Free Essay

Early Life and Education

In: Other Topics

Submitted By somudro
Words 4963
Pages 20
Early life and education

Early years

Muhammad Yunus at Chittagong Collegiate School, while visiting the school in 2003.
The third of nine children,[10] Yunus was born on 28 June 1940 to a Muslim family in the village of Bathua, by the Boxirhat Road in Hathazari, Chittagong, in the British Raj (modern Bangladesh).[11][12] His father was Hazi Dula Mia Shoudagar, a jeweler, and his mother was Sufia Khatun. His early childhood years were spent in the village. In 1944, his family moved to the city of Chittagong, and he was shifted to Lamabazar Primary School from his village school.[11][13] By 1949, his mother was afflicted with psychological illness.[12] Later, he passed the matriculation examination from Chittagong Collegiate School securing the 16th position among 39,000 students in East Pakistan.[13] During his school years, he was an active Boy Scout, and traveled to West Pakistan and India in 1952, and to Canada in 1955 to attend Jamborees.[13] Later when Yunus was studying at Chittagong College, he became active in cultural activities and won awards for drama acting.[13] In 1957, he enrolled in the department of economics at Dhaka University and completed his BA in 1960 and MA in 1961.

After graduation

Following his graduation, Yunus joined the Bureau of Economics as a research assistant to the economical researches of Professor Nurul Islam and Rehman Sobhan.[13] Later he was appointed as a lecturer in economics in Chittagong College in 1961.[13] During that time he also set up a profitable packaging factory on the side.[12] He was offered a Fulbright scholarship in 1965 to study in the United States. He obtained his PhD in economics from Vanderbilt University in the United States through the graduate program in Economic Development (GPED) in 1971.[14] From 1969 to 1972, Yunus was an assistant professor of economics at Middle Tennessee State University in Murfreesboro, TN.
During the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, Yunus founded a citizen's committee and ran the Bangladesh Information Center, with other Bangladeshis living in the United States, to raise support for liberation.[13] He also published the Bangladesh Newsletter from his home in Nashville. After the War, Yunus returned to Bangladesh and was appointed to the government's Planning Commission headed by Nurul Islam. He found the job boring and resigned to join Chittagong University as head of the Economics department.[15] He became involved with poverty reduction after observing the famine of 1974, and established a rural economic program as a research project. In 1975, he developed a Nabajug (New Era) Tebhaga Khamar (three share farm) which the government adopted as the Packaged Input Programme.[13] In order to make the project more effective, Yunus and his associates proposed the Gram Sarkar (the village government) programme.[16] Introduced by then president Ziaur Rahman in late 1970s, the Government formed 40,392 village governments (gram sarkar) as a fourth layer of government in 2003. On 2 August 2005, in response to a petition filed by Bangladesh Legal Aids and Services Trust (BLAST) the High Court had declared Gram Sarkar illegal and unconstitutional.[17]

Early career

Main article: Grameen Bank
Further information: Grameen family of organizations
Grameen Bank Head Office at Mirpur-2, Dhaka
In 1976, during visits to the poorest households in the village of Jobra near Chittagong University, Yunus discovered that very small loans could make a disproportionate difference to a poor person. Jobra women who made bamboo furniture had to take out usurious loans for buying bamboo, to pay their profits to the moneylenders. His first loan, consisting of US$27.00 from his own pocket, was made to 42 women in the village, who made a net profit of BDT 0.50 (US$0.02) each on the loan. Accumulated through many loans, this vastly improving Bangladesh's ability to export and import as it did in the past, resulting in a greater form of globalization and economic status.[citation needed][11]
Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan, founder of the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development (now Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development), is credited alongside Yunus for pioneering the idea.[18] From his experience at Jobra, Yunus, an admirer of Dr. Hameed,[18] realized that the creation of an institution was needed to lend to those who had nothing.[19] While traditional banks were not interested in making tiny loans at reasonable interest rates to the poor due to high repayment risks,[20] Yunus believed that given the chance the poor will repay the borrowed money and hence microcredit could be a viable business model.
Yunus finally succeeded in securing a loan from the government Janata Bank to lend it to the poor in Jobra in December 1976. The institution continued to operate by securing loans from other banks for its projects. By 1982, the bank had 28,000 members. On 1 October 1983 the pilot project began operations as a full-fledged bank and was renamed the Grameen Bank (Village Bank) to make loans to poor Bangladeshis. Yunus and his colleagues encountered everything from violent radical leftists to the conservative clergy who told women that they would be denied a Muslim burial if they borrowed money from the Grameen Bank.[12] As of July 2007, Grameen Bank has issued US$ 6.38 billion to 7.4 million borrowers.[21] To ensure repayment, the bank uses a system of "solidarity groups". These small informal groups apply together for loans and its members act as co-guarantors of repayment and support one another's efforts at economic self-advancement.[16]
The Grameen Bank started to diversify in the late 1980s when it started attending to unutilized or underutilized fishing ponds, as well as irrigation pumps like deep tubewells.[22] In 1989, these diversified interests started growing into separate organizations, as the fisheries project became Grameen Motsho (Grameen Fisheries Foundation) and the irrigation project became Grameen Krishi (Grameen Agriculture Foundation).[22] Over time, the Grameen initiative has grown into a multi-faceted group of profitable and non-profit ventures, including major projects like Grameen Trust and Grameen Fund, which runs equity projects like Grameen Software Limited, Grameen CyberNet Limited, and Grameen Knitwear Limited,[23] as well as Grameen Telecom, which has a stake in Grameenphone (GP), biggest private sector phone company in Bangladesh.[24] The Village Phone (Polli Phone) project of GP has brought cell-phone ownership to 260,000 rural poor in over 50,000 villages since the beginning of the project in March 1997.[25]
The success of the Grameen model of microfinancing has inspired similar efforts in a hundred countries throughout the developing world and even in industrialized nations, including the United States.[26] Many, but not all, microcredit projects also retain its emphasis on lending specifically to women. More than 94% of Grameen loans have gone to women, who suffer disproportionately from poverty and who are more likely than men to devote their earnings to their families.[27] For his work with the Grameen Bank, Yunus was named an Ashoka: Innovators for the Public Global Academy Member in 2001.[28] In the book,[29] Grameen Social Business Model, Rashidul Bari shows how Grameen Social Business Model(GSBM)- has gone from being theory to become an inspiring practice adopted by leading universities (e.g., Glasgow), entrepreneurs (e.g., Franck Riboud) and corporations (e.g., Danone) across the globe. Through Grameen Bank, Rashidul Bari claims that Yunus demonstrated how Grameen Social Business Model can harness the entrepreneurial spirit to empower poor women and alleviate their poverty. One of the conclusions of Yunus' concepts is that the poor are like a “bonsai tree,” and they can do big things if they get access to the social business that holds the potential to empower them to become self-sufficient.


Main article: List of awards received by Muhammad Yunus
Muhammad Yunus was awarded the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize, along with Grameen Bank, for their efforts to create economic and social development. In the prize announcement The Norwegian Nobel Committee mentioned:[2]
Muhammad Yunus at the Grand Hotel in Oslo, Norway
Muhammad Yunus has shown himself to be a leader who has managed to translate visions into practical action for the benefit of millions of people, not only in Bangladesh, but also in many other countries. Loans to poor people without any financial security had appeared to be an impossible idea. From modest beginnings three decades ago, Yunus has, first and foremost through Grameen Bank, developed micro-credit into an ever more important instrument in the struggle against poverty.
Muhammad Yunus was the first Bangladeshi to ever get a Nobel Prize. After receiving the news of the important award, Yunus announced that he would use part of his share of the $1.4 million award money to create a company to make low-cost, high-nutrition food for the poor; while the rest would go toward setting up an eye hospital for the poor in Bangladesh.[30]
Former U.S. president Bill Clinton was a vocal advocate for the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Muhammed Yunus. He expressed this in Rolling Stone magazine[31] as well as in his autobiography My Life.[32] In a speech given at University of California, Berkeley in 2002, President Clinton described Dr. Yunus as "a man who long ago should have won the Nobel Prize [and] I’ll keep saying that until they finally give it to him."[33] Conversely, The Economist stated explicitly that Yunus was a poor choice for the award, stating: "...the Nobel committee could have made a braver, more difficult, choice by declaring that there would be no recipient at all."[34]
Muhammad Yunus at the Annual Meeting 2009 of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.
He is one of only seven persons to have won the Nobel Peace Prize, Presidential Medal of Freedom,[35] and the Congressional Gold Medal.[36] Other notable awards include the Ramon Magsaysay Award in 1984,[37] the World Food Prize,[38] the International Simon Bolivar Prize (1996),[39] the Prince of Asturias Award for Concord[40] and the Sydney Peace Prize in 1998,[41] and the Seoul Peace Prize in 2006. Additionally, Dr. Yunus has been awarded 50 honorary doctorate degrees from universities across 20 countries, and 113 international awards from 26 different countries including state honours from 10 countries.[42] Bangladesh government brought out a commemorative stamp to honor his Nobel Award.[43]
Professor Yunus was named by Fortune Magazine in March 2012 as one of 12 greatest entrepreneurs of the current era.[44] In its citation, Fortune Magazine said ″Yunus' idea inspired countless numbers of young people to devote themselves to social causes all over the world.″
In January 2012, Professor Yunus featured in "Transformative Entrepreneurs: How Walt Disney, Steve Jobs, Muhammad Yunus and Other Innovators Succeeded" a book by Jeffrey Harris[disambiguation needed].[45]
Professor Yunus was named "Nobel-Laureate-in-Residence" at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (National University of Malaysia) on 15 July 2011.[46]
Professor Yunus delivered the Seventh Nelson Mandela Annual Lecture.[47]
In January 2008, Houston, Texas declared 14 January as "Muhammad Yunus Day".[48]
On 15 May 2010, Yunus gave the commencement speech at Rice University for the graduating class of 2010. On 16 May 2010, Yunus gave the commencement speech at Duke University for the graduating class of 2010. During this ceremony, he was also awarded an honorary degree, Doctor of Humane Letters.
Professor Yunus was invited and gave the Wharton School of Business commencement address on 17 May 2009,[49] the MIT commencement address on 6 June 2008,[50] Adam Smith Lecture at Glasgow University on 1 December 2008[51] and Oxford's Romanes Lecture on 2 December 2008.[52]
He received the Dwight D. Eisenhower Medal for Leadership and Service from the Eisenhower Fellowships at a ceremony in Philadelphia on 21 May 2009. He was also voted 2nd in Prospect Magazine's 2008 global poll of the world's top 100 intellectuals.[53]
Yunus was named among the most desired thinkers the world should listen to by the FP 100 (world's most influential elite) in the December 2009 issue of Foreign Policy magazine.[54] On 1 March 2010, Yunus was awarded the prestigious Presidential Award from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. This is the highest honor available from the University.
Muhammad Yunus with Brazilian President Lula Da Silva in 2008 after winning Nobel Peace Prize.
A documentary on Yunus' work titled To Catch a Dollar was shown at the 2010 Sundance Film Festival and is due to be released in theaters in the US on September 2010.
In 2010, The British Magazine New Statesman Listed Muhammad Yunus at 40th in the list of "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures 2010".[55]
In October 2010, He received the Social Entrepreneur of the Year Award at The Asian Awards[56]
On 22 September 2011 the documentary film, "Bonsai People – The Vision of Muhammad Yunus", the first documentary film that looks his full body of work from microcredit to social business, premiered at the United Nations.
Yunus received 50 honorary doctorate degrees from universities from Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Costa Rica, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Lebanon, Malaysia, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, UK, USA and Peru.[57]
United Nations Secretary General, Ban Ki-Moon, invited Professor Yunus to serve as an MDG Advocate. Professor Yunus sits on the Board of United Nations Foundation, Schwab Foundation, Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, Grameen Credit Agricole Microcredit Foundation. He has been a member of Fondation Chirac's honour committee,[58] ever since the foundation was launched in 2008 by former French president Jacques Chirac in order to promote world peace.
Professor Yunus has appeared on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and The Oprah Winfrey Show in 2006, The Colbert Report in 2008, Real Time with Bill Maher in 2009 and The Simpsons in 2010.
On Google+, Professor Yunus is one of the most followed person worldwide, with over 1.7 million followers.[59]
In 2012 Yunus was installed as Chancellor of Glasgow Caledonian University[60]

Political activity

Muhammad Yunus at a book signing at the London School of Economics with a masters student.
See also: Nagorik Shakti
In early 2006 Yunus, along with other members of the civil society including Professor Rehman Sobhan, Justice Muhammad Habibur Rahman, Dr Kamal Hossain, Matiur Rahman, Mahfuz Anam and Debapriya Bhattchariya, participated in a campaign for honest and clean candidates in national elections.[61] He considered entering politics in the later part of that year.[62] On 11 February 2007, Yunus wrote an open letter, published in the Bangladeshi newspaper Daily Star, where he asked citizens for views on his plan to float a political party to establish political goodwill, proper leadership and good governance. In the letter, he called on everyone to briefly outline how he should go about the task and how they can contribute to it.[63] Yunus finally announced that he is willing to launch a political party tentatively called Citizens' Power (Nagorik Shakti) on 18 February 2007.[64][65] There was speculation that the army supported a move by Yunus into politics.[66] On 3 May, however, Yunus declared that he had decided to abandon his political plans following a meeting with the head of the interim government, Fakhruddin Ahmed.[67]
On 18 July 2007 in Johannesburg, South Africa, Nelson Mandela, Graça Machel, and Desmond Tutu convened a group of world leaders to contribute their wisdom, independent leadership and integrity together to the world. Nelson Mandela announced the formation of this new group, The Global Elders, in a speech he delivered on the occasion of his 89th birthday.[68][69] Archbishop Tutu is to serve as the Chair of The Elders. The founding members of this group include Machel, Yunus, Kofi Annan, Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Jimmy Carter, Li Zhaoxing, and Mary Robinson. The Elders are to be independently funded by a group of Founders, including Richard Branson, Peter Gabriel, Ray Chambers; Michael Chambers; Bridgeway Foundation; Pam Omidyar, Humanity United; Amy Robbins; Shashi Ruia, Dick Tarlow; and The United Nations Foundation. Yunus is a member of the Africa Progress Panel (APP), an independent authority on Africa launched in April 2007 to focus world leaders’ attention on delivering their commitments to the continent. The Panel launched a major report in London on Monday 16 June 2008 entitled Africa's Development: Promises and Prospects.[70]
In July 2009, Yunus became a member of the SNV Netherlands Development Organisation International Advisory Board to support the organisation's poverty reduction work.[71]
Since 2010, Yunus has served as a Commissioner for the Broadband Commission for Digital Development, a UN initiative which seeks to use broadband internet services to accelerate social and economic development.[72]
He also serves on the advisory board of the Holcim Foundation for Sustainable Construction, a foundation supporting initiatives that combine sustainable construction solutions with architectural excellence.[73]
In 2011, Yunus was part of the Jury which chose the universal Logo for Human Rights. Its goal was to create an internationally recognized logo to support the global human rights movement.[74]


|[pic] |The examples and perspective in this article may not include all significant viewpoints. Please improve the article or |
| |discuss the issue. (March 2011) |

Yunus appeared in One Young World 2011 held in Zurich.
Since late November 2010, several allegations have been made against Yunus. These allegations started when a documentary, titled “Caught in Micro Debt”,[75] was aired on Norwegian television on 30 November 2010, criticizing microcredit and blaming Grameen Bank on several points .[76] They developed during a time when larger questions were being raised about the benefits of microfinance and its effects on poverty alleviation, particularly in regards to several microfinance institutions (MFIs) in India[77] and Mexico.[78]
The allegations against Yunus turned political in nature when the government of Bangladesh – led by[79] Sheikh Hasina Wajed, who reportedly has viewed Yunus as a political rival since he looked into setting up a political party in 2007[80] – suddenly turned against him and the concept of microfinance accusing it of “sucking blood from the poor” .[81] In the book,[82] Grameen Social Business Model, Rashidul Bari wrote that the political vendetta in Bangladesh by Sheikh Hasina against Muhammad Yunus[83] could be understood as a modern-day replay of the famous conflict between Pope Urban VIII and Galileo Galilei.[84][85]
"Pope Urban VIII put 70-year-old Galileo in prison in 1632 for condemning and rejecting Ptolemy's geocentric model, which was adopted by the early Christian Church. In the same spirit, Sheikh Hasina who labeled Yunus as a “blood sucker of poor people[86]”—unleashed her propaganda machine (e.g., AMA Muhith) to remove Yunus from Grameen—and used the High Court and Supreme Court to justify her decision. Why did Pope Urban VIII insult the Father of Astronomy? Because Galileo rejected the accepted Christian Church view, that the earth is the center of the universe, and that all other celestial objects orbit around it.[87]
The Government announced a review into the activities of Grameen Bank on 11 January 2011 ;[88] this review is currently ongoing. In February, several international leaders, such as Mary Robinson, stepped up their defense of Yunus through a number of efforts, including the founding of a formal network of supporters known as “Friends of Grameen” .[89]
On 15 February 2011, the Finance Minister of Bangladesh, Abul Maal Abdul Muhith, declared that Muhammad Yunus should “stay away” from Grameen Bank while it is being investigated.[90]
On 2 March 2011, Muzammel Huq – a former employee of Grameen Bank, whom the government had appointed Grameen Bank chairman in January[91] – announced to the media that Yunus had been fired as Managing Director of the Bank .[92] Jannat-E Quanine, General Manager of the Grameen Bank issued a Grameen Bank Statement clarifiying that Yunus was “continuing in his office” pending review of the legal issues surrounding the controversy .[93]
On 3 March 2011, Muhammad Yunus filed himself a writ at the High Court challenging the legality of the decision from the Bangladeshi Central Bank to remove him as Managing Director of Grameen Bank .[94] The same day, nine elected directors of Grameen Bank filed a second writ petition .[95] The High Court hearing on these petitions, initially planned on 6 March 2011, was postponed. On 8 March 2011, the Bangladeshi Court finally confirmed the dismissal of Yunus as Grameen Bank Managing Director .[96]
Following Hillary Clinton, John Kerry expressed his support to Yunus in a statement released on 5 March 2011 and declared that he was “deeply concerned” by this affair. In Bangladesh, thousands of people protested and formed human chains on 5 March 2011 to support Yunus .[97]

Disproved allegations from a Danish documentary

A Danish documentary called Caught in Micro Debt,[75] produced and directed by journalist Tom Heinemann, aired on Norwegian national television NRK on 30 November 2010. It made a number of allegations against Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank. Those allegations have been disproved by later inquiries.
The documentary falsely accused Yunus and Grameen Bank of: • Diverting 7 billion taka (about 100 million dollars) given by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) from Grameen Bank to another organization called Grameen Kalyan in 1996 – an allegation widely spread in the Bangladeshi electronic media on 1 December 2010.[98] Nonetheless, on 6 December, NORAD published an official statement[99] clearing Yunus and Grameen Bank from any wrongdoing on this point, following a comprehensive review of NORAD’s support commissioned by the Minister of International Development.
However, the allegations quickly spread through the Bangladesh media. To quote a leading Bangladeshi economist Rehman Sobhan,[100] “Rather than first seeking clarification and response from Grameen Bank as to the validity of the TV program, some sections of the media and society pounced on it with unseemly enthusiasm, using it as an opportunity to cite wrongdoing in a widely respected organization.” Muhammad Yunus asked for consistent and transparent investigations on these matters.

Questioning microfinance – the 'loan sharks' issue

Yunus at an opening ceremony of his new book in New York City.
The allegations against Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank have been made in a context where some people have begun to question the effectiveness of microfinance, prompted by the actions of some for-profit MFIs in India[101] and Mexico.[102] Coercion, peer pressure and physical harassment have been reportedly used as loan repayment practices in some specific microfinance institutions.[103] Commercialization of microcredit[104] prompted Muhammad Yunus to state that he “never imagined that one day microcredit would give rise to its own breed of loan sharks.”[105]
The lure of profits has attracted some for-profit microfinance institutions to hold Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), including the largest Indian microfinance institution, SKS Microfinance, which held an IPO in July 2010.[106] In September 2010, Yunus and Vikram Akula, founder of SKS, debated during the Clinton Global Initiative meeting,[107] where Yunus made his position on the SKS IPO clear: “Microcredit is not about exciting people to make money off the poor. That's what you're doing. That's the wrong message completely.”
Sympathizers of Yunus allege that the government of Bangladesh is exploiting this “moral crisis around microcredit” to oust Muhammad Yunus.[108] لقثي لاشىلمشيثسا

Political motivations behind the allegations

Though Grameen Bank was quickly cleared by the Norwegian government of all allegations surrounding misused or misappropriated funds in December 2010, in March 2011 the Bangladeshi government launched a three-month investigation of all Grameen Bank's activities.[109] This inquiry prevented Muhammad Yunus from participating in the World Economic Forum.[110]
On 18 January 2011, Yunus appeared in court in a defamation case filed by a local politician from a minor left-leaning party in 2007, complaining about a statement that Yunus made to the AFP news agency, “Politicians in Bangladesh only work for power. There is no ideology here”.[111] At the hearing, Yunus was granted bail and exempted from personal appearance at subsequent hearings.[112]
These latter investigations have fueled suspicion that many attacks might be politically orchestrated,[113] related to difficult relations between Sheikh Hasina and Yunus that date to early 2007, when Muhammad Yunus created his own political party, an effort he dropped in May 2007.[114]

Transition to a new management

Muhammad Yunus is now 72 years old, 12 years beyond the legal retirement age for banks in Bangladesh.[115] The Finance Minister, who is himself 77 years old, has called for Prof. Yunus to step down and declared, ”We need to redefine the bank's role and bring it under closer regulation.”[116]
The government recently appointed a new chairman, Muzammel Huq, who was a former Grameen Bank employee.[91] He has publicly criticized Prof. Yunus, saying, "I think he is a good man with a small heart ... He cannot give credit to anyone but himself”. On 28 February 2011, he presented a letter written by a Bangladesh Bank official at a meeting of the Grameen Bank Board of Directors,[115] saying that Muhammad Yunus “staying in the post for an indefinite period ... was not within the law,” and asking that the meeting be adjourned; however, because the letter was not addressed to the Managing Director, the rest of the Board – including the two other government-appointed Directors – determined that the meeting should continue as planned.
A journalist of the Telegraph has commented that “the Bangladeshi Government should remove Chairman Huq immediately. If calling Yunus a 'chicken hearted man' in the New York Times is his way of showing commitment, independence and integrity, then something is seriously wrong. In his defense, it's a pretty accurate description of someone who is determined to destroy a force for good!”[117]
Prof. Yunus has stated his desire for an orderly transition, to make sure that the Bank's governing practices and transparency are effective and ensure that the institution does not turn into a political instrument if taken over by the government:[91] “I am riding the tiger. I cannot just get off the tiger without drawing the attention of that tiger. So I have to very quietly do it.”

Allegations involving partners: the food case and the phone case

On 27 January 2011, Muhammad Yunus appeared on court about a food-adulteration case filed by the Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) Food Safety Court, accusing him of producing an “adulterated” yogurt[118] in that the fat content would not comply with the legal minimum requirements. This yogurt is produced by Grameen Danone, a social business joint venture between Danone and Grameen Bank that works to alleviate poverty by providing opportunities for street vendors to sell the yogurt and to improve nutrition among the poor by providing nutrient-fortified yogurts to children in Bangladesh. According to Prof. Yunus's lawyer, these allegations are “false and baseless”.[119] At the request of Prof.Yunus lawyers, pointing procedural irregularities and errors, this case is now considered by the High Court.
On 15 February 2011, Prof. Yunus was summoned by a court in Pabna (in North Bangladesh) to appear on 18 April in a fraud case involving Grameen Phone.[120] This case concerns a Grameen village phone user, who received overdue bills even though she had paid the bills regularly.


In 1967 while Yunus attended Vanderbilt University, he met Vera Forostenko, a student of Russian literature at Vanderbilt University and daughter of Russian immigrants to Trenton, New Jersey, U.S. They were married in 1970.[12][15] Yunus's marriage with Vera ended within months of the birth of their baby girl, Monica Yunus (b. 1979 Chittagong), as Vera returned to New Jersey claiming that Bangladesh was not a good place to raise a baby.[12][15] Yunus later married Afrozi Yunus, who was then a researcher in physics at Manchester University.[15] She was later appointed as a professor of physics at Jahangirnagar University. Their daughter Deena Afroz Yunus was born in 1986.[15]
His brothers are also active in academia. His brother Muhammad Ibrahim is a professor of physics at Dhaka University and the founder of The Center for Mass Education in Science (CMES), which brings science education to adolescent girls in villages.[121] His younger brother Muhammad Jahangir is a popular television presenter and a well known social activist in Bangladesh. He is also the moderator of several Talk show programmes in Bangladesh. Monica Yunus, his elder daughter, is a Bangladeshi-Russian American operatic soprano, working in New York City.[122]


Books by Muhammad Yunus • Three Farmers of Jobra; Department of Economics, Chittagong University; 1974 • Planning in Bangladesh: Format, Technique, and Priority, and Other Essays; Rural Studies Project, Department of Economics, Chittagong University; 1976 • Jorimon and Others: Faces of Poverty (co-authors: Saiyada Manajurula Isalama, Arifa Rahman); Grameen Bank; 1991 • Grameen Bank, as I See it; Grameen Bank; 1994 • Banker to the Poor: Micro-Lending and the Battle Against World Poverty; Public Affairs; 2003; ISBN 978-1-58648-198-8 • Creating a World without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism; Public Affairs; 2008; ISBN 978-1-58648-493-4 • Building Social Business: The New Kind of Capitalism that Serves Humanity's Most Pressing Needs[123] ; Public Affairs; 2010; ISBN 978-1-58648-824-6
Articles by Muhammed Yunus • World Policy Journal: "Economic Security for a World in Crisis"; World Policy Journal; Summer 2009; • "Building Social Business Models: Lessons from the Grameen Experience” (with Bertrand Moingeon and Laurence Lehmann-Ortega), April–June, vol 43, n°2-3, Long Range Planning, pp. 308–325.
On Muhammad Yunus • David Bornstein; The Price of a Dream: The Story of the Grameen Bank and the Idea That Is; Simon & Schuster; 1996; ISBN 0-684-81191-X

See also…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Early Childhood Education

...GETTING THE RIGHT START WITH EARLY EDUCATION UNIT 6 Project Bill Stout CM107 GETTING THE RIGHT START WITH EARLY EDUCATION I. Introduction a. Early Childhood Education is more important than you think. b. There are programs out there to help everyone. II. The benefits of starting a child’s education properly are more than you think. a. Starting school at the same level as most children. b. A greater chance of not dropping out and finishing throw high school and possibly college. III. How should parents participate in their child’s education? a. Using age-appropriate materials so as they don’t hinder their Education. b. Enrolling their children in programs early so they learn how to Socialize with their peers. IV. Conclusion Other than teacher’s parents play a large role in their child’s early education, knowing what to do and when to do it will benefit your child more than you think. Early Childhood Education is more important than you think; it has been proven that children who started their education at an early age do not begin kindergarten at the same level as other students. Having a successful child is being a successful parent; Start them in the right direction from the beginning. Parents can start this process before the children are you born. Pre-birth impact, if the child is exposed to positive things it will reflect on them after they are born and if exposed to negative things that impact will be the same. A parent......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Early Life

...Ted Bundy Early Life Childhood: Bundy’s birth name was Theodore Robert Cowell born in Burlington, Vermont on November 24, 1946 to Eleanor Cowell. The identity of his father is unknown. However, family members signified suspicions that the father may actually have been Louise’s own violent, abusive father named, Samuel Cowell, though there was no evidence to support such speculation. For the first three years of his life Bundy lived in the Philadelphia home of his maternal grandparents, Samuel and Eleanor Cowell, who raised him as their son to avoid the social stigma that accompanied illegitimate birth at the time. Family, friends, and even young Ted were told that his grandparents were his parents and that his mother was his older sister. Eventually he discovered the truth, but how and when is not clear. He told his girlfriend that a co usin showed him a copy of his birth certificate after calling him a "bastard", but he told biographers Stephen Michaud and Hugh Aynesworth that he found the certificate himself. Biographer and true crime writer Ann Rule, who knew Bundy personally, believes that he tracked down his original birth record in Vermont in 1969. Bundy expressed a lifelong resentment toward his mother for lying about his true parentage and leaving him to discover it for himself. While Bundy spoke warmly of his grandparents in some interviews and told Ann Rule that he "identified with", "respected", and "clung to" his grandfather, he and other family members...

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Early Education

...Desiree Green Laura Sanders Writing 222 12 August 2013 EARLY EDUCATION Abstract Social scientists have posited that education can make a significant and long-lasting difference on the lives of children, especially those who experience poverty (Barnett, 1995; Brooks-Gunn, 2003; Karoly, et al, 1998). In recent years, policymakers and researchers in the United States have re-examined the role that quality early education can play in the lives of young children, primarily those growing up in poverty (Rouse, Brooks-Gunn, & McLanahan, 2005). Specifically, some have argued that high quality education and care programs that begin early in life have the potential to close gaps in school achievement that often exist between poor and minority children and their middle-class, mostly White, counterparts (Magnuson & Waldfogel, 2005).Based on these conclusions, U.S. policymakers and practitioners interested in improving the lives of poor children have considered the possibility that early education programs may contribute to solving the myriad of problems that growing up in poverty poses. This paper will examine the benefits of early education and the arguments against early education and references or in text citation with bibliography. Introduction During early years, children go through critical stages of development, and consistent, high-quality early education can have long-lasting, beneficial effects on the overall development of children. Choosing a preschool in......

Words: 2564 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

The Need for Early Childhood Education

...The Need for Early Education 1 The Need for Early Education The Need for Early Childhood Education Amanda Snyder University of Phoenix The Need for Early Education 2 The Need for Early Childhood Education Early childhood education has many benefits; the most important one teaching young children the necessary learning skills they need to grow socially, and developmentally; children are growing and learning every day so the earlier they start their education the better. The need to provide more children early education is huge, no matter what the family income is. Every child deserves to have a chance to excel in their own future. This paper will address the benefits of early childhood education and the different types of programs available. The positive affect that can happen to children attending early childhood education centers such as head start, pre-k, or a local daycare center are extraordinary. The need for this early education is crucial to children’s futures. “Research shows the benefits to the child include improved readiness to learn, improved early literacy, decreased need for remedial or special education placement, and improved cognitive development. Long term, research shows a stronger likelihood to graduate from high school, improved academic confidence, and more participation in post-secondary education.”......

Words: 613 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Early Life and Education of Steven Paul Jobs

... although they did not know each other there.) Following high school graduation in 1972, Jobs enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Reed was an expensive college which his parent could ill afford. They were spending much of their life savings on their son's higher education. Jobs dropped out of college after six months and spent the next 18 months dropping in on creative classes, including a course on calligraphy. He continued auditing classes at Reed while sleeping on the floor in friends' dorm rooms, returning Coke bottles for food money, and getting weekly free meals at the local Hare Krishna temple. Jobs later said, "If I had never dropped in on that single calligraphy course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. Early career Homebrew Computer Club Newsletter, September 1976 In 1974, Jobs took a job as a technician at Atari, Inc in California. Atari's founder Nolan Bushnell, who hired Jobs, described him as "difficult but valuable", pointing out that "he was very often the smartest guy in the room, and he would let people know that." Jobs travelled to India in mid-1974 to visit Neem Karoli Baba at his Kainchi Ashram with a Reed College friend (and, later, an early Apple employee), Daniel Kottke, in search of spiritual enlightenment. When they got to the Neem Karoli ashram, it was almost deserted as Neem Karoli Baba had died in September 1973. Then they made a long trek up a dry riverbed to an ashram......

Words: 1211 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Early Childhood Education

...Deborah Hawkins Early Child Development Chapters 6-11 Sharon Garrett Models-These are the models that are used for Early Childhood Development 1. Head Start: Empowering for Change from Within 2. The High Scope Foundations: Planning, Implementing, and Reviewing Best Practices 3. The Project Approach: Active Inquiry in Early Childhood 4. The Schools of Reggio Emilia: A Child’s World 5. Montessori Education: Environment, Materials, and Methods 6. Waldorf education: Harmony and the Whole Child Head Start- In 1964 under President Lyndon Johnson Sargent Shriver assembled a committee and put together a group of sociologists, psychologists, and pediatricians to design a system that would assist children to overcome their setbacks or obstacles caused by poverty. Before the name Head Start was establish, the committee had tossed around several different names, e.g., Kiddie Corps, and Bay Corps however the name Head Start was chosen by the academics who understood the achievement gap between middle class students and their lower class peers (Kagan, 2002). President Johnson announced Project Head Start in May of 1965, President Johnson and Mr. Shiver used the (Office of Economic Opportunity) to establish the Head Start program (Kagan, 2002). It started as an eight week summer program for children from low income communities that were going into public school in the fall (Styfco and Zigler, 2003). In the first summer of the Head Start Program it served......

Words: 1943 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Early Childhood Education

...Philosophy of Early Childhood Education The process of educating children begins at a young age in the early childhood program. Children need to be received in a warm inviting classroom in which the social, emotional, physical and cognitive development are a priority and address on a daily basis. Meeting the children’s needs of feeling safe and nurtured at school will facilitate learning to take place. Before students entered the classrooms to be filled with factual knowledge under scripted lessons that were to accommodate all learners. Educating children these days is more like an art that requires the use of creativity and knowledge to consider the student’s needs to prepare the lessons, incorporate personal philosophies, and implement the proper pedagogic strategies to develop children’s academic potential. Being an early childhood teacher is a privilege that requires to be assumed with responsibility as early childhood teachers spend the majority of the day teaching children who’s both parents work to cover the family needs. Children at the Pre K to K start school between the ages of 3-5 depending on the program and school children are attending. For my final paper, I will identify and discuss the theories and/or philosophies that demonstrate how I envision the appropriate classroom to be for the selected age group. I will also provide an overview of the concepts I will teach in each academic area, and share some of the strategies and activities that will be......

Words: 2790 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Early Childhood Education

...Early Childhood Education Jenelle Johnson PSYC2700 - Child Development U03a1 Early Childhood Education Capella University December, 2014 Early Childhood Education Early childhood education is education that is geared for children three to eight years old, however, early childhood education can start as early as infants at birth through the age of eight years old. Early childhood programs were developed for all children who could not otherwise afford quality preschool or daycare programs. It is the belief that all children benefit from education at an early age. Early education is important to the development of these young children. These programs offer assistance, resources, and education to both the children and parents. Programs all over the world have been implemented to help young impoverished children have an early start to education. This paper will discuss the policy of the Head Start Act, the benefits of receiving early childhood education, and characteristics of a good high quality early childhood program. Early childhood is an important time for children as they grow and learn so much. So many important factors such as health and nutrition, economic status, education and daycare programs, and positive effective parenting are all huge factors that can have an effect of the development process of the young child. Because of the importance of all these variables, programs have been developed and policies have been made to assure that all children......

Words: 1420 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Early Childhood Education

...Critically evaluate Montessori’s ideas for the education of young children and discuss whether they provide a model for early years practice today Structure of the work; Montessori’s ideas on education? 1. Her ideas about what is learning/ the materials the child uses? 2. The ideas for the child’s environments? Everything there? To support their learning? Bringing the Montessori Approach to your Early Years Practice. pages: 18 3. Role of the teacher? Then Compare today’s ideas 1. How does her use of materials set in today’s theory? How does her materials support today’s learning? 2. Does her theory fit today theory? 3. Role of teachers does it set in today’s theory? Her ideas then and now? relevant education materials children tend to teach themselves? but today, materials sharing with each other and talk to each other. The basic goals of the Montessori Method are to develop the child’s independence and productivity as well as preserve the dignity of the child while focusing on the psychological health of the child. Education for the Montessori Method begins at birth and continues through the first six years. These early years are essential for development. To develop skills there are delicate time frames where learning is uninterrupted. This learning can be encouraged by experiences Observation: the key role of the teacher is that of observing the child and letting him express himself. Montessori’s scientific background......

Words: 1595 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Ece Early Childhood Education

...LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS and DEVELOPMENTAL DOMAINS ECE101 Introduction to Early Childhood Education September 19, 2014 Introduction A teacher’s classroom environment is an ultimate concern in the beginning of each school year. This is in addition to designing an effective learning environment for reading, science and art projects among many subjects. Another important concern is arranging a generous amount of physical space with learning goals, while ensuring that each student adapts to all instructional requirements and needs. The first step to a well-equipped classroom setting providing sufficient reading and writing materials promoting an ultimate learning environment. This paper will provide a classroom designed for preschoolers between the ages of two to five years old in a daycare center. “Paraphrasing Loris Malaguzzi, founder of Reggio Emilia, it all starts with the environment – the entrance, the space, the walls (Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998)” (Roskos, K., Neuman, S. (2011). Not only learning will occur, social interactions, friendships and other encounters among the teacher and students will transpire daily. The classroom environment also maps out emotions, thinking, behaviors, and qualities which will effect these preschooler’s lives forever. The classroom can either be a negative or positive environment. This all relies on the teacher’s shoulders. Physical Domain The classroom learning environment design supports the children’s physical development......

Words: 1101 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Early Childhood Education

...The Early Childhood Education Education is an asset for every person and probably the most important pert is when it starts, at early childhood. This decides the child's attitude to education throughout life and its capacity to learn. Children start to learn early in life and though it may not be realized that even during the first few months of life the child begins experimenting with language. The attitudes towards literacy develop during this period and all important concepts of literacy expand during these years through the care of the adults and various forms of print that they chance to meet. This important form of literacy is composed of several key components according to the experts on literacy and this first of these is phonetic awareness. This is an understanding that speech contains many units like spoken words, syllables and sounds. The children gradually become familiar with names of letters, their shapes and sounds. Over a period of time they also develop the capacity to take every spoken word apart in terms of sound and also combine sounds to form words. (Promoting Literacy Activities in Early Childhood Settings) The children have to hear and say the parts of the word and then only they can learn to read it. They have to understand the importance of each sound in a word, as this is the only way they will learn to say the word properly and not develop too much of an accent or slang which will hurt the ability of individuals to understand it. For this......

Words: 350 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Female Education in the Early Republic

...Female Education in the Early Republic Dr. Benjamin Rush was an advocate for a republican form of government after the Revolutionary War because he believed it was a way to distinguish the United States from Britain. As a part of the republicanism philosophy that he was promoting, he advocated for the proper education of women through many speeches including one influential speech called “The Education of Republican Women.” Dr. Benjamin Rush had many thoughts about the education of women, which included not reading novels, using ornamental accomplishments to yield principles and knowledge, and to help promote republicanism in the United States. Dr. Rush wanted to discourage young American women from reading novels because he thought they didn’t apply American life. He didn’t think that reading these novels filled with “extravagant love, jealousy, ambition or revenge” would help the American women in the life that she was facing. Dr. Rush didn’t dismiss all novels, but he did dismiss the subject matter of the novels. He believed that their time would be better spent studying concrete subjects that would help them work in the home and raise their children better, rather than wasting their time reading frivolous things that wouldn’t be helpful. Dr. Rush “tended to link a woman's need for knowledge to their duty as wives and mothers” and the topics talked about in novels didn’t pertain to their duties. He thought that women should be educated in things that would......

Words: 877 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Early Child Hood Education

...ProjEnglish Composition II Even though some parents feel children under the age of five should be at home, early childhood education is important, because the earlier the education starts, the better the payoff in the future, and at this age the brain is doing the bulk of its learning. Early childhood education is important, because it helps children out down the road. If a child starts their education early, then they will be use to getting up on a regular schedule and going to school. They will also get use to being separated from their parents at a younger age. They will get more learning interaction than they would if they were sitting at home in front of the television or playing video games. At this age the brain is doing the bulk of its learning. At this stage in a child’s life, they are very curious. They like to ask questions such as who, what, when, where, and why. They also like to ask to start drawing, coloring, and using paints. When the child starts education at a early age, they are taught how to use a pencil, how to color, how to paint. They are also taught the alphabet and how to count. Some kids go into kindergarten not knowing these things, then they are behind compared to the kids that started their education in four year old kindergarten or pre-school. The most important reason early childhood education is important is because the earlier the education starts, the better the payoff is in the future. If a child starts school when they are three or......

Words: 389 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Early Childhood Education

...EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 1 EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION FUAMATA KUKA EDUC 623 INTRO TO TEACHING AND LEARINING EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION II The area of education that I have chosen Early Childhood Education because it’s been four years now that I have taught this area. For four years now I have learned that Early childhood education is based on the child’s growth is developing. Every child is unique in terms of life experience, development readiness, and cultural heritage. My overall purpose of education is teaching a student how to think. I want my students to learn how to think critically. To think is to comprehend what has been learned and be able to use it in a real situation. Thinking isn’t promoted when children are trained to be like parrots and repeat what they know without ever using that knowledge. Thinking is also includes making thoughtful decisions. I want my students to realize how their actions. The purpose of education is to have the knowledge that will allow you to be successful and provide for your family. it is most important to start at a young age. That is when they learn the most. When we were young we’ve learn things without even trying it flows as if we hadn’t some weird power but it is just the fact that our brain has such a craving and is in a quest for all of the knowledge it can handle. As a teacher I hope to accomplish several things. First I want my......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Importance of Early Childhood Education

...The Importance of Early Childhood Education It is crucial for a child to receive early education because it is the time for growing, forming, and brain development. Children between the ages of 0 to 6 go through stages of acquiring specific skills like, sensorial, language, math, social, and cognitive. In those stages children have the ability to soak up and retain information, some people say like a sponge. As parents it is our duty to make sure we are stimulating our children’s mind between the ages of birth and 6 years. Parents have the opportunity to nurture and educate on all levels throughout a child’s life and should take that opportunity to make sure their child is taught properly. To ensure a successful future for a child it is very important to educate them at an early age. There were a few case studies that showed the importance of early education through pre-schools, Head Start Programs, and the involvement of children’s parents. The studies show that if children are taught at an early age the basic fundamentals of learning, they will start school eager to learn and more advanced than their peers. They also show that children’s environment is a main influence in their upbringing, which can make them either productive or not productive. Their environment such as the parent’s living states, the area they live in, and the way the family interacts with the child will play a big part in how they will be educated. According to Diana Fisklock (2011), “Children who...

Words: 1141 - Pages: 5