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Economy Tingkatan 4

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
BAB 1 : PENGENALAN KEPADA EKONOMI AKTIVITI 1 : MASALAH EKONOMI/JENIS BARANG 1. Katakan anda mempunyai RM300 dan ingin membuat perkara-perkara berikut: Perkara Melancong ke Pulau Tioman Membeli radio Membeli basikal Membayar kursus komputer Daripada senarai di atas, anda dikehendaki (a) Menyusun pilihan daripada yang terbaik kepada yang seterusnya Pilihan 1 2 3 4 Perkara Harga [RM] 300 300 300 300

(b) Membincangkan kos lepas yang terlibat daripada pilihan yang terbaik. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

2.

Huraikan ciri-ciri barang di bawah dari sudut ekonomi: Ciri-ciri /barang Air sungai Air mineral Tali air

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 2 : MASALAH ASAS EKONOMI 1. Berdasarkan pernyataan berikut, nyatakan jenis masalah asas ekonomi yang berkaitan. Pernyataan Sebuah kilang makanan dan minuman telah merancang untuk mengeluarkan jus rambutan dalam tin untuk pengeluaran pada tahun depan Negara A yang mempunyai tingkat teknologi yang tinggi telah memutuskan untuk mengeluarkan kain dengan kaedah automasi. Bagi membantu keluarga miskin, kerajaan telah memutuskan untuk memberi buku teks secara percuma kepada murid-murid yang ibu bapanya berpendapatan kurang daripada RM1 500 sebulan. Syarikat Perumahan Jaya telah merancang untuk membina 100 unit rumah teres setingkat, 20 unit rumah teres dua tingkat dan 10 unit rumah kedai teres dua tingkat untuk projek perumahan fasa 1. Sektor swasta mengeluarkan barangan swasta dan kerajaan mengeluarkan barangan awam. Masalah asas ekonomi

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

2.

Muhamad Azwan ialah seorang pengurus di sebuah kilang baju. Untuk mencapai sasaran jualan sebanyak RM10 000, penolongnya telah mencadangkan dua pilihan seperti jadual yang berikut: Pilihan 1 Kanak-kanak RM25 Pilihan 2 Dewasa RM20 Masalah asas ekonomi

Jenis baju Harga sehelai Kos sehelai Buruh Mesin Pasaran Tempatan Antarabangsa

RM5 RM8 Jangkaan jualan 300 helai 500 helai

RM10 RM12 Jangkaan jualan 200 helai 300 helai

Berdasarkan jadual di atas, anda dikehendaki (a) Melengkapkan kolum masalah asas ekonomi. (b) Memberikan cadangan dan alasan anda kepada Muhamad Azwan tentang pilihan yang harus dibuat. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 2

EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 3 : SISTEM EKONOMI 1. Berdasarkan pernyataan berikut, nyatakan jenis sistem ekonomi yang berkaitan. Pernyataan Dalam sistem ini pengguna adalah ‘raja’, iaitu pengguna mempunyai kuasa keagungannya. Terdapat kerjasama antara pihak kerajaan dan swasta dalam pengeluaran barangan. Corak agihan adalah berdasarkan kuasa beli. Tiada subsidi atau bantuan akan diberikan kepada mereka yang memerlukan bantuan. Pemilikan sumber-sumber ekonomi adalah milikan mutlak Maha Kuasa. Pengguna tidak mempunyai pilihan langsung dalam sistem ekonomi ini. Motif untung wujud dalam sistem ini, namum unsur riba adalah tidak dibenarkan sekali. Individu tidak mempunyai daya usaha yang tinggi kerana motif untung tidak wujud dalam sistem ini. Sistem ekonomi

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

2.

Dalam teks kotak dibawah, terdapat 20 istilah, rangkai kata,atau perkataan yang berkaitan dengan topik sistem ekonomi. Cuba anda cari. N O P Q R S I T H O M E D E S I R E I M P A C T C P M A K S I M U M K A N S K E U N T U N G A N N A Q P E V A K S I M U O A N N K T I N K U N S A N M R O N K U A S A U P A S A R A N D A G G E R E D P S I P E A I R A J I N B E O R G U T A R H U K M U O N I B S N J A U H I D A O K E R A J A A N A R R O T N A U T I N T I V I O U R L D A D A L O B I 0 T E T J D E S S A R I N G I R U L U P A A K H G T H N S I A O U U M E T E R E L A D I R I L L U U A E S Q K H S R K T E R A J N I R I B A R A J K N N A I U A G I H A N A P E N D A P A T A N S M U A G E F I N K F U N M B A H D I L I G W N C E N M S A I O R O A O H K A L P B A R A N G O A W A M T E N O B R M J M O O M E T T R R A J A N G E L O I B G U U E A I O M M P D I N A O G O N O C E L S S E T T R L S A K I A U E T C B K U A S A O M U T L A K I U D Y N A N N U L U I I C I L I A R A N I A L O N H O A W V T N T V D U C P D I R E T I N R M U P S O G R I P A M E G D N G I A M A N C H O I O M E I U G A N U R E M I D D A L R O B N E T P C N R N S S E K T E A L V E B A S I B E A T A N T I N G G T E D A E L K I A D A U I H E B F R T R N D I S G E D C T R O D N Y I U N N A P I S A U S I O D A U N A T A D N N C A O C P E N G E L U A R T B O H N M K A P I T A L I S U B U N G I L A H S A Y A M A

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
BAB 2 : PENDAPATAN DAN PENGGUNAAN PENDAPATAN INDIVIDU AKTIVITI 1 : PEMILIHAN PEKERJAAN/FAKTOR PEMILIHAN PEKERJAAN Bahagikan kelas anda kepada tiga kumpulan dan sediakan kertas soal selidik untuk menemu duga murid-murid setingkatan anda mengikut format yang berikut: Jenis pekerjaan yang diminati mengikut keutamaan: (1) ________________________________ (2) ________________________________ (3) ________________________________ Tiga faktor yang diambil kira semasa pemilihan pekerjaan [tandakan / dalam kotak berkenaan dibawah] Upah wang Faedah sampingan Minat Suasana tempat kerja Kelayakan akademik dan kemahiran Jarak Prospek pekerjaan Keadaan ekonomi semasa Waktu bekerja Pengaruh keluarga Faktor-faktor lain Nyatakan :_________________________________________________________________________

Kemudian, tentukan jenis pekerjaan yang amat diminati dan faktor pemilihan pekerjaan yang paling diutamakan oleh murid-murid tingkatan 4.

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 2 : JENIS-JENIS PENDAPATAN INDIVIDU 3. Murid-murid diminta membuat kaji selidik tentang jenis-jenis pendapatan yang diterima oleh penjaga murid di kelas anda. Anda dikehendaki mengira bilangan penjaga murid yang diterima setiap jenis pendapatan dengan (a) Mengisikan jadual yang berikut dalam ruangan bilangan penjaga murid dan (b) Hitungkan peratus bilangan penjaga murid yang menerima setiap jenis pendapatan. Jenis Pendapatan Upah Faedah Sewa Untung Dividen Bayaran pindahan Jumlah Bilangan penjaga murid Peratus bilangan penjaga murid

100

4.

Jadual yang berikut menunjukkan upah wang yang diterima oleh Ranjit, Abdullah, Chan dan Rahimah pada tahun 2001 dan 2002. Tahun 2001 2002 Ranjit 1 000 1 100 Upah wang yang diterima (RM) Abdullah Chan 1 100 1 300 1 200 1 500

Rahimah 2 400 2 500

Jika harga purata barang pada tahun 2001 dan 2002 ialah RM50 dan RM55 masing-masing. (a) Hitungkan pendapatan benar masing-masing.

(b) Kenal pastikan pendapatan benar siapa yang mengalami keadaan berikut: Bertambah Menurun Tetap 5

EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 3 : SUMBER PENDAPATAN INDIVIDU 1. Jalankan suatu kaji selidik tentang sumber-sumber pendapatan yang diterima oleh penjaga murid-murid di kelas anda. Anda dikehendaki mencari jumlah penjaga yang menerima pendapatan daripad setiap sumber. (a) Lengkapkan jadual di bawah

Sumber pendapatan Bekerja sendiri Bekerja dengan orang lain Punca pendapatan lain Jumlah

Bilangan

(b) Kenal pasti sumber pendapatan yang manakah paling tinggi bilangannya dan terangkan sebabsebabnya. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Encik Nordin membuat suatu kajian tentang pendapatan isi rumah di Bandar Gajah. Hasil kajian tersebut adalah seperti dalam jadual di bawah: Pekerjaan Pesara Kakitangan kerajaan Bekerja di kilang baju Mengusahakan tanah sendiri Jurujual di pasar raya Peniaga Peratus 5 10 30 50 2 3

Berdasarkan kajian di atas, berapa peratuskah penduduk bandar itu bekerja dengan orang lain?

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 4 : PENGIRAAN CARUMAN KWSP Murid-murid dikehendaki mengumpul risalah dan mengambil data tentang kadar caruman dan kadar dividen daripada KWSP. Kemudian, bincang dalam kumpulan untuk membantu Encik Zakaria menyelesaikan masalahnya. Gaji bulanan Encik Zakaria pada tahun 2003 adalah RM2 000. Daripada jumlah pendapatan itu, Encik Zakaria dan majikannya mencarum kepada KWSP. (a) Berapakah jumlah caruman yang akan dikreditkan ke dalam akaun KWSP Encik Zakaria pada tahun 2003 berdasarkan data-data yang dikumpul?

(b) Andaikan Encik Zakaria hanya mencarum kepada KWSP pada tahun 2003 dan KWSP membahagikan kadar dividen yang sama pada akhir setiap tahun. Berapakah baki akaun KWSP pada akhir (i) Tahun 2004

(ii)

Tahun 2014 berdasarkan data-data yang sama.

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 5 : CUKAI PENDAPATAN PERSEORANGAN Murid dikehendaki mengumpul maklumat daripada penjaga masing-masing bagi melengkapkan Borang Taksiran Cukai. Selepas melengkapkan borang tersebut, hitungkan cukai pendapatan penjaga anda agar muridmurid lebih memahami proses pengiraan cukai.

AKTIVITI 6 : BELANJAWAN PERIBADI 1. Murid-murid diminta mengumpulkan maklumat daripada ahli keluarga masing-masing tentang pendapatan dan perbelanjaan sebulan dan kemudian menyediakan satu belanjawan peribadi keluarga dalam bentuk jadual. Anda digalakkan menggunakan bantuan lembaran hamparan.

2.

Bincangkan secara berkumpulan tentang kes yang berikut: Encik Bakar seorang pegawai bank. Isterinya suri rumah tangga dan dua orang anaknya masih belajar di sekolah rendah. Pendapatan boleh guna Encik Bakar dalam satu bulan ialah RM3 000.

Senaraikan jenis-jenis perbelanjaan yang harus dibuat oleh keluarga Encik Bakar untuk satu bulan dan kemudian sediakan belanjawan peribadi Encik Bakar.

AKTIVITI 7 : TABUNGAN, PINJAMAN DAN PELABURAN 1. Melalui enjin pencarian (search engine) atau risalah-risalah institusi kewangan, anda diminta untuk mendapatkan maklumat tentang tabungan, pinjaman, dan pelaburan. Anda digalakkan agar bekerjasama dalam kumpulan bagi menyenaraikan kebaikan dan keburukan bagi (i) Tabungan Kebaikan Keburukan

2.

(ii) Pinjaman Kebaikan Keburukan

(iii) Pelaburan pada masa lampau berbanding dengan masa kini Kebaikan

Keburukan

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
BAB 3 : ISI RUMAH SEBAGAI PENGGUNA AKTIVITI 1 : ISI RUMAH /OBJEKTIF PENGGUNAAN ISI RUMAH 1. Jalankan suatu kaji selidik tentang bilangan ahli dalam setiap isi rumah murid dalam kelas anda. Anda dikehendaki mengira bilangan dan peratus setiap kategori isi rumah dengan mengisikan jadual yang berikut: Bilangan ahli isi rumah Kurang daripada 3 3 4 5 6 7 Lebih daripada 7 Bilangan isi rumah Peratusan

2.

(a) Terangkan ciri-ciri isi rumah. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(b) Objektif penggunaan isi rumah ialah mencapai kepuasan yang maksimum. Bagaimanakah isi rumah dapat mencapai kepuasan maksimum? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.

Anda mempunyai RM1 yang boleh digunakan untuk membeli nasi lemak atau minuman. Apakah barang yang hendak dibeli jika anda diberi pilihan selepas menjalani latihan sukan? Berikan juga sebab-sebb anda membuat pilihan itu. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9

EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 2 : KONSEP PERMINTAAN/KELUK PERMINTAAN/PENENTU PERMINTAAN 1. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan harga dan kuantiti diminta untuk udang. Harga (RM) 3 6 9 12 15 Berdasarkan maklumat di atas, (a) Lukiskan keluk permintaan untuk udang Kuantiti diminta (kg) 40 32 24 16 8

10

EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
(b) Huraikan sifat-sifat keluk permintaan yang dilukiskan dalam (a) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. Berdasarkan pernyataan tentang permintaan kereta Proton Waja yang berikut, nyatakan sama ada permintaan kereta Proton Waja akan ‘meningkat’ atau ‘menurun’. Pernyataan Disebabkan oleh penurunan kadar pertukaran Yen, harga kereta Proton Waja juga akan menurun. Disebabkan oleh penurunan kos pengeluaran, harga jualan kereta Honda diturunkan sebanyak 20% Pendapatan per kapita rakyat Malaysia telah meningkat daripada RM10 500 pada tahun 2001 kepada RM11 200 pada tahun 2002 Harga sebuah Proton Waja akan meningkat sebanyak 10% tiga bulan kemudian. Perayaan Tahun Baru Cina dan Hari Raya Aidilfitri akan diadakan serentak dua bulan kemudian. Jawapan

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 3 : PENGIRAAN KEANJALAN HARGA PERMINTAAN/ JENIS KEANJALAN HARGA PERMINTAAN 1. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan tindak balas kuantiti diminta terhadap perubahan dalam harga untuk 6 jenis barang. Anda dikehendaki melengkapkan ruangan kosong untuk jadual di bawah: Jenis barang Epal Beras Petrol Kereta Baju Kasut Peratus perubahan harga 10 20 30 15 Peratus perubahan kuantiti 20 5 Keanjalan [Ed]

20 15

2 4 5 3

2.

Jadual di bawah menunjukkan harga dan kuantiti yang diminta untuk ikan. Harga (RM) 10 12 14 16 18 Kuantiti diminta (Kg) 50 40 32 28 23

Berdasarkan maklumat di atas, hitungkan dan tentukan jenis keanjalan untuk setiap keadaan yang berikut: (a) Harga berubah daripada RM10 kepada RM12

(b) Harga berubah daripada RM12 kepada RM16

(c) Harga berubah daripada RM18 kepada RM14

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
3. Keluk di bawah menunjukkan harga dan kuantiti diminta untuk suatu barang.

Berdasarkan keluk di atas, hitungkan keanjalan harga permintaan jika: (a) Harga berubah daripada RM5 kepada RM8

(b) Harga berubah daripada RM10 kepada RM8

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 4 : JENIS KEANJALAN HARGA PERMINTAAN DAN STRATEGI HARGA 1. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan harga dan kuantiti diminta untuk barang A, barang B, barang C dan barang D. Harga [RM] 5.00 6.50 Kuantiti diminta untuk Barang B Barang C 10 10 8 6

Barang A 10 10

Barang D 10 7

Berdasarkan jadual di atas, jawab soalan-soalan berikut: (a) Hitungkan keanjalan harga permintaan untuk empat jenis barang di atas, jika harga berubah daripada RM5.00 kepada RM6.50

(b) Barang yang manakah mempunyai keanjalan harga permintaan seperti berikut: (i) (ii) (iii) Anjal Tidak anjal Anjal satu ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

(c) Antara barang di atas, yang manakah merupakan (i) (ii) Barang mewah? ____________________ Barang mesti? ____________________

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
Barang Beras Jam tangan Gula Kereta 2. Peratus perubahan harga 10 20 30 15 Peratus perubahan kuantiti 2 150 30 60

Berdasarkan jadual di atas, murid-murid dikehendaki berbincang secara berkumpulan untuk menjawab soalan-soalan di bawah. (a) Hitungkan keanjalan harga permintaan untuk setiap jenis barang.

(b) Jika seorang penjual bertujuan untuk memaksimumkan keuntungan, apakah strategi harga yang perlu diambil terhadap barang berikut: (i) Beras ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Jam tangan ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

(ii)

(iii) Gula ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 15

EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
BAB 4 : FIRMA SEBAGAI PENGELUAR AKTIVITI 1 : INPUT/ JANGKA MASA PENGELUARAN/ FUNGSI PENGELUARAN 1. Bincangkan kes yang berikut secara berkumpulan. Encik Jaya mempunyai sebuah kilang yang ingin digunakan untuk mengeluarkan kemeja-T dan seluar panjang. Kedua-dua produk akan dieksport ke pasaran Eropah.

(a) Senaraikan tiga jenis input tetap dan input berubah yang diperlukan oleh Encik Jaya untuk pengeluaran tersebut. Input tetap Input berubah

(b) Terangkan jawapan (a) bagi setiap jenis input untuk menyokong jawapan anda. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

2.

Jadual yang berikut menunjukkan jadual pengeluaran sebuah firma. Input tetap (unit) 20 20 20 20 20 20 Input berubah (unit) 1 2 3 4 6 9 16 Jumlah keluaran (unit) 5 12 20 30 48 72

EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
Jawab soalan-soalan yang berikut berdasarkan jadual di atas. (a) Apakah jangka masa pengeluaran firma ini? ___________________________________________________________________________________ (b) Hitungkan keluaran purata pada input berubah: (i) 2 unit (ii) 6 unit

(c) Hitungkan keluaran sut untuk input berubah: (i) Ke-3 (ii) Ke-9

Selepas menjawab soalan ini, bandingkan jawapan anda dengan murid-murid lain.

3.

Lengkapkan jadual di bawah. Buruh (orang) Keluaran sut (Kg) Jumlah keluaran (Kg) 0 1 4 2 6 3 5 4 3 5 1 6 0 7 -1

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 2 : KOS PENGELUARAN 1. Bincangkan secara berkumpulan untuk kes yang berikut: Syarikat ABC ialah sebuah kilang perabot yang mempunyai modal dibayar RM10 juta. Syarikat ini juga meminjam daripada Maybank Berhad sebanyak RM2 juta yang dikenakan faedah 5% setahun sebagai modal kerja. Kilang perabot syarikat ini disewa daripada Syarikat Sempurna Berhad. Syarikat ini juga menggunakan bahan mentah tempatan dan jentera yang diimport daripada Jerman. Syarikat ini mempunyai 2 orang kerani dan 50 orang operator kilang. Untuk melindungi daripada risiko kebakaran, syarikat ini menginsuranskan premisnya dengan syarikat insurans. Setiap bulan syarikat ini membayar bil elektrik lebih kurang RM20 000. Berdasarkan kes di atas, senaraikan kos tetap dan kos berubah bagi Syarikat ABC. Kos tetap Kos berubah

2.

Jadual di bawah menunjukkan kos pengeluaran sebuah firma: Output (unit) 0 1 2 3 4 5 Jumlah kos (RM) 100 120 150 190 225 255 Kos tetap (RM) Kos berubah (RM) Kos purata (RM) Kos sut (RM)

Jawab soalan-soalan yang berikut berdasarkan jadual di atas. (a) Lengkapkan kolum untuk kos tetap, kos berubah, kos purata, dan kos sut. (b) Pada output yang berapakah kos sut adalah minimum?

(c) Kos yang manakah semakin menurun apabila output meningkat?

Anda boleh membincangkan jawapan yang diperoleh dengan rakan sekelas selepas mencuba soalansoalan tersebut.

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 3 : PENAWARAN Bahagikan kelas anda kepada empat kumpulan, iaitu (a) Kumpulan A sebagai penjual roti (b) Kumpulan B sebagai penjual buah-buahan (c) Kumpulan C sebagai penjual telefon bimbit (d) Kumpulan D sebagai penjual kereta Anda perlu memainkan peranan sebagai penjual dan membuat keputusan tentang kuantiti barang yang akan dijual pada pelbagai tingkat harga tertentu.

AKTIVITI 4 : KEANJALAN HARGA PENAWARAN Murid-murid dikehendaki berbincang secara berkumpulan untuk menyelesaikan masalah-masalah yang berikut: (a) Berikan definasi keanjalan harga penawaran. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ (b) Senaraikan dua barang atau perkhidmatan yang mempunyai keanjalan harga penawaran: Anjal 1. 2. 1. 2. Tidak anjal

Barang Kasut Terung Jam Buah durian Kereta

Peratus perubahan harga 0.5 20 30 15 30

Peratus perubahan kuantiti 20 15 90 10 30

(c) Berdasarkan jadual di atas, hitungkan keanjalan harga penawaran bagi barang-barang yang diberikan.

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
(d) Kumpulkan barang-barang yang mempunyai keanjalan harga penawaran mengikut jadual dibawah: Keanjalan Anjal Tidak anjal Anjal uniti Barang

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EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
BAB 5 : PASARAN AKTIVITI 1 : PERMINTAAN PASARAN/PENAWARAN PASARAN 1. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan permintaan dua orang individu dan penawaran dua buah firma. Harga [RM] 2 4 6 8 10 Kuantiti diminta Individu A Individu B 9 11 7 9 5 7 3 5 1 3 Kuantiti ditawarkan Firma X Firma Y 3 1 5 3 7 5 9 7 11 9

(a) Tentukan permintaan pasaran dan penawaran pasaran. Harga [RM] 2 4 6 8 10 Harga [RM] 2 4 6 8 10 Kuantiti diminta Individu A Individu B 9 11 7 9 5 7 3 5 1 3 Kuantiti ditawarkan Firma X Firma Y 3 1 5 3 7 5 9 7 11 9 Permintaan Pasaran

Penawaran Pasaran

(b) Lukis keluk permintaan pasaran dan keluk penawaran pasaran pada kertas graf. (c) Labelkan: (i) Titik keseimbangan (E) (ii) Harga keseimbangan (P) (iii) Kuantiti keseimbangan (Q) (d) Bagaimanakah keadaan pasaran apabila harga berada pada RM2 dan RM8 masing-masing? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 21

EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
2. Fungsi permintaan dan fungsi penawaran bagi suatu barang ialah Qd = 250 – 4P dan Qs = 200 + 6P masingmasing, di mana Qd = kuantiti diminta, Qs = kuantiti ditawarkan,dan P = harga. (a) Lengkapkan jadual di bawah: P (RM) 3 4 5 6 7 Qd (unit) Qs (unit)

(b) Berapakah harga dan kuantiti keseimbangan?

(c) Hitungkan jumlah lebihan permintaan atau lebihan penawaran pada tingkat harga RM4 dan RM6.

22

EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 2 : PASARAN BURUH 1. Bahagikan kelas anda kepada lima kumpulan untuk mengkaji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi upah dan kuantiti keseimbangan pasaran buruh seperti disenaraikan berikut: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 2. Kesatuan sekerja Taraf pendidikan Jantina Pengalaman Jenis pekerjaan

Jadual di bawah menunjukkan permintaan pasaran buruh dan penawaran pasaran buruh pada pelbagai tingkat upah. Upah sehari (RM) 10 20 30 40 50 Berdasarkan jadual di atas, (a) Lukis keluk permintaan pasaran buruh dan keluk penawaran pasaran buruh pada kertas graf. (b) Tandakan titik keseimbangan pasaaran (E), kuantiti buruh keseimbangan (Q), dan upah keseimbangan (W) pada kertas graf yang sama. (c) Bagaimanakah keadaan pasaran apabila tingkat upah berada pada RM10 dan RM50 masing-masing? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 23 Kuantiti buruh (orang) Diminta Ditawarkan 25 5 20 10 15 15 10 20 5 25

EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
3. Berdasarkan maklumat yang diberi di bawah, anda dikehendaki melengkapkan berikut: Upah Sejam (RM) Permintaan buruh DLDL (orang) Penawaran buruh SLSL (orang) 0 4 Keadaan pasaran DLDL > SLSL DLDL < SLSL DLDL = SLSL Tindak balas upah Upah naik Upah turun Upah tetap Implikasi DLDL naik DLDL turun DLDL tetap SLSL turun SLSL naik SLSL tetap

2 4 6 8 10 Maklumat :

10 8 4

(a) Pada tingkat upah RM2 sejam, lebihan permintaan buruh adalah sebanyak 14 orang. (b) Pada tingkat upah RM6 sejam, keluk permintaan bersilang dengan keluk penawaran. (c) Pada tingkat upah RM8 sejam, kuantiti buruh yang diminta kurang daripada kuantiti buruh yang ditawarkan sebanyak 6 orang. (d) Pada tingkat upah RM10 sejam, tiada buruh diminta dan terdapat lebihan penawaran sebanyak 14 orang.

24

EKONOMI ASAS /BUKU AKTIVITI/TINGKATAN 4
AKTIVITI 3 : ALIRAN PUSINGAN PENDAPATAN 1. Bahagikan kelas kepada 3 kumpulan dan guru dikehendaki menyediakan label-label berikut dalam bilangan yang ditetapkan: Pasaran barangan (2) Pasaran faktor (3) Sektor firma (3) Faktor-faktor pengeluaran (2) Perbelanjaan penggunaan (2) TBMU (2) Pendapatan (2) USFU (2) Sektor isi rumah (3) Hasil (2) Barang dan perkhidmatan (4)

Seterusnya, guru dikehendaki meletakkan rajah aliran pusingan pendapatan yang kosong di tiga stesen dan murid dikehendaki melengkapkan rajah tersebut. Setiap stesen harus menggambarkan satu aliran, iaitu Stesen 1 Stesen 2 Stesen 3 : Aliran fizikal : Aliran wang : Aliran fizikal dan aliran wang

2.

Lukis rajah aliran pusingan pendapatan dengan merujuk pendapatan dan perbelanjaan keluarga anda.

25…...

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