Premium Essay

Different Accounting Theories Will Provide Alternative Explanations About Why an Entity Might Decide to Report Social and Environmental Information.

In: Business and Management

Submitted By monawang
Words 1441
Pages 6
1. Different accounting theories will provide alternative explanations about why an entity might decide to report social and environmental information.

Positive accounting theory tries to make good prediction of real world events and translate them to accounting transactions, while normative theories tend to recommend what should be done. Positive theories try to explain and predict actions such as which accounting policies firms will choose and how firms will react to newly proposed accounting standards. Its overall intention is to understand and predict the choice of accounting policies across differing firms; it recognizes that economic consequences exist( Colignon, R. and M. Covaleski. 1991).Under PAT firms want to maximize their prospects for survival, so they organize themselves efficiently. Firms are viewed as the accumulation of the contracts they have entered into. In relation to PAT, because there is a need to be efficient, the firm will want to minimize costs associated with contracts. Examples of contract costs are negotiation, renegotiation and monitoring costs; contract costs involve accounting variables as contracts can be stipulated in terms of accounting information such as net income and financial ratios. The firm will choose the accounting policies that best acknowledge the need for minimization of contract costs (Danos, P. 1977). PAT recognizes that changing circumstances require managers to have flexibility in choosing accounting policies. This bring forward the problem of opportunistic behavior, this occurs when the actions of management are to better their own personal interests. With this in mind, the optimal set of accounting policies are described as a compromise between fixing accounting policies to minimize contract costs and providing flexibility in times of changing circumstances (Evans, T. G. 2002). There are three systems-based…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Positive Accounting Theory, Political Costs

...POSITIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY, POLITICAL COSTS AND SOCIAL DISCLOSURE ANALYSES: A CRITICAL LOOK Markus J. Milne Accountancy and Business Law University of Otago Dunedin New Zealand Ph: 64-3-479-8120 Fax: 64-3-479-8450 Email: POSITIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY, POLITICAL COSTS AND SOCIAL DISCLOSURE ANALYSES: A CRITICAL LOOK* ABSTRACT This paper critically reviews the literature seeking to establish evidence for a positive accounting theory of corporate social disclosures. It carefully traces through the original work of Watts and Zimmerman (1978) showing their concern with the lobbying behaviour of large US oil companies during the 1970s. Such companies were argued to be abusing monopolists and likely targets of selfinterested politicians pursuing wealth transfers in the form of taxes, regulations and other ‘political costs’. Watts and Zimmerman’s reference to “social responsibility” is shown to be a passing remark, and most likely refers to “advocacy advertising”, a widespread practice amongst large US oil companies at that time. Subsequent literature that relies on Watts and Zimmerman to present a case for social disclosures is shown to extend their original arguments. In the process, concern over the “high profits” of companies is shown to diminish, and the notion of political costs is so broadened that it blurs with other social theories of disclosure. Consequently, the positive accounting based social disclosures literature fails to provide......

Words: 11604 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Financial Accounting Theory

...Scott, Financial Accounting Theory, 6th Edition Instructor’s Manual Chapter 2 Suggested Solutions to Questions and Problems 1. P.V. Ltd. Income Statement for Year 2 Accretion of discount (10% × 286.36) $28.64 P.V. Ltd. Balance Sheet As at Time 2 Financial Asset Cash $315.00 Shareholders’ Equity Opening balance Net income Capital Asset Present value 0.00 $315.00 $315.00 $286.36 28.64 Note that cash includes interest at 10% on opening cash balance of $150. 2. Suppose that P.V. Ltd. paid a dividend of $10 at the end of year 1 (any portion of year 1 net income would do). Then, its year 2 opening net assets are $276.36, and net income would be: P.V. Ltd. Income Statement For Year 2 Accretion of discount (10% × 276.36) $27.64 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc 11 Scott, Financial Accounting Theory, 6th Edition Instructor’s Manual P.V.’s balance sheet at time 2 would be: P.V. Ltd. Balance Sheet As at Time 2 Financial Asset Cash: (140 + 14 + 150) $304.00 Chapter 2 Shareholders’ Equity Opening balance: $276.36 (286.36 - 10.00 dividend) Capital Asset, at Present value 0.00 $304.00 $304.00 Net income 27.64 Thus, at time 2 the shareholders have: Cash from dividend Interest at 10% on cash dividend, for year 2 Value of firm per balance sheet $10.00 1.00 304.00 $315.00 This is the same value as that of the firm at time 2, assuming P.V. Ltd. paid no dividends (see Question 1). Consequently, the firm’s dividend policy does not matter to the......

Words: 112738 - Pages: 451

Free Essay

Chapter 1 the Accounting Environment: What Is Accounting and Why Is It Done

...CHAPTER 1 The Accounting Environment: What Is Accounting and Why Is It Done? QUESTIONS Q1-1. A variety of answers are possible but the essential elements are the production and communication of information so that stakeholders can make decisions. Q1-2. Financial accounting is concerned with providing information to those outside an entity such as investors, lenders, and CRA. Managerial accounting provides information to those inside the entity such as managers and other decision makers. Table 1.3 provides differences: Table 1.3 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FINANCIAL AND MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING | |Financial Accounting |Managerial Accounting | |Stakeholders |External to the entity. Includes investors, |Internal to the entity. Managers and other | | |lenders, taxation authorities (such as the |employees. | | |Canada Revenue Agency), competitors, and many | | | |others. These stakeholders usually don’t have | | | |direct access to information about the entity | | | ...

Words: 10315 - Pages: 42

Premium Essay

Positive Accounting Theory

...136 Positive Accounting Theory and Science JCC Journal of CENTRUM Cathedra ™ Positive Accounting Theory and Science by M. Humayun Kabir Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Business Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract This paper examines the development of positive accounting theory (PAT) and compares it with three standard accounts of science: Popper (1959), Kuhn (1996), and Lakatos (1970). PAT has been one of the most influential accounting research programs during the last four decades. One important reason which Watts & Zimmerman (1986) have used to popularize and legitimize their approach is that their view of accounting theory is the same as that used in science. Thus, it is important to examine how far accounting has been successful in imitating natural science and how the development of PAT compares with the three standard accounts of science. This paper shows that accounting could not emulate the success of natural science. Further, the methodological positions of PAT conform to none of the standard accounts of science. Rather, PAT contains elements of all three. Finally, this paper identifies some methodological gaps in PAT. Keywords: Positive Accounting Theory, Philosophy of Science, Methodological Controversies Acknowledgements I would like to thank two anonymous reviewers of the journal for their helpful comments. Earlier versions of this paper benefited from comments from Lee Parker of the University of South Australia,......

Words: 9637 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Postive Accounting Theory

...examines the development of positive accounting theory (PAT) and compares it with three standard accounts of science. There is some confusion about what PAT is. If the definition of accounting theory (i.e., accounting theory seeks to explain and predict accounting and auditing practice) given in Watts and Zimmerman’s 1986 book is taken to mean PAT, studies of accounting choices and auditing practices constitute PAT. At the same time, they also seek to explain the economics-based empirical literature in accounting and they describe, in addition to accounting choice studies, capital market-based accounting research. They point out that Ball and Brown (1968) initially popularized positive research in accounting, suggesting that PAT includes both capital market-based accounting research and research in accounting choices. This paper takes PAT to include both research programs. This usage is consistent with Watts and Zimmerman’s (1986) assertion that when they use the term “positive” to differentiate it from “prescriptive” theory. Positive Accounting Theory and Science by M. Humayun Kabir Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Business Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract This paper examines the development of positive accounting theory (PAT) and compares it with three standard accounts of science: Popper (1959), Kuhn (1996), and Lakatos (1970). PAT has been one of the most influential accounting research programs during the last......

Words: 6941 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

“Why Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting Is—and Should Be—Different”

...“Why Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting is—And Should Be—Different” The paper “Why Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting is—And Should Be—Different” compares governmental accounting and financial reporting to that of the approach used in for-profit business enterprises. It also states specific reasons why governments should be different. There are environmental differences between governments and businesses that call for a different approach. First, governments have different purposes for their operations. For-profit entities strive to create wealth and to meet return on investment goals. While governments on the other hand are actually trying to enhance or maintain quality of life with services that are dictated by public policy goals. They also must consider efficiency, effectiveness, and economy when they evaluate public policy. Secondly, governments and for-profit business entities differ in the way they generate revenue. Governments generate income through involuntary taxes. Customers of for-profit business entities have a choice of what services they purchase and where they buy. The same does not apply for the governmental customer. The users of their reports also differ. Citizens and their elected representatives are users of government reports. They are as interested in the “why” as they are the “how much” when they read a financial report. They use governmental financial reporting to support their discussions of public policy such as......

Words: 383 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Use of Accounting Information

... THE USE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AND DECISION-MAKING IN ORGANISATION (A CASE STUDY OF MUXOL PAINT DEPORT, BENIN CITY) BY DAVID UYIGUE UNAD/ACC5/2007/371 A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTING, FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF ADO-EKITI, NIGERIA. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE ( DEGREE (HONS.) IN ACCOUNTING FEBRUARY, 2014 CERTIFICATION This is to certify that this project work was written by DAVID UYIGUE of Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Ado – Ekiti State, under my supervision. ------------------------------ ------------------------------ DR KEMI OGUNDANA DATE (Project Supervisor) ----------------------------- ------------------------------ DR. OGUNDELE J.F. DATE (Degree Coordinator) DEDICATION This project work is dedicated to God Almighty, through His only begotten son, Jesus Christ for His Faithfulness and mercy. This project is also dedicated to the family of Mrs. Veronica Uyigue for their financial support. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I will like to acknowledge and appreciate Almighty God who saw me through my course of study and granted me the grace to complete this project work. through His only begotten son, Jesus Christ and His Faithfulness and mercy. My profound gratitude goes to my able project supervisor......

Words: 7618 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Accounting Information System Chapter 3

...Report on Book Chapter Series in Chapter 3 Transaction Processing EAST WEST UNIVERSITY Course Title: Accounting Information System Course Code: ACT 430 Sec: 01 Submitted to Nikhil Chandra Shil Department of Business Administration East West University Submitted by Name | ID | Md. Saiful Islam | 2011-1-10-293 | Md. Sariful Islam | 2011-1-10-286 | Saad Abduallah | 2011-1-10-362 | Sakil Ahamed Dip MD.Khanzarul Islam | 2011-3-10-149 2011-1-10-428 | Date of Submission: 25th November, 2014 November 25, 2014 Nikhil Chandra Shil Bachelor of Business Administration East West University Subject: Submission of report on Accounting Information System in chapter 3. Dear Sir, We would like to take this opportunity to thank you for the guidance and support you have provided us during this course of this report. Without your help, this report would have been impossible to complete. To prepare the report we collected what we believe to be most relevant information to make our report as analytical and reliable as possible. We have concentrated our best effort to achieve the objectives of the report and hope that our endeavor will serve the purpose. The practical knowledge and experience gathered during report preparation will immeasurably help in our future professional life. We request you to excuse us for any mistake that may occur in the report......

Words: 9514 - Pages: 39

Free Essay

Accounting Theory

... FORMULATION OF ACCOUNTING THEORY: PURPOSE AND APPROACHES A TERM PAPER (2) ON ADVANCED ACCOUNTING THEORY (ACC 821) PRESENTED BY EKERIA, Victor IKYUME, Chiahemba James OGBOLE, Philip Osemudiamen SUBMITTED TO PROFESSOR A.E. OKOYE DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTING COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMEN SUDIES IGBINEDION UNIVERSITY, OKADA MARCH, 2015 Abstract As tasks of accounting became more difficult and focus shifted to users’ needs, a theory became necessary. Existence of a need for information for decision making (decision usefulness) in face of information asymmetry led to development of means, tools and techniques for satisfying decision making needs (formulation of accounting theories) This paper briefly discusses the purpose/importance for accounting theory and various approaches to the formulation of an accounting theory under two headings, namely: (1) traditional approaches, and (2) new approaches. The paper finally highlights the critiques of the accounting theory approaches Table of Content 1.0.0. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 1 2.0.0. Meaning of Accounting Theory………………………………………………………… 2 2.1.0. Needs and Purpose for Accounting Theory…………………………………………….. 3 3.0.0. Early Attempts at Accounting Theory……………………………………………………...3 4.0.0. Approaches to the for Formulation of Accounting Theory……………………………….5 4.1.0. 4.1.0. The Traditional Approaches………………………………………………………..5 4.1.1. Non – Theoretical, Practical, or Pragmatic (Informal)......

Words: 4446 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Positive Accounting Theory

...The role of positive accounting theory. PAT has been the most significant accounting research agendas during the past four decades (Kabir). Before the arrival of PAT, normative accounting research had been the leading research tradition in accounting. Normative accounting theorists concentrated in developing accounting principles for recognition and measurement issues. In contrast with normative accounting theory which deals with “should” kind questions, PAT deals with “is” kind questions. According to Watts and Zimmerman “the objective of positive accounting theory is to explain and predict accounting practice. It explains why financial reports are prepared. Positive accounting theorists have explained the accounting practices by including the measures accountants employ to calculate total assets, total liabilities, owners' equity and net income. Moreover, they also claim that positive accounting theory provides a scientific explanations of accounting practice that is that their findings are empirically test. PAT also examines the effects of accounting standards on management’s self-interest hence PAT recognizes management biased attitude on accounting standards which are likely to affect corporates lobbying on accounting standards. Pat also identifies certain factors that are expected to affect a firms cash flows and share price .These factors are taxes, political costs and information production and management compensation. PAT theoretically played its role in......

Words: 1910 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Corporate Social & Environmental Reporting Fiji

...qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfgh jklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvb AF301 ACCOUNTING THEORY nmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer & APPLICATIONS tyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx Group Seminar Report cvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq TOPIC:2 – CORPORATE SOCIAL wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio & ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdzxcvbnm STUDENT NAME MELISA SINGH ASHVINI SAHAYAM SHABINA FARNAAZ SHANEEL PRASAD KRITHNEEL SINGH TOTORIAL DAY / TIME TUTORS NAME GROUP MEMBERS STUDENT ID NUMBER S11066108 S11065177 S11065043 S11065627 S11065615 THURSDAY 8 – 10AM MISS FAZEENA HUSSAIN TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY ........................................................................................... 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................. 4 IMPORTANCE OF ACCOUNTING FOR SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ......... 5 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 6 THEORETICAL UNDERPINNING ...........................................

Words: 12904 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay

Environmental and Social Accounting

...THE ROLE OF SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING IN THE ORGANIZATIONS Author: Mohamed Anas (2015) INTRODUCTION There has been an increase in demand for environmental and social reporting as well as other non-financial information by shareholders and users of financial statements. In early 2000’s the stakeholders and shareholders are only concerned with the financial performance but now the trend has changed as that the shareholders and stakeholders who believed that the organization should be responsible to the environment and society in which they operate the business, and therefore it needs to be good for the community. This has caused that many laws and regulations such as environmental and social laws, employment laws, anti-corruption laws and good governance laws developed by the states to protect the environment and social issues icons. The concept of social responsibility has been raised in the context of this because the organization must be committed to run the business ethically and contribute for the growth of the economy, and at the same time improving the standard of life of employees and their families as well as for the society they operate their business and future generation. REQUIREMNT OF THE CURRENT CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Conceptual framework is a guideline issued by international accounting standard board (IASB) for the development of international accounting standards (IAS). It is a practical tool that assist IASB to develop standards and assist......

Words: 2594 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Positive Accounting Theory

...Critical Perspectives on Accounting (1996) 7 , 409 – 435 RECONSIDERING THE ‘‘SOCIAL’’ IN POSITIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY: THE CASE OF SITE RESTORATION COSTS DEAN NEU AND CYNTHIA SIMMONS University of Calgary This paper seeks to challenge the hegemony of positive accounting theory explanations of managerial behaviour. We argue that the decontextualized perspective of positive accounting theory is limiting and that changing the perspective offers a more complete explanation of behaviour. Starting from the notion of social relations developed by Marx, we reinterpret positive theory variables as proxies for a subset of the social relations in which managers are embedded. From this perspective, a more inclusive explanation of behaviour can be obtained by considering the entire web of social relations that influence behaviour. To demonstrate the ‘‘cash value’’ of a social relations perspective, accounting for site restoration costs is used as an illustration. The results are consistent with a broad social relations perspective. ÷ 1996 Academic Press Limited Introduction ‘‘[I]t is clear there is a relation between firm’s accounting choice and other firm variables, such as leverage and size and the signs of the relations are mostly consistent across studies. Positive accounting research guided the search for empirical regularities and provided explanations for them. To date, there are no systematic alternative sets of explanations for those regularities articulated and tested...

Words: 13164 - Pages: 53

Free Essay

The Impact of Information Technology on Accounting

...anaCHAPTER 1 DECISION MAKING AND THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTING TEXT REFERENCE: Hoggett, J.R., Edwards, L., & Medlin, J., Accounting in Australia, Fifth Edition, Chapter 1. OBJECTIVES: When you have studied this chapter, you should be able to: 1. understand the nature of decisions and the decision-making process. 2. appreciate the wide range of economic decisions made in the marketplace. 3. explain the nature of accounting and its main functions. 4. identify the potential users of accounting information. 5. use information to make simple economic decisions. 6. understand the role of accounting information in the decision-making process. 7. understand the differences between accounting for management and accounting for external users. 8. understand how the accounting profession is organised in Australia. 9. identify the different areas of the economy in which accountants work. 10. understand the importance of ethics in business and accounting and how to recognise and handle ethical dilemmas as part of the decision-making process. 1 Chapter 1 STUDY TIPS FOR CHAPTER 1 1. This is an important chapter because it lays the foundation for all topics that will follow. 2. Make sure that you understand each new term as it is introduced. 3. Pay particular attention to the significance of accounting information for decisionmaking processes. 4. Identify the types of activities that are carried...

Words: 2983 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Accounting Theory Is Useful

...usefulness of accounting theory is evident at various levels within the accounting profession and society in general including, standard setters, accounting professionals and users of accounting information. This essay will address two key areas, firstly, a personal reflection on this course and why studying theory is essential for practicing accountants. The second part is a critical evaluation of the conceptual framework and why it is an essential part of accounting literature. Areas evaluated include the purpose and benefits of a conceptual framework, a brief history of it in Australia, principle based versus rules based standards and some criticisms of it are discussed. Personal reflection I must admit, when scrolling through the list of courses I have left to complete my degree Accounting Theory did not jump out as one I was eager to enrol in. This is in no small part due to my lack of appreciation of how knowledge of the development of theory can give context and power to understanding changes. Whereas before I was more about practice and ‘getting it done’, it has become apparent that theory generally is an intrinsic element in advancing our understanding of our environment, culminating in improvements in practice. It is not a means of simply explaining or predicting behaviour, nor is it there only to serve as a framework for further inquiry (although these are important benefits of theory). Theory has a much more significant and elegant role to play in accounting......

Words: 3910 - Pages: 16