for this reason that a bank reconciliation is carried out frequently so that errors may be identified and rectified as soon as possible. It is good business practice to prepare a bank reconciliation statement each time a bank statement is received. The reconciliation statement should be prepared as quickly as possible so that any queries – either with the bank statement or in the firm’s cash book – can be resolved. Many firms will specify to their accounting staff the timescales for preparing bank reconciliation statements. For example, if the bank statement is received weekly, then the reconciliation statement should be prepared within five working days.

source documents for the cash book

251

P R E PA R I N G T H E B A N K R E C O N C I L I AT I O N S TAT E M E N T
When a bank statement has been received, reconciliation of the two balances is carried out in the following way: step 1 step 2 step 3 step 4 step 5 The cashier will tick off the items that appear in both the cash book and the bank statement. The unticked items on the bank statement are entered into the bank columns of the cash book to bring it up to date. The bank columns of the cash book are now balanced to find the revised figure. The remaining unticked items from the cash book will be the timing differences. The timing differences are used to prepare the bank reconciliation statement (see below).

We will explain how this procedure is carried out in the Case Study which follows on the next page. First, however, we will revise what we have covered in this chapter so far by looking at a specimen bank reconciliation statement. Study the format shown below and the explanatory notes. Relate them to the text on the previous two pages.
CECILIA WHOLESALE LIMITED Bank Reconciliation Statement as at 31 October 2004 £ Balance at bank as per Cash Book Add: unpresented cheques Taverner Trading Company Puccini Partnership B Britten Ltd 60 100 80 add cheques that have been issued, but which are not on the bank statement start with the cash book balance, updated from the bank statement

£ 525

240 765

Less: outstanding lodgements

220 300 deduct any amounts paid in, but which are not on the bank statement

520 545

Balance at bank as per bank statement

this should agree with the final balance on the bank statement

252

Level 1 Bookkeeping

CASE STUDY

H U R S T & C O : B A N K R E C O N C I L I AT I O N S TAT E M E N T situation Carol works as a cashier for Hurst & Co., Solicitors. Her responsibilities include entering and maintaining the firm’s cash book and preparing a bank reconciliation statement at the end of the month. The firm’s cash book for July 2004 which Carol has just finished entering and balancing for the month end is shown below (Note: for the sake of clarity the cash and discount columns have been omitted.) A copy of the firm’s bank statement from the Star Bank Limited dated 31 July 2004 has just been received and is also illustrated. The numerical difference between the two is: Bank statement £903.00 minus cash book £641.70 = £261.30 This is the difference which Carol will have to ‘reconcile’. Carol now follows the five steps outlined on the previous page. Step 1 – tick off the items in both cash book and bank statement Carol ticks off the items that appear in both the cash book and the bank statement.

Hurst & Co – Cash Book RECEIPTS PAYMENTS

Date 2004 1 July 3 July 15 July 31 July

Details

Bank £

Date 2004

Details

Bank £

Balance b/d Kershaw Ltd Morris & Son Pott Bros

756.20 220.00 330.00 63.00

  

2 July 2 July 2 July 8 July 14 July 14 July 15 July 26 July 31 July

T Able Broad & Co Gee & Co Minter Ltd

004450 004451 004452 004453

50.00 130.00 10.00 27.50 89.00 49.00 250.00 122.00 641.70





Liverport City Council (DD) F D Jewell Kirk Ltd 004454 004455

   

Bond Insurance (SO) Balance c/d

1,369.20 31 July Balance b/d 641.70

1,369.20

bank reconciliation statements

253

STATEMENT

Star Bank PLC
23 Market Street Liverport LP1 6TG

Account Account Number Sheet Date
Date Details

Hurst & Co 79014456 17 31 July 2004
Debit Credit Balance

2004 01 July 04 July 09 July 14 July 16 July 19 July 24 July 26 July 30 July 31 July 31 July Balance Cheques 004450 004452 Liverport City Council (DD) Cheques 004455 Bond Insurance (SO) 004454 Bank charges Ricardo Limited (BGC) 250.00  122.00  49.00  12.95 179.75 50.00  10.00  89.00  330.00  220.00  756.20 976.20 926.20 916.20 827.20 1,157.20 907.20 785.20 736.20 723.25 903.00 Cr  Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr Cr

step 2 – update the cash book from the bank statement The unticked items on the bank statement indicate items that have gone through the bank account but have not yet been entered in Hurst & Co’s cash book. These are: Receipt 31 July BGC credit, Ricardo Limited Bank Charges £179.75 £12.95

Payment 31 July

Carol will now need to enter these items in the cash book to bring it up to date (see next page). The new entries are shown in darker type, the previous entries are in lighter type. step 3 – balance the cash book bank columns to produce an updated balance Carol now balances the bank columns of the cash book off again, as shown on the next page.

254

Level 1 Bookkeeping

Hurst & Co – Cash Book (extract) RECEIPTS PAYMENTS

Date 2004

Details

Bank £

Date 2004 31 July

Details

Bank £

Balance c/d

641.70

1,369.20 31 July 31 July Balance b/d Ricardo Limited (BGC) 641.70 179.75 821.45 1 Aug Balance b/d 808.50 31 July 31 July Bank Charges Balance c/d

1,369.20 12.95 808.50 821.45

The balance of the bank column now stands at £808.50. This still differs from the bank statement balance of £903.00. The numerical difference between the two is: Bank statement £903.00 minus cash book £808.50 = £94.50 This remaining difference is dealt with in the bank reconciliation statement.

step 4 – identify the remaining unticked items from the cash book There are some items that remain unticked in the cash book. These are: Receipt Payments 31 July 2 July 8 July Potts Bros Broad & Co (cheque no. 004451) Minter Ltd (cheque no. 004453) £63.00 £130.00 £ 27.50

These items should appear on next month’s bank statement and are timing differences. These are the items which will be required in the preparation of the bank reconciliation statement, which is Carol’s next step.

step 5 – preparation of the bank reconciliation statement The completed statement is shown on the next page. The stages followed in its completion are as follows: 1 enter the cash book balance The balance figure to use, as ‘per the cash book’, is the revised cash book balance after entering the items that appeared on the bank statement which had not previously been entered, ie £808.50

bank reconciliation statements

255

2

add unpresented cheques The unpresented cheques are the cheques that Hurst & Co has issued, but which have not yet been deducted from the firm’s bank account, probably because they have not yet been paid in by the suppliers. They are: Broad & Co (cheque no. 004451) Minter Ltd (cheque no. 004453) Total £130.00 £ 27.50 £157.50

The unpresented cheques totalling £157.50 are added to the cash book balance in the bank reconciliation statement, bringing the revised cash book balance to £966.00. They are added back to the cash book balance so that both the cash book and the bank account contain the same items. 3 deduct outstanding bank lodgement A ‘bank lodgement’ represents money, ie cheques and or cash, that has been received by a business, entered into the cash book and paid into the bank. In this case, however, the deposit has been made too late to appear on the firm’s bank statement, and so forms part of the difference, as an ‘outstanding’ lodgement. Here the bank lodgement of £63.00 is deducted in the bank reconciliation statement from the sub-total of £966.00, ie £966.00 – £63.00 = £903.00.

4

completing the reconciliation Now that all the outstanding items have been added or deducted, the recalculated balance on the bank reconciliation statement should be the same as the final bank statement balance. A comparison of the two show that they are

HURST & CO Bank Reconciliation Statement as at 31 July 2004 £ Balance at bank as per Cash Book Add: unpresented cheques Broad & Co Minter Ltd 130.00 27.50 157.50 966.00 Less: outstanding lodgement 63.00 £ 808.50

Balance at bank as per bank statement

903.00

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Level 1 Bookkeeping

DEALING WITH OVERDRAFTS

positive bank balances
In the Case Study and examples so far in this chapter we have dealt with bank reconciliation statements where the bank balance has been positive – ie there has been money in the bank account. We have also dealt with cash books which have shown that there there is money in the bank. A positive bank balance has been indicated by: • in the cash book – a debit (left-hand) brought down balance • a bank statement where the balance is followed by ‘CR’ – which to the bank and the customer means that there is money in the account (remember that the ‘credit’ column on the bank statement is used for payments into the account)

negative bank balances
Businesses sometimes have overdrafts at the bank. Overdrafts are where the bank account becomes negative and the business in effect borrows from the bank. This is shown: • in the cash book as a credit (right-hand) brought down balance • on the bank statement where the balance is followed by ‘DR’ (or sometimes by ‘OD’) – which to the bank and the customer means that there is an overdraft

reconciliation statements and overdrafts
If you want to show an overdraft on a bank reconciliation statement, you should treat it as a negative figure by placing it in brackets. As far as the calculation is concerned, it is simply a matter of using the minus key on the calculator. If in the Case Study earlier in this chapter, Hurst & Co had started the month with an overdraft of £808.50 (a credit balance in the cash book), you would key the following into the calculator (the black boxes represent the calculator keys):

– + – =

£808.50 £157.50 £63 produces a total of (£714.00)

Now look at how the bank reconciliation statement is set out on the next page, using brackets for negative figures (ie overdrafts).

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257

HURST & CO Bank Reconciliation Statement as at 31 July 2004 £ Balance at bank as per Cash Book Add: unpresented cheques Broad & Co Minter Ltd 130.00 27.50 157.50 (651.00) Less: outstanding lodgement an overdraft shown in brackets

£ (808.50)

63.00

Balance at bank as per bank statement

(714.00)

a bank reconciliation statement starting and ending with an overdraft

CHAPTER SUMMARY



The balance of the bank account in the cash book of a business is regularly compared with the balance on the bank statement to ensure that the accounting records of both the business and the bank contain the same transactions and that no errors have occurred. There are inevitably differences between the cash book balance and the bank statement balance. These are caused either by errors in the cash book or bank statement, or by timing differences between the two documents. Timing differences may arise from items recorded in the bank statement and not in the cash book, bank charges and bank giro credits, for example. Normally the cash book is updated when these items are identified on the bank statement. Other timing differences might arise from items recorded in the cash book and not on the bank statement, unpresented cheques and outstanding lodgements, for example. These items are recorded in a bank reconciliation statement which is a calculation explaining how the unpresented cheques and outstanding lodgements are causing the difference between the cash book and the bank statement balances.









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Level 1 Bookkeeping



The formula of the bank reconciliation statement commonly starts with the cash book: balance as per cash book plus less equals unpresented cheque outstanding lodgements balance as per bank statement



The bank reconciliation statement can also be used when the bank balance is an overdraft. In this case, the overdrawn balance is shown as a negative figure, enclosed in brackets.

bank reconciliation statement

KEY TERMS timing differences

a statement prepared to link the bank balance shown in the cash book with the balance shown on the bank statement discrepancies between the bank statement and the cash book that will be corrected over time, such as unpresented cheques and outstanding lodgements amounts that have been paid into the bank, but not yet recorded on the bank statement cheques that have been issued but have not yet been paid in and deducted from the account of the business

outstanding lodgements

unpresented cheques

STUDENT ACTIVITIES
NOTE: an asterisk (*) after the question number means that the answer to the question is given at the back of this book.

A blank bank reconciliation statement is reproduced on the next page and the format for setting out the cash book is shown below. You may photocopy these forms. Blank forms are also available for download from the resources sections of www.osbornebooks.co.uk CASH BOOK RECEIPTS Date 2004 Details Bank £ Date 2004 PAYMENTS Details Bank £

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259

name of business...........................................................................................................................................

Bank Reconciliation Statement as at ........................................................................

£

£

Balance at bank as per Cash Book

Add: unpresented cheque(s )

Less: outstanding lodgement(s) not yet entered on bank statement

Balance at bank as per bank statement

Note Negative bank balances (ie overdrafts) should be shown in brackets.

260

Level 1 Bookkeeping

14.1* You are a trainee accountant for Fern Limited, a small printing company. One of your tasks is to enter transactions in the company’s cash book, check the entries on receipt of the bank statement, update the cash book and make any amendments as necessary. You are then asked to prepare a bank reconciliation statement at the end of the month. The company’s cash book (showing the bank money columns only) and the bank statement are shown below. You are to: • • • • • • • Reconcile the cash book with the bank statement. Make the entries necessary to update the cash book. Balance the bank columns of the cash book and calculate the revised bank balance. Draw up or obtain a photocopy of a blank bank reconciliation statement. Start with the balance as per the cash book, list any unpresented cheques and sub-total on the reconciliation statement. Enter details of bank lodgements. Calculate the balance as per the bank statement and check your total against the bank statement for accuracy.

Fern Ltd – Cash Book CASH BOOK RECEIPTS Date 2004 1 Aug 1 Aug 5 Aug 8 Aug 10 Aug 18 Aug 27 Aug 30 Aug Balance b/d I Watts & Co B Rogers (BACS) E Shaw J Moore Ltd Simms Ltd Martin Black Davies Partners Details Bank £ 1,946 249 188 150 440 65 520 82 3,640 31 Aug Balance b/d 2,284 Date 2004 2 Aug 2 Aug 4 Aug 7 Aug 9 Aug 13 Aug 20 Aug 27 Aug 31 Aug DD Bell Insurance Harvey & Co Durose Ltd Motts Garage SO Rock Finance Hill Bros Ashleys Ltd DD Rates Balance c/d 200103 200104 200100 200101 200102 PAYMENTS Details Bank £ 75 206 315 211 120 22 137 270 2,284 3,640

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261

ALBION BANK 12 Market Street, Bury BU1 2GH Account Date Fern Limited 31 August 2004 Account no.

STATEMENT

78300582

Statement No. 16

Date 2004 1 Aug 2 Aug 4 Aug 4 Aug 5 Aug 8 Aug 9 Aug 12 Aug 12 Aug 20 Aug 27 Aug 30 Aug 31 Aug 31 Aug

Details

Debit

Credit

Balance

Balance Cheques Bell Insurance (DD) 200101 B Rogers (BACS) Cheques 200102 Cheques Rock Finance (SO) Cheques DD Rates Torr Bros (BGC) Bank Charges City Finance (SO) 55 1,000 270 92 120 65 211 440 75 315 188 150 249

1,946 2,195 2,120 1,805 1,993 2,143 1,932 2,372 2,252 2,317 2,047 2,139 2,084 1,084

CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR

262

Level 1 Bookkeeping

14.2* You are employed by Brooklyn Ltd as their cashier. Your main responsibility is to maintain the company’s cash book and prepare a bank reconciliation statement at the end of each month. The cash book (showing the bank money columns only) is set out below together with a copy of the bank statement for February 2004. You are to: • • • • • • • Reconcile the cash book with the bank statement. Make the entries necessary to update the cash book. Balance the bank columns of the cash book and calculate the revised bank balance. Draw up or obtain a photocopy of a blank bank reconciliation statement. Start with the balance as per the cash book, list any unpresented cheques and sub-total on the reconciliation statement. Enter details of bank lodgements. Calculate the balance as per the bank statement and check your total against the bank statement for accuracy.

Brooklyn Ltd – Cash Book CASH BOOK RECEIPTS Date 2004 1 Feb 1 Feb 4 Feb 8 Feb 13 Feb 20 Feb 28 Feb Balance b/d Worrall & Co Brindle’s (BGC) Robinson Ltd Moore & Cox (BGC) Riley & Co Howard Ltd 1,425 157 243 91 75 420 94 Details Bank Date 2004 1 Feb 1 Feb 3 Feb 9 Feb 9 Feb 10 Feb 16 Feb 23 Feb 27 Feb 28 Feb 2,505 28 Feb Balance b/d 705 Barton Bros SO Road Car Co R Jackson Ltd Spencer Partners Avery Computers DD Ajax Insurance Shanklin Garage Petty Cash White & Co Balance c/d 400464 400465 400466 400461 400462 400463 400460 98 50 540 42 490 300 110 50 120 705 2,505 PAYMENTS Details Bank

bank reconciliation statements

263

REGENCY BANK 10 The Parade, Cheltenham G12 6YG Account Date Brooklyn Limited 28 February 2004 Account no.

STATEMENT

29842943

Statement No. 35

Date 2004 1Feb 2 Feb 2 Feb 4 Feb 6 Feb 10 Feb 12 Feb 14 Feb 14 Feb 23 Feb 26 Feb 26 Feb 27 Feb 28 Feb

Details

Debit

Credit

Balance

Balance Cheques Road Car Co (SO) 400460 Brindle’s (BGC) Cheques Ajax Insurance (DD) Moore & Cox (BGC) 400463 Cheques Rates (DD) 400465 D Stead (BACS) Bank Charges 38 103 50 220 490 420 300 75 50 98 243 91 157

1,425 1,582 1,532 1,434 1,677 1,768 1,468 1,543 1,053 1,473 1,370 1,320 1,540 1,502

CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR

264

Level 1 Bookkeeping

14.3* As accounts assistant for O’Connor Limited your main task is to enter transactions into the company’s cash book, check the entries against the bank statement and prepare a monthly bank reconciliation statement. The cash book (showing the bank money columns only) and bank statement for October 2004 are set out below. You are to: • • • • • • • Reconcile the cash book with the bank statement. Make the entries necessary to update the cash book. Balance the bank columns of the cash book and calculate the revised bank balance. Draw up or obtain a photocopy of a blank bank reconciliation statement. Start with the balance as per the cash book, list any unpresented cheques and sub-total on the reconciliation statement. Enter details of bank lodgements. Calculate the balance as per the bank statement and check your total against the bank statement for accuracy.

O’Connor Limited – Cash Book CASH BOOK RECEIPTS Date 2004 1 Oct 4 Oct 8 Oct 11 Oct 11 Oct 12 Oct 20 Oct 25 Oct 31 Oct Balance b/d Allen Ltd (BACS) Mason & Moore Howard Limited Barrett & Bryson D Patel (BGC) Cohen & Co J McGilvery Balance c/d 2,521 620 27 48 106 301 58 209 604 4,494 1 Nov Balance b/d 1 Oct 4 Oct 5 Oct 8 Oct 13 Oct 14 Oct 22 Oct 25 Oct 30 Oct Details Bank Date PAYMENTS Details 2004 Sharp & Co Rent (SO) G Orwell Heath & Co Ellis & Son Kerr’s Garage J Choudrey Text Computers Rates (DD) 210526 210527 210528 210529 210530 210531 400 367 1,108 320 32 28 139 1,800 300 4,494 604 Bank

Astley Insurance (DD)

bank reconciliation statements

265

OAK BANK 99 Bank Chambers, Nottingham NG1 7FG Account Date O’Connor Limited 31 October 2004 Account no.

STATEMENT

06618432

Statement No. 45

Date 2004 1Oct 1 Oct 4 Oct 7 Oct 11 Oct 13 Oct 15 Oct 18 Oct 18 Oct 22 Oct 27 Oct 28 Oct 29 Oct 29 Oct 29 Oct

Details

Debit

Credit

Balance

Balance Sharp & Co (SO) Allen Ltd (BACS) 210526 Cheques D Patel (BGC) Cheques 210528 210527 Astley Insurance (DD) 210531 Bayley’s (BACS) Rates (SO) Bank Interest Bank Charges 300 53 45 320 1,108 139 1,800 114 367 154 301 27 400 620

2,521 2,121 2,741 2,374 2,528 2,829 2,856 2,536 1,428 1,289 511 397 697 750 795

CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR DR DR DR DR DR

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Level 1 Bookkeeping

14.4

You are the cashier of Chowda Trading Limited and have written up the firm’s cash book (bank money columns only) for the month of September 2004. You have also received the bank statement for the same period. You are to: • • • • • • • Reconcile the cash book with the bank statement. Make the entries necessary to update the cash book. Balance the bank columns of the cash book and calculate the revised bank balance. Draw up or obtain a photocopy of a blank bank reconciliation statement. Start with the balance as per the cash book, list any unpresented cheques and sub-total on the reconciliation statement. Enter details of bank lodgements. Calculate the balance as per the bank statement and check your total against the bank statement for accuracy.

Chowda Trading Limited – Cash Book CASH BOOK RECEIPTS Date 2004 1 Sept 6 Sept 8 Sept 10 Sept 16 Sept 20 Sept 27 Sept 28 Sept 28 Sept Rogers & Co Chapman Ltd F Sanderson (BACS) Booth (BACS) Rushton Associates I Campbell W Blake (BGC) Chapman Ltd Balance c/d 2,710 252 121 379 1,200 28 1,320 540 1,235 7,785 1 Oct Balance b/d 7,785 1,235 1 Sept 3 Sept 3 Sept 7 Sept 12 Sept 17 Sept 23 Sept 24 Sept Details Bank Date PAYMENTS Details 2004 Balance b/d Park Lane Garage 043173 Wages Otis Electronics Fraser & Co Beet & Malkin Rates (SO) 043174 043175 043176 043177 4,223 236 1,723 110 46 175 1,052 220 Bank

United Insurance (DD)

bank reconciliation statements

267

STAR BANK 16, South Parade, Offerton OF1 8BN Account Date Chowda Trading Limited 30 September 2004 Account no.

STATEMENT

77650017

Statement No. 16

Date 2004 1 Sept 6 Sept 6 Sept 7 Sept 7 Sept 9 Sept 13 Sept 14 Sept 14 Sept 17 Sept 17 Sept 17 Sept 23 Sept 28 Sept 28 Sept 28 Sept

Details

Debit

Credit

Balance

Balance 043174 043173 Cheque Cheque Sanderson (BACS) Booth (BACS) Bank Charges Bank Interest Cheque United Insurance (DD) 0043176 Cheque W Blake (BGC) Rates (SO) Hunt & Associates (BACS) 220 26 175 46 28 1,320 20 92 1,200 1,723 236 2,710 252 121 379

4,223 5,946 6,182 3,472 3,220 3,099 2,720 2,740 2,832 1,632 1,807 1,853 1,825 505 725 699

DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR…...

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...particularly strong in languages, participating in different competitions, aimed at checking English-language knowledge. At such contests, I was one of the top three students in my native city –Abovyan. During my school years I was appointed to be the monitor of the class due to my responsibility, leader qualities, good organizational skills, ability to work in team, and good relations with teachers, classmates. Now I am a student in the university after V. Brusov. The main subject of my studies was linguistics. I also study foreign languages. My first language is English. I study also Hindi and German. I have taken part many programs and competitions. Studying four years I have discovered a passion for languages, I enjoyed my English classes, in particular my Linguistics classes, and even though they were very general I found those topics relating to human languages extremely exciting. For instance, I realized that the study of Linguistics goes beyond understanding the structure of language, I came to realize that this would help to understand how the unconscious knowledge that humans have about languages works, and how languages differ from each other. I was particularly attracted to your Linguist position because of the job description of the languages used in your company. I am fluent and have excellent command of the following languages-which matches your job requirements perfectly: English and German. I believe I would be a good candidate for the position of Linguist......

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...English y the largest language by number of words; the Oxford English Dictionary lists 500,000 words, not including technical and scientific terms.[18][19] Contents [hide] * 1 Significance * 2 History * 3 Classification and related languages * 4 Geographical distribution * 4.1 Countries in order of total speakers * 4.2 Countries where English is a major language * 4.3 English as a global language * 4.4 Dialects and regional varieties * 4.5 Constructed varieties of English * 5 Phonology * 5.1 Vowels * 5.1.1 Notes * 5.2 Consonants * 5.2.1 Notes * 5.2.2 Voicing and aspiration * 5.3 Supra-segmental features * 5.3.1 Tone groups * 5.3.2 Characteristics of intonation—stress * 6 Grammar * 7 Vocabulary * 7.1 Number of words in English * 7.2 Word origins * 7.2.1 Dutch and Low German origins * 7.2.2 French origins * 8 Writing system * 8.1 Basic sound-letter correspondence * 8.2 Written accents * 9 Formal written English * 10 Basic and simplified versions * 11 See also * 12 References * 12.1 Notes * 12.2 Bibliography * 13 External links | [edit] Significance See also: English-speaking world and Anglosphere Modern English, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca,[20][21] is the......

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...COMPULSORY SUBJECT ENGLISH (801) Aims (English Language) To develop the ability to: • • • derive, infer and critically assess information through listening. express oneself by speaking individually, or in a discussion. read with comprehension drawing information directly or by inference from the text, through an understanding of grammar and structure, vocabulary and idiom. employ a variety of skills in writing : within a framework, using argument or imagination or note making and summarizing. • • use the English language for the purpose of study and social and cultural interaction. speak and write clearly and to the purpose, using appropriate grammar, vocabulary and idiom. Aims (Prescribed Texts) 1. To enjoy and appreciate literature through a critical study of selected literary works. 2. Through the study of literature: • • • approach an understanding of humanity. develop an interest in the thought and culture of the peoples of the world. develop the power of expression and a sense of aesthetic values. • CLASSES XI & XII There will be two papers as follows: Paper 1: English Language (3 hours) – 100 marks Paper 2: Prescribed Textbooks (3 hours) – 100 marks Paper 1: English Language (3 hours) Question One: A composition on one of a number of subjects. ...30 Marks Question Two: Directed writing (an article, a book/film review, speech and report writing or personal profile) based on suggested points...20 Marks Question Three: Short-answer questions to test grammar,......

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...English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] It is spoken as a first language by the majority populations of several sovereign states, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and a number of Caribbean nations; and it is an official language of almost 60 sovereign states. It is the third-most-common native language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish.[6] It is widely learned as a second language and is an official language of the European Union, many Commonwealth countries and the United Nations, as well as in many world organisations. English arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and what is now southeast Scotland. Following the extensive influence of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom from the 17th to mid-20th centuries through the British Empire, it has been widely propagated around the world.[7][8][9][10] Through the spread of American-dominated media and technology,[11] English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions.[12][13] Historically, English originated from the fusion of closely related dialects, now collectively termed Old English, which were brought to the eastern coast of Great Britain by Germanic settlers (Anglo-Saxons) by the 5th century; the word English is simply the modern spelling of englisc, the name of the Angles[14] and Saxons for......

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...Assignment 1: The Story of English "A English Speaking World" English as a world language has developed through different periods of time and in different places. English was and is still spoken in great numbers in countries across the world. English has branched out into different dialects, with slang included especially in the American form of English. English also bears a sort of social class, where those who speak English have a certain upper class appearance. It also creates a common language which helps business, economies and people connect better. It has become a dominant language and serves as a lingua franca for the world. The popularity of English has allowed the world to communicate at a higher efficiency when compared to a world with no dominate language. But his plan did not work and India along with China has seen an ever increasing number of people learning and speaking English. The popularity and necessity of English is seen in India government systems and everyday life. India's civil system is predominantly in English rather than Hindi. Out of 137 typist at a civil court, only one types in Hindi while the rest in English. This is necessary for smooth transactions to occur in India's systems, which we have seen from examples in class. Without a lingua franca, communication between India's different regions would be very difficult. In India there are 14 different variations of Hindi, with English as a common language miscommunication is......

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...10 Tips for speaking English 1. The first thing I would do after getting up every morning was to read the newspaper, front to back. It doesn’t matter which newspaper you subscribe to, as long as it is a major English-language paper, such as The Hindu, The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Indian Express, etc. While different people have different opinions on the quality of each paper, they are all more or less equally useful in getting to learn the language. It is also not necessary to read every page and article; it is time-consuming and, sometimes, boring. However, you should most definitely look for articles that interest you. 2. I bought a pocket dictionary. They are cheap, compact and useful. There were many words I came across on a day-to-day basis that I did not know, and carrying a pocket dictionary everywhere allowed me to look up these words immediately so that the matter would not slip off my mind later. 3. Once learned, I also made a conscious effort to use the words in conversation. This instilled the words in my head and I was able to draw on them whenever required. 4. I convinced some of my friends to come together and form something of a ‘study group’; we were all interested in learning English, and I figured it would make it easier and more fun for us to do it together. We met twice a week in the evening and discussed the words and phrases we had come across, suggested articles, magazines, and books to each other, etc. 5. Another thing my group of......

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...ourselves by only speaking English?” Will Hutton clarity how he think it´s important for the individual person and the English people to learn more than the language, which are their native language. He talk about how it´s important to speak a foreign language, especially to save the Britain´s future economic. By comparing England and America where he see same “xenophobia” culture, he indicate why American can have their attitude to foreign language while they can´t, like it´s saying in the text. In addition will Hutton see this as a lost interest in other countries from the youth, he discuss how that fact establish this unwillingness. The second text by David Hughes “Do we really need foreign language skills to flourish?” David Hughes thinks that the fluency in foreign language is a benefit for anyone, but he doesn´t see the importance in that, when the rest of the world is learning English. When David Hughes went to the Far East, he heard English spoken everywhere, and as he wrote it in the text. The third text by Susan Purcell “Saying Britons ´don’t do´ languages is a fallacy” explain why the discussion about the English language skills is far more nuances. Susan Purcell is comparing the text to the EU-countries with England. She is talking about how the other European Union countries compare their language and how English is the mandatory first foreign language in 13 of the EU´s member states. Over 90 % of children in European countries ‘schools learn English, like is......

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...English as Official Language of United States of America The English language is originated from the Germanic tribes language, which has its roots from England in the form of Old English also known as Anglo-Saxon and has evolved into todays Modern English as we know it. English has become one of the most spoken languages in world, and is ranked as the second most spoken language. English should be the official language of the United States of America. Considered as an international language, it is the most learned and studied language throughout the world. United States laws prohibit the use of any other languages other then English on military installation or in Department of Defense buildings when conducting official business. These are just two reason of why I believe English should be the official language of the United States. In the United States, there are approximately 300 languages other than English that are spoken at home. English should be made the official language of the United States because it will knock down the language barriers for immigrants and they will be more likely to prosper in this nation, even though this may be a difficult process to accomplish at first, for many poor immigrants. In New York City, New York there are approximately thirty-five household languages other then English. If each of these subcultures of New York City have no common language, then it would create over thirty-five separate cities unable to prosper as one. Being......

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...differences in spoken English ability resulting in different IELTS speaking scores – this knowledge provides the basis for this book. There are a number of IELTS speaking books on the market but this book aims to break new ground by focusing on how to prepare for and achieve a speaking score of 7 (or maybe higher). All of the skills and strategies presented in this book are typical of a high scoring speaking candidate. This book is intended for anyone who intends to take the IELTS test; it will also help learners of English improve their speaking skills. It is suitable for both classroom use and self-study. 2 Mat Clark – IELTS Speaking TABLE OF CONTENTS The Speaking Test in China ................................................................................................................. 5 1. Chinese Performance and the Reason ........................................................................ 5 2. The Real Reason ................................................................................................... 6 Two Different Speaking Systems ......................................................................................................... 9 1. The Economics of Language ................................................................................... 9 2. The Location of Key Information ............................................................................. 9 3. Summary of the Differences between Spoken English and Spoken......

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...Rembrandts in the world. artistic artistic skill-артистические способности; artistic taste-артистические наклонности benefactor, patron-благодетель, покровитель block (in/out) набрасывать вчерне to block in a picture (drawing) connoisseur (in/of) эксперт, expert (in) crayon 1) цветной карандаш; цветной мелок; пастель; 2) рисунок цветным карандашом, пастелью daub n плохая картина, мазня; v малевать dauber плохой художник depict v e. g. The drawing depicts a sleeping child. easel-станок exhibition-выставка art exhibition; special exhibition; permanent exhibition - постоянная выставка; one-man exhibition; centenary-столетняя/bicentenary exhibition; exhibition hall-выстовачный зал; exhibition of (e. g. English water-colours); (name of artist) exhibition: e. g. Theres going to be a Turner exhibition next month. When does the Turner exhibition open? to organize, arrange, hold, mount an exhibition master old masters 1) старые мастера, 2) картины старых мастеров masterpiece miniature in miniature - иниатюре; a portrait in miniature moderns современные художники nude (n, a)-обнаженная натура a study from the nude, to draw from the nude - писать с натуры, to see a model in the nude; a nude model (figure)-обнаженная модель, a nude male (female) model, the study of the nude form, to render the nude form, a semi-nude figure e. g. Famous nudes by famous painters. The picture is not......

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...English should continue to be the official language of India. English is used as the official language in India. Yes • English is one such language that is understood by people from different castes and states, and therefore deserves to be the official language of India. • If any other language is tried to make the official language, all the regional parties will start the battle of making the state level as official language of India. • If Hindi is given priority then it will create differences among the people who don’t speak it making them feel as second class citizens. • Region C forms an important part of India that got agitated when PM Modi used Hindi for its diplomatic talks.  • The use of English language is as per the requirement of being a part of globalization and there is nothing wrong in it. No • Forget about all the different castes and religions as Indians have their own national language that is Hindi, and that should only be the official language of India. • It is the duty of the government to take the measures so that people all over in India can read, write and speak in Hindi.  • Already Indian has adopted the western culture in many ways. If it continues there will be no personal or rather say national identity of India. • In this case, India should learn something from Pakistan who made the Urdu as their official language after the division of country. • The small little steps are the ways that will make sure that the...

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...HISTORY OF ENGLISH General Bambas, Rudolph C. The English Language: Its Origin and History. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1980.* Barber, Charles. The Story of Language. _____. The English Language: A Historical Introduction. (Cambridge Approaches to Linguistics). Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. Rpt. Cambridge UP-Canto, c. 2000.* (Rev. version of The Story of Language). Baugh, A. C. A History of the English Language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951. 1952. 1954. 1956. 2nd ed. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959. 1960. 1962. 1963. 1965. 1968. 1971. 1974. 1976. Baugh, A. C., and Thomas Cable. A History of the English Language. 3rd. ed: London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978.* _____. A History of the English Language. 4th ed. London: Routledge, 1993. 1993. 1994. 996. 1997. 2000. 2001. 2002. _____. A History of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Englewood Cliffs: Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2002; London: Routledge, 2002.* _____. A History of the English Language. London: Taylor and Francis-Routledge, 2010. Bex, Tony. "2. A (Very Brief) History of English." In Bex, Variety in Written English: Texts in Society /Societies in Text. (Interface). London: Routledge, 1996. 30-50.* Blake, Norman F. A History of the English Language. London: Macmillan, 1996. Rpt. Palgrave.* Bloomfield, M. W., and L. Newmark. A Linguistic Introduction to the History of English. New York: Knopf, 1963. _____. A Linguistic Introduction to the History of English.. Connecticut:......

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...“English should not become official” America is a country filled with many people with different language trying to get along. We live in a society made up and founded by immigrants. Looking at our society today, English shouldn’t become the official language of the U.S because, first of all it is unfair for others living here who have English as a second language or can speak little English. Second of all, it will limit certain people when it comes to finding a job because not everybody is capable of speaking, reading, or writing the English language correctly. Finally, it violates the terms our country was built on. If English becomes the official language of the U.S, people with English as a second language or with little English are put at a disadvantage. It’s a fact that our society is largely made of immigrants. Moreover, children who will be born in the U.S won’t be able to learn their parent’s native language. So it wouldn’t make any sense from the government to limit them because the government will need bilingual people. We take pride in our diversity, so when we limit our diversity, we put people here at a disadvantage. Additionally, there are certain people who don’t dedicate themselves to learn the English language. The reason is because they get employed by businesses that practice the same language. For instance, lots of Spanish immigrants only get to work in the Spanish community. Spanish is very much used in the United States, because they don’t develop......

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...George Orwell, "Politics and the English Language," 1946 [pic] Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language -- so the argument runs -- must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. The point is that the process is reversible. Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if......

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