Free Essay

Down to Earth

In: Novels

Submitted By spar104
Words 445
Pages 2
Chapter 12
Financial Management

1. Recent police budgets have been negatively affected by all of the following except:

a. Struggling national economies.
b. Struggling local economies.
c. Expanding tax bases.
d. Soaring costs of providing employee benefits.

2. The oldest, simplest type of budget format is:

a. ZBB.
b. Programmatic.
c. Line-item.
d. PSSB.

3. Assume a budget period runs from October 1, 2011, until September 30, 2012. It is properly referred to as:

a. Dillon’s fiscal year.
b. A biennium.
c. FY ’11.
d. FY ‘12.

4. The single most important political statement made by any unit of government in a given year is the:

a. Budget it adopts.
b. State of the Union address.
c. Civil Service regulations it issues.
d. Ordinances it adopts.

5. The budget cycle:

a. Consists of sequential steps which are repeated every year at about the same time in a well-operated unit of government.
b. Means that appropriators promise to fund agency programs, but often prefer to delay actually doing so when the time comes to make a decision.
c. is the common term used to refer to the budget-cutting power of the Director of Finance. d. Usually follows the 10% incremental rule.

6. Forecasting revenue, determining how much money will be left unexpended in the current fiscal year budgets of the department, and issuance of the budget calendar are functions associated with the:

a. Appropriators.
b. Police department’s budget officer.
c. State’s fiscal monitoring system.
d. City or county department of finance.

7. The audit:

a. Is the last phase of the budget cycle.
b. Is intended to be embarrassing.
c. Always focuses only on financial matters.
d. Is conducted by the sheriff’s budget officer.

8. The foundation of all other budget types or formats:

a. Is the line-item.
b. Emphasizes effectiveness.
c. Emphasizes scrutinizing form programmatic results.
d. Was in vogue following World War II until about 1960.

9. A budget is:

a. A contract between the appropriators and the department.
b. Translating financial resources into human purposes.
c. An estimate of future expenditures.
d. To some degree, all of the above.

10. In a typical large municipal police agency, whose responsibility is it to submit the police department budget to the city manager?

a. Police chief.
b. City council.
c. Police bureau commander.
d. City department head.

11. Which of the following is typically included in an operating budget?

a. Fringe benefits.
b. Uniforms.
c. Telephone service.
d. All of the above.

12. The practice of comparing one’s organizational performance to those that are recognized leaders in the field is known as:

a. Standardizing.
b. Yardsticking.
c. Benchmarking.
d. Targeting.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Earth

...The Bible says that this beautiful Earth on which we live was created by God for Adam and Eve to live in and those we are the descendants of Adam and Eve. For centuries many philosophers in the East and in the West including the Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that earth is the centre of this universe. It was left to Galileo, a prominent mathematician of Padua University to announce his discovery on January 17, 1610 that the Earth is a planet just like other planets revolving round the Sun, which is a star. It was also established that the sun due to its gravitational pull attracts all these planets which revolve round it. Apart from the Earth there are some other planets which go round the sun. These planets, however, vary in size and also in their distance from the sun. They have their own orbits, and the period of rotation also varies in each case. Some of these planets have satellites called moons, varying in number. Some do not have any satellites. Normally, if they do not have a counter pull, they should have been dragged into the sun by the gravitational pull. These gravitation pulls of the sun and the counter pulls of the planets are called centrifugal forces. The planets revolve round the sun in their own specific orbits. These planets could be arranged in an order based on their distance from the sun. The nearest to the sun is Mercury and the next is Venus. Third comes the Earth. Later in the same order come Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and......

Words: 658 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Lungs of the Earth

...THE LUNGS OF THE EARTH I Introduction : Forests are the lungs of the earth. Thus, we can see the importance of forest towards the living things as the forest contribute in supplying most of their needs, maintaining the world climate, and preventing catastrophic consequences to the environment. II Body : A. Forest and all living things complement each other as forests is important in supplying the needs of life. 1. Forest will produce oxygen and absorb the carbon dioxide. a) Oxygen released by the trees in the forest is the chemical gas that are very important to human and animal life.(Chrisz,2006) b) Trees absorb carbon dioxide in the air and replaced it with clean air to remove toxic gases that facilitate human and animal respiration. 2. Supply various kind of food. a) Forests serves as the largest supplier of food and herbal plants that are important to humans, animals and in the medical field.(Chinery,2001) 3. Provides different kind of wood for many purposes. a) Wood being used as fuel because it creates less smoke and burns longer. b) Teak wood is used as house building materials as well as in the furniture industry.(Col,2006) B. Another importance is in maintaining the world climate. 1. Decreased the thinning of ozone layers. a) Oxygen from trees is the main part of ozone creation that will protect earth from sunlight radiation and meteors fall.(Silverswan,2010) ......

Words: 396 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Earth

...Earth as a planet Rotation: Provides day & night. Turning of Earth on its axis. 1000 mph at equator. Coriolis: Causes winds to be turned or deflected from their path. Deflection to right in N. hemi. Revolution: Motion of earth along path. Creates years because it takes 365 days to make one. Inclination: The tilt of the earth’s axis. Parallelism: Tendency of earth to always stay parallel and not transform its orbit. Solstices: summer/winter june 21/22 december 21/22 when the sun position of noon sun is at its farthest position from equator 23.5 degrees N/S Equinoxes: spring/autumn march 21/22 septemeber 22/23 when the day is equal (day and night) Analemma: Shows path of noon sun angle throughout months Tropic Cancer: 23.5N Tropic Capricorn 23.5S (Farthest the sun can be away from equator that reaches 90 degrees above earth) Solar Radiation Insolation: Incoming solar radiation. Incoming is shortwave and outgoing is long wave. Duration: the longer the sun is out the more heat will be produced Intensity: angle the sun hits the earth. More intense closer to equator. Atmosphere: Constituents- Nitrogen: 78% Oxygen: 21% Carbon Monoxide: most of the remaining Selective screening: reflection- reflects radiation refraction- changes direction of radiation absorption- absorbs radiation Attenuation: absorb, reflect, refract Elements of weather and climate Temperature: degree of heat...

Words: 559 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Earth Sun

...LECTURE 2 Earth-Sun Relationships and Illumination of the Globe I. Earth-Sun Relationships: Why we have to understand? Because by understanding earth-sun relationships one will be able to determine the apparent path of the sun in the sky, the angles at which sun's ray (light) strike, the lengths of day and night, and the occurence of seasons. The earth is turning on its axis at the same time that it is moving in a path about the sun, and because the earth's axis is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit, therefore, it will be much easier for us to view these relationships in 3-dimension, or to view the earth from space. II. Motion of the Earth: Rotation and Revolution A. Rotation: The spinning of the earth on its polar axis. Direction of Rotation: is from west to east (eastward), eastward rotation of the earth. Looking down upon the North Pole - it is counterclockwise rotation; clockwise movement on the South Pole. Time of Rotation: Mean Solar Day - consisting of 24 mean solar hours, it is the average time required for the earth to make one complete turn (rotation) in respect to the sun. Velocity of Rotation: rate of travel of a point on the earth's surface in a circular path due to rotation. Angular velocity (constant on earth) and linear velocity. Equator: 25,000 miles / 24 hrs = 1050 miles / hr 40,000 km/24 hrs = 1700 km/ hr 60 N & S = 525 miles / hr = 850 km / hr 90 N & S = 0 mile / hr We are unaware of this motion because......

Words: 1725 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

The Earth

...know how to make the tools, how would they know what they were used for? Or even tell the difference if it’s a tool or just a piece of stone. When Bruce explains the difficult process of flintknapping, he said walking was the main sort of transportation, so people tried to make one tool used for multiple activates. The sharp-edged waste material left over when someone creates a stone tool (knaps flint) can tell us a lot about how tools were made for, used and resharpened. The manufacturing, use , reworking, and sharpening of flaked stone tools generates debitage, which enters archaeologist records. Stone tools are so important because it helps us identify camping, and war grounds, ceremonial sites or food preparation sites. Somewhere down the line, there had to have been really important changes in evolution and finding these stone tools tells archaeology more about these changed and ways of life....

Words: 280 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Earth Science

...Earth Science In my personal observation if you truly want to learn about science visit this section. There are so many things to learn in his one section that is hard to explain. I will start off by talking about mineral. Minerals are substances that occur naturally in the earth, are formed by physical (not biological) methods, and have characteristic chemical composition, physical properties and crystalline structures (though not necessarily visible crystals). Classification of Minerals are antimonates, vanadium oxysalts, tungstates amd molybdates, silicates, phosphates, arsenates, and vanadates, sulfosalts, halides, sulfates and chromates sulfides, carbonates, borates, nitrates and iodates. An element is a substance made of only one kind of atom. Among the over one-hundred known elements only about twenty are found not combined with other elements. Rocks are composed of one or more minerals. While a mineral is the same throughout, a rock is a mix, and can vary from part to part. Minerals form a variety of crystals like monoclinic, tetragonal, triclinic, hexagonal, isometric, orthorhombic system. Types of meteorites stony meterorites are made mostly of silicated minerals such as olivine and pyroxene (most common). Stony-iron meteorites are made of about equal amounts of silicate minerals and metal (least common). Iron- metorites are made almost entirely of metal-iron, nickel and cobalt (heavy metal). Meteorites come from out in space. Most meteorite are stony......

Words: 565 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Earth

...------------------------------------------------- University of Phoenix Material Earth and Earth Materials I Worksheet From Visualizing Earth Science, by Merali, Z., and Skinner, B. J, 2009, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Copyright 2009 by Wiley. Adapted with permission. Part 1 Complete the WileyPLUS® GeoDiscoveries Earth Drag and Drop from Chapter 1. Label and describe each letter in the space below. A B C D E F G H A. Ocean | B. Continental crust | C. Oceanic crust | D. Solid inner core | E. Liquid outer core | F. Mesosphere | G. Anthenosphere | H. Lithosphere | Part 2 Resources: Minerals Drag and Drop (Chapter 2) Virtual Rock Lab (Chapter 2) * * Complete the following WileyPLUS® GeoDiscoveries and answer the following questions: What is the difference between a rock and a mineral? A mineral is a naturally going on the non-living compound with a unique chemical structure and the physical properties. An the rock is a solid, rocky mass composed of a combination of minerals or other organic complex. 1. 2. What types of tests are used to identify minerals? The type of test that are used to identify a mineral is I think depending on the colour,luster, and the hardness and as well the gravity. Also by the event test the chemical of the mineral they can see what type it is. 3. Part 3 1. Label the part and mineral resource that compose each part of this lightbulb.......

Words: 903 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Snowball Earth

...Evidence for a Snowball Earth Imagine a world so barren and so cold that life as we know it today could not exist. Some researchers have been able to track Earth’s glacial deposits to predict just that; a time in which our planet was coated with snow and ice extending from the poles all the way to the equator (Kaufman). We call this period of Earth a “snowball earth.” Scientist Paul Hoffman and his colleagues used Joseph Kirschvink’s suggestion that earth was once completely frozen during the Neoproterozoic period roughly 580-750 million years ago to research glacial deposits. Inherently they found thick deposits of calcium carbonates (cap carbonates) overlaying glaciers suggesting the snowball earth (Hoffman). It is evident in scientific debate that not everyone is able to accept the idea of a frozen Earth as other researchers such as Andrew Knoll and Martin Kennedy have rejected the idea as they pose other solutions for cap carbonate deposits. This is a perfect example of the progress of science as a whole; scientists are constantly making new observations to develop solutions which are then accepted, rejected, and retested by others. The snowball earth hypothesis and controversy together reveals the significance of innovation and scientific debate to the progress of science. The snowball earth hypothesis was first introduced by Joseph Kirschvink after years of other scientists finding peculiar continuous layers of limestone (calcium carbonate rock) or dolostone......

Words: 1530 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Earth Perspectives

...EARTH PERSPECTIVES The biological and geological future of the Earth can be extrapolated based upon the estimated effects of several long-term influences. These include the chemistry at the Earth's surface, the rate of cooling of the planet's interior, the gravitational interactions with other objects in the Solar System, and a steady increase in the Sun's luminosity. An uncertain factor in this extrapolation is the ongoing influence of technology introduced by humans, such as geoengineering, which could cause significant changes to the planet. The current biotic crisis is being caused by technology and the effects may last for up to five million years. In turn, technology may result in the extinction of humanity, leaving the planet to gradually return to a slower evolutionary pace resulting solely from long-term natural processes. Hawking: How Humankind Will Survive the Future Listen, people of Earth: Everything's going to be fine. All we have to do is survive another century or two without self-destructing as a species. Then we'll get off this rock, spread throughout space, and everything will be all right. If this is not your idea of "optimism," then you are not Stephen Hawking. The esteemed physicist garnered headlines, and some eye-rolls, after telling Big Think last week that humanity needs to leave the Earth in the future or face extinction. As The Atlantic noted: He's not knocking climate scientists' attempts to figure things out on Earth-he's just thinking......

Words: 3800 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Earth

...the sun and the smallest planet at the moment. Its revolution period is 88 earth days and its ration time is 59 days. Mercury is made up of core-iron-nickel alloy, mantle, and then the crust which is silicate. During the day mercury’s temperature reaches 800°F and at night it goes down to -279°F. Mercury looks similar to earth’s moon; it is covered with craters which are made from meteors, asteroids, and comets and it covers 70% of mercury. Its diameter is 3,031 miles, its mass is 5% of earth’s mass, and the sun is 6.3 times brighter. Mercury was named by the Greeks, after the messenger of their g-d. Mariner 10 visited mercury, it mapped 45% of it, and it was the only one which visited more than one planet during its mission. It went up from Cape Canaveral, Florida on November, 1973 and went to Venus in February of 1974. Never attempt to observe Mercury or anything close to the sun with a naked eye because it can cause permanent damage. And with binoculars or telescope it is even more dangerous. VENUS Venus is the second planet from the sun it is called the evening star because it can be seen by sunset and also by sunrise. Venus is made up of molten metal core, mantle, and crust of various rocks and 98% of carbon dioxide with traces of nitrogen and other gases. It is the only planet that the day is longer then it’s year, it’s year is 225 earth days, and its day is 243 earth days. Venus is known as earth’s twin because of the similarity, it’s 82%......

Words: 699 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Heaven on Earth

...Luis Bernhardt Ms.B Heaven On Earth? Have you ever been to a place that is so foreign, but undeniably beautiful. Beautiful enough to stop anyone in their tracks and ask “is this real life?” Or even experiencing an epiphany just by what meets the eyes. A question of “pitch me, I must be dreaming” is among some of the common words said by those who is not a normal resident of the heavenly lands of Valldemossa, which is one city of Majorca, its Realm of the gods and goddesses. Reachable only by boat or plane this island has a pitch perfect moment around every corner, hill, and door. It’s as if the gods’ themselves designed this sunny wonderland as a vacation home. With Intricate patterns of mountains, valleys, and vegetation that nearly engulfs the entirety of the land. Coastal scenery, and hill side villages that give off a 13th century appearance but the architecture perseveres the history but also gives has modernized manifestation. Valldemossa gave me an experience of a lifetime. Appealing to all senses- the history, landscape, and food played a roll into the experience The land of the heavens, also known as Valldemossa is put on par with the divines for many different reasons’. One, is the luxurious landscape- mountains emboss the earths crust giving the land characteristics, such as the haze grey mountains were an expressed feeling from the earth itself. Continuing on, the mountains towered in groups as if they’re standing a post, watching, and keeping......

Words: 550 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Earth

...Michigan and they talked about making a big ship that shoots underground so they could bag up the chemicals and place them back in the earth. That night the news channel comes to both of Kade and Kevin’s house interviewing them Kade said that “The chemicals have no name and we hope we don’t die”, on the other hand Kevin said “Ok we are leaving at 3:35 AM tomorrow and no further questions”. That morning Kade And Kevin has gone to their ship that they have built and it is placed in a secret island in Australia. The ship fires up with a super powered laser and spinning knives on the sides to keep moving fast down the earth’s layers. They finally hop in with the chemicals and the ship starts in 3 2 1 and poof. They have entered Lake Baikal because it has the thinnest crust so they could get a big boost in the mantle. They reach the crust and the crust has underwater volcanoes so it dents the ship. There are a lot of currents making them get off track. They have hit some rocks the size of 50 feet wide and it is damaging their ship so they pick up the speed and then they just ride straight through the rocks. The ship is starting to melt and Kade and Kevin are getting nervous but Kevin said the “We must be in the mantle “and then they check their locator system and yes they were in the mantle. Kade has turned on the hot ice system to cool down the ship so it stopped the melting and it has now got back into shape. The big and very strong men have now found out......

Words: 418 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Structure of the Earth

...The structure of the earth The earth has three major parts-the land part or lithosphere, the water part or hydrosphere and the air part or atmostpere. The lithosphere is the surface on which you live . It is also the earth solid sphere consisting mainly of massive rocks. The massive rocks form large land masses called continent and small island groups . Different land form such as mountains,hills,valleys,plateaus and plains make up the lithosphere. The hydrosphere include all water forms such as oceans,seas,rivers,lakes,and groundwater found beneath the earth. Geologists or scientists who specialize on the history and composition of earth study carefully these two major parts of the earth. They study the different layers of the earth and what each layer is made of. You see only the surface of the earth – the oceans, seas, rivers, rocks, and soil. They cover the earth just like the thick peeling of the pomelo or orange fruit. When you cut open the pomelo, you see layers of pulp inside it. If the earth were cut open, you will see that it is made of three layers. They are the crust, matle and the core. The topmost layer of the earth is the crust which is made of solid rock. It is thicker under the continents; approximately between 11 to 35 kilometres. But under the oceans, it can be 5 to 12 kilometres thick only. At the lower......

Words: 720 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Earth and Earth Materials

...University of Phoenix Material Earth and Earth Materials I Worksheet From Visualizing Earth Science, by Merali, Z., and Skinner, B. J, 2009, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Copyright 2009 by Wiley. Adapted with permission. Part 1 Complete the WileyPLUS® GeoDiscoveries Earth Drag and Drop from Chapter 1. Label and describe each letter in the space below. [pic] |Ocean; Large bodies of water | |Continental crust; Thick part of crust, forms large land masses | |Oceanic crust; Thin part of the Earth’s crust that underlies the ocean basins | |Solid inner core; Hot solid core. Remains solid due to high pressures regardless of heat. | |Liquid outer core | |Mesosphere; Above the atmosphere and below the stratosphere. About 30-50 miles up | |Asthenosphere; Hot, weak, plastic | |Lithosphere; Cool, rigid, brittle ...

Words: 549 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Shape of the Earth

...The Shape of the Earth The shape of planet Earth has fascinated scientists, philosophers and cultures throughout history. For thousands of years man has observed and studied the Earth. Through observations, spiritual beliefs and empirical findings, many theories developed regarding the shape of the Earth.

How has our understanding of the shape of the Earth changed over time? • Most ancient cultures, such as the Sumerians, Babylonians, even Greece , until the 5th or 6th century B.C., believed that the Earth was flat. (Garwood, 2007, p. 16) • The Egyptians believed the universe was rectangular-shaped with four pillars that supported a flat ceiling. Egypt was in the center of a flat Earth which was surrounded by water. (Moore, 1968, p. 16) • Greek philosopher Pythagoras, populated the idea that the Earth must be a sphere back in the 6th century B.C. • Around 330 B.C. Aristotle accepted the spherical shape of the Earth, observing that the Earth casts a round shadow on the moon. • Sir Isaac Newton observed the shape of the Earth to be oblate spheroidal or oval shaped, not prolate spheroidal or spherical. (According to Choi, 2007) • Giovanni Cassini, who discovered four moons of Saturn and estimated the distance between the Earth and Sun to be 87 million miles, maintained that the Earth was flat at the equator. His theory stirred controversy, contradicting Newton’s and others who maintained that the Earth was flattened at the poles. (Burns, 2001, p.......

Words: 795 - Pages: 4