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Culture of Pakistan

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ELEMENT OF PAKISTANI CULTURE
The society and culture of Pakistan comprises numerous diverse cultures and ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Muhajirs, Makrani in the south; Baloch and Pashtun in the west; and the ancient Dardic, Wakhi, and Burushocommunities in the north. These Pakistani cultures have been greatly influenced by many of the surrounding countries' cultures.The past few decades have seen emergence of a middle class in cities such asKarachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Quetta, Faisalabad, Sukkur, Peshawar,Sialkot, Abbottabad, and Multan. Rural areas of Pakistan are regarded as more conservative, and are dominated by regional tribal customs dating back hundreds if not thousands of years.

Literature
Pakistani literature originates from when Pakistan gained its nationhood as a sovereign state in 1947. The common and shared tradition of Urdu literature and English literature of South Asia was inherited by the new state. Over a period of time, a body of literature unique to Pakistan has emerged in nearly all major Pakistani languages, including Urdu, English, Punjabi, Pashto,Seraiki, Balochi, and Sindhi.

Poetry
Poetry is a highly respected art and profession in Pakistan. The enthusiasm for poetry exists at a regional level as well, with nearly all of Pakistan's provincial languages continuing the legacy. The independence of the country in 1947 and establishment of Urdu as the national language, poetry is written in that language as well. The Urdu language has a rich tradition of poetry and includes the famous poets Dr. Allama Iqbal (national poet), Mirza Ghalib, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Ahmad Faraz, Jazib Qureshi, and Ahmad Nadeem Qasimi. Apart from Urdu poetry, Pakistani poetry also has blends of other regional languages. Balochi, Sindhi, Punjabi, Seraiki, and Pashto poetry have all incorporated and influenced Pakistani poetry.
Music
The variety of Pakistani music ranges from diverse provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern forms fusing traditional and western music, such as the synchronisation of Qawwali and western music by the world renowned Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan.

Painting
Abdul Rehman Chughtai, Sughra Rababi, Ustad Allah Baksh, Ajaz Anwar, Ismail Gulgee, Jamil Naqsh, and Sadequain are prominent painters of Pakistan. Pakistani vehicle art is a popular folk art.

Architecture
The architecture of the areas now constituting Pakistan can be traced to four distinct periods:pre-Islamic, Hindu heritage. One of the most important of the few examples of the Persian style of architecture is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan. During theMughal era, design elements of Islamic-Persian architecture were fused with, and often produced playful forms of, Hindustani art. Lahore, occasional residence of Mughal rulers, exhibits a multiplicity of important buildings from the empire, among them the Badshahi mosque, the fortress of Lahore with the famous Alamgiri Gate, the colourful, still strongly Persian seeming Wazir Khan Mosque as well as numerous other mosques and mausoleums. The Shahjahan Mosque of Thatta in Sindh also originates from the epoch of the Mughals, as does the Mohabbat Khan Mosque in Peshawar.Post-colonial national identity is expressed in modern structures like the Faisal Mosque, the Minar-e-Pakistan and the Mazar-e-Quaid.
Sports
The official national sport of Pakistan is field hockey, but cricket and squash are the most popular sports. The Pakistan national field hockey team has won the Hockey World Cup a record four times. The Pakistan national cricket team has won the Cricket World Cup once (in1992), were runners-up once (in 1999), and co-hosted the games twice (in 1987 and 1996). Additionally, they have also won the ICC World Twenty20 once (in 2009), and were runners-up (in 2007). The team has also won the Austral-Asia Cup in 1986, 1990, and 1994.
At the international level, Pakistan has competed many times at the Summer Olympics in field hockey, boxing, athletics, swimming, and shooting. Hockey is the sport in which Pakistan has been most successful at the Olympics, winning three gold medals (1960, 1968, and 1984). Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup four times (1971, 1978, 1982, and 1994).[6]Pakistan has hosted several international competitions, including the South Asian Federation Games in 1989 and 2004

Festivals
Ramadan
The holiest month of the Islamic Calendar, which is a month of fasting from sunrise to sunset and self-discipline, it is widely observed in Pakistan. Muslim Pakistanis (about 97% of the population) fast, attend mosques with increased frequency, and recite Qur'an. Special foods are cooked in greater quantities, parties are held, and special accommodation is made by workplaces and educational institutes.
Chand Raat
Occurs after the Islamic month of Ramadan. Chand Raat occurs the night before Eid day celebrations commence, marking the end of the month of Ramadan. In the night known as Chand Raat, people celebrate by various means, such as girls putting henna on their hands. People buy gifts and sweets that will be given to friends and families who come over to celebrate the end of Ramadan.
Eid celebrations
The two Eids, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha, commemorate the passing of the month of fasting, Ramadan, and the willingness of Ibrahim A.S to sacrifice his son Ishmael for God. On these days, there are national holidays and many festival events that take place to celebrate Eid. As Pakistan is a Muslim state, there are three days off for all businesses and government offices.
Milaad un Nabi
Milaad un Nabi is a known religious festival which is celebrated in many parts of Pakistan. The Milaad is the celebration for the birthday of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Jashn-e-Baharan
Jashn-e-Baharan aometimes referred to as Basant, is a pre-Islamic Punjabi festival that marks the coming of spring. Celebrations in Pakistan are centered in Lahore, and people from all over the country and abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite flying competitions take place all over the city's rooftops during Basant (now prohibited). The fertile province of Punjab was intimately tied via its agriculture to the different seasons of the year. The arrival of spring was an important event for all farmers and was welcomed with a celebration, hence the name Jashn (celebration) Baharan (spring).

Independence Day
On August 14, the people of Pakistan celebrate the day when Pakistan gained its independence from British India, and formed an independent state for Muslims. There are many celebrations all over the country, with people singing and dancing in the streets. Concerts are held with many pop and classical singers. Parades are held in the capital city (Islamabad). Many people decorate their houses and fly the flag of Pakistan. At night, fireworks are used in many cities. Many people pray for the country and reflect on their pride in the country of Pakistan.
Culture tradition
Pakistanis have evolved an often distinct and unique set of culture, traditions and customs in the region.Shalwar Qameez is the dress commonly worn, both by men and women, and Kashmiru, etc. put and dances are distinctly unique with their own melodies, instruments, patterns and styles. Pakistani arts in metal work, tiles, furniture, rugs, designs/paintings, literature, calligraphy, and much more are diverse and renowned internationally. Pakistani architecture is unique with its infusion of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indigenous styles.

Element of Punjabi culture
Punjabis make up more than 40% of the population of Pakistan.
Punjabis have traditionally and historically been farmers and soldiers which has transferred into modern times with their dominance of agriculture and military fields in Pakistan. In addition, Punjabis in Pakistan have been quite prominent politically, having had many elected Members of Parliament.

Language and identity
Punjabis speak many distinct dialects, which include Hindko, Seraiki, Potohari or Pahari and still identify themselves as Punjabis. People from a few provinces of Pakistan have made Punjab their home in recent times and now their consecutive generations identify themselves as Punjabis. The largest community to assimilate in Punjabi culture and now identify themselves as Punjabis are Kashmiris which include noted personalities like Nawaz Sharif, Sheikh Rasheed, Hamid Mir and the most noted poet Muhammad Iqbal, to name a few.
Village life in Punjab
The village life of land of five rivers is as entrancing as any other thing of this region. The village life is simple and people usually live in small communities and they live in peace and harmony with each other.
Religion
Punjab is one of the most tolerant and diverse in terms of religion in South Asia. Also many prominent scholars in the past have made inroads in Punjabi population who not only stressed the need of organized religion like Islam. For this reason Punjabis are diverse in their religious thoughts and many religious and philosophical movements initiated here in the past.
The majority of Punjabis in Pakistan are Muslims. In Pakistani Punjab more than 3 percent of the population are Christians and churches could be found in almost every city. Punjabis also follow Sufism, Quranism and some follow Deism and a small minority is Atheist and Agnostic as well.
Punjabi folklore
Punjabi folklore, more particularly its folksongs, is said to be the autobiography of its people. Folklore is the body of expressive culture, including tales, music, dance, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, customs, and so forth within a particular population comprising the traditions (including oral traditions) of that culture, subculture, or group
List of Punjabi folklore * Heer Ranjha * Mirza Sahiba * Sohni Mahiwal * Sassi Punnun * Sucha Singh Soorma * Jeona Maur * Shirin Farhad * Yusuf and Zulaikha * The Marriage of Sakhi Sarwar SINDHI PEOPLE AND CULTURE *
Sindhis are a Sindhi-speaking ethnic group of people originally native to theSindh province of the Indian empire, today which is found in the country of Pakistan.
Some of the places in Sindh have been inhabited as early as the 3rd millennium BC. A large number of Indus valley sites have been found in Sindh. Sindh was ruled by local Hindu and Buddhist rulers until 712 CE, when it was invaded by the Arabs and incorporated into part of the Umayyad Caliphate. While Sindhis were originally Hindus or Buddhists.
Sufism
Slslay aaliya naqshband in Sindh was mainly due to Sultan Ul Oliya Khawaja Muhammad Zaman of Luari Sharif. He was the spiritual leader of makhdoom Abdul Rahim Grohri. Once Shah Abdul Latif Bhitaai even came to enter in to his school of thought but Sultan ul oliya did not allow him because music is not allowed in Naqshbandi silsila. Sindhi culture has been strongly influenced by Sufism.Jhulelal, the Sufi pioneer of Sindh, is revered by both Hindus and Muslims. A common greeting among Sindhis is "Jhulelal Bera-Hee-Paar"
Islamic influence
With Sindh’s stable prosperity and its strategic geographical possession, it is not surprising that it was subject to successive conquests by foreign empires. In 712 A.D., Sindh was incorporated into the Caliphate, the Islamic Empire, and became the ‘Arabian gateway’ into India (later to become known as Bab-ul-Islam, the gate of Islam). After the conquest by the Arabs, the people of Sindh were influenced by Islam. Sindhi culture also has certain Persian influences as Sindh was exposed to cultural, religious and linguistic influence from IslamicPersia. Most significantly, numerous Persian loanwords made their way into the Sindhi language along with the Nastaʿlīq script, in which modern Sindhi is written today.Muslim Sindhis tend to follow the Sunni Hanafi fiqh with a substantial minority of Shia Ithna 'ashariyah. The Sufism has made a deep impact on Sindhi Muslims and Sufi shrines dot the landscape of Sindh. PASHTUNS
Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan; for over 250 years, they have reignedas the dominant ethno-linguistic group, with nearly all rulers being Pashtun. Themujahideen who fought against the Soviet-backed Afghan government in the 1980s were also dominated by Pashtun fighters. They make up the majority of the Taliban and the current Afghan government. They are also an important community in Pakistan, which has the largest Pashtun population and constitute the second-largest ethnic group, having attained presidency there and high rankings in sports.
The Pashtuns are the world's largest (patriarchal) segmentary lineage ethnic group. According to Ethnologue, the total population of the group is estimated to be around 50 million[1] but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400.
Anthropology and oral traditions
Some anthropologists lend credence to the oral traditions of the Pashtun tribes themselves. For example, according to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites is traced to Maghzan-e-Afghani who compiled a history for Khan-e-Jehan Lodhi in the reign of Mughal Emperor Jehangir in the 17th century. There have been many legends over the centuries of descent from the Ten Lost Tribes after groups converted to Christianity and Islam. Hence the tribal name Yusufzai in Pashto translates to the "son of Joseph". A similar story is told by many historians, including the 14th century Ibn Battuta and 16th centuryFerishta. One conflicting issue in the belief that the Pashtuns descend from the Israelites is that the Ten Lost Tribes were exiled by the ruler of Assyria, while Maghzan-e-Afghani says they were permitted by the ruler to go east to Afghanistan. This inconsistency can be explained by the fact that Persia acquired the lands of the ancient Assyrian Empire when it conquered the Empire of the Medes and Chaldean Babylonia, which had conquered Assyria decades earlier. But no ancient author mentions such a transfer of Israelites further east, or no ancient extra-Biblical texts refer to the Ten Lost Tribes at all.
Pashto literature and poetry
The majority of Pashtuns use Pashto as their native tongue, believed to belong to the Indo-Iranian language family, and is spoken by up to 60 million people. It is written in the Pashto-ArabiC script and is divided into two main dialects, the southern "Pashto" and the northern "Pukhto". The language has ancient origins and bears similarities to extinct languages such as Avestan and Bactrian. Its closest modern relatives may include Pamir languages, such as Shughni and Wakhi, and Ossetic. Pashto may have ancient legacy of borrowing vocabulary from neighbouring languages including such as Persian and Vedic Sanskrit BALOCH CULTURE
The Baloch people mainly speak Balochi, which is a branch of the Iranian languages, and more specifically of the Northwestern Iranian languages, that is Kurdish and other Iranic languages of the region. It also contains archaic features reminiscent of Old Persian and Avestan
Baluchi customs and traditions are conducted according to codes imposed by tribal laws. These strong traditions and cultural values are important to Baluch people and have enabled them to keep their distinctive ancient cultural identity and way of life with little change to this day. The culture and traditions of the Baluch have historically been passed down from mother to daughter, and men from father to son.
Baluchi music
Folk music has always played a great role in Baluchi traditions. Baluchi music belong to the same branch of Iranian music performed by many otherIranian peoples including Persians, Kurds, Lurs, Tajiks and others.
Balochi language
The Balochi language is spoken in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, the Persian Gulf Arab states, Turkmenistan, and as far as East Africa and some Western countries. It is classified as a member of the Iranian group of the Indo-European language family, which includes Kurdish, Persian, Pashto, Dari, Tajikand Ossetian. The Baluchi language has the closest similarities to Kurdish, Avestan, old Persian and other Iranian languages.…...

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... Zeeshan Hashim December 1 at 7:17am · Edited ·  ..... ‫ﻣﺠﻬﮯ ﺍﺏ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁﺎ" ﺧﻂ ﻧﮧ ﻟﮑﻬﻨﺎ‬ .......‫ﻣﻴﺮﮮ ﺑﭽﻮﮞ ﮐﻮ ﭘﮍﻫﻨﺎ ﺁ ﮔﻴﺎ ﮨﮯ‬ ..... ‫ﺍﯾﮏ ﺍﭼﻬﯽ ﺩﻭﺳﺖ ﮐﮯ ﻭﺍﻝ ﺳﮯ‬ Like · Comment · Share 65 people like this. 1 share View 16 more comments Zeeshan Hashim  December 1 at 2:57pm · Like ·  ‫ﺷﮩﺭﻳﺎﺭ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻗﯽ‬ ‫ﺁﭖ ﮐﯽ ﺍﯾﮏ ﺍﭼﻬﯽ ﺩﻭﺳﺖ ﻧﮯ ﺍﭼﻬﯽ ﺍﻭﺭ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺕ ﮐﯽ ﮨﮯ‬ December 2 at 9:50am · Like ·  1 Nadeem Abbas yani , khabees k bachon ko pahrna aa gya hai December 2 at 10:29pm · Like ·  1 Nadeem Abbas Geo ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ‬ December 3 at 7:53pm · Edited · Like Write a comment... 1 Zeeshan Hashim December 1 at 3:36am · Twitter ·  Congratulation @Asma_Jahangir for winning Right Livelihood ​ ward​ #​ a  from Swedish Parliament. It is the honor for us and Pakistan as well. Like · Comment · Share · @ZeeHashim on Twitter Mona Bee and 12 others like this. Nasir Khan Nasir Lv thiz lady.... Her efforts r just the G­T road for other womens.... Congro Asma  December 1 at 5:11am · Like Write a comment... Zeeshan Hashim December 1 at 12:48am · Edited ·  ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﺣﻤﻖ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺑﺼﻴﺮﺕ ﺳﮯ ﻣﺤﺮﻭﻡ ﮨﻮ ﺗﻮ ﺍﯾﮏ ﻁﺮﻑ ﺟﮩﺎﮞ ﺧﻮﺩ ﮈﻭﺑﺘﺎ ﮨﮯ ، ﺗﻮ‬ http://www.facebook.com/zeeshan.hashim2?fref=ts 21/33 ‫4102/31/21‬ ‫‪(1) Zeeshan Hashim‬‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺳﺮﯼ ﻁﺮﻑ ﭘﻮﺭﯼ ﻗﻮﻡ ﮐﯽ ﺗﺒﺎﮨﯽ ﮐﺎ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﮞ ﺑﻬﯽ ﺑﻨﺘﺎ ﮨﮯ ﯾﺎ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺭﺷﻴﺪ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﺶ ﺣﻤﻠﮧ ﺁﻭﺭ ﮨﻮﺗﺎ ﮨﮯ )ﻭﯾﺴﮯ ﯾﮧ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻧﮩﻮﮞ ﻧﮯ ﺍﭘﻨﮯ ﻟﺌﮯ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﮐﺌﮯ ﮐﮧ ﻭﻩ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﺶ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﺪﺍﻥ ﮨﻴﮟ (،ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﻬﯽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺗﺒﺎﻩ ﮨﻮﺗﺎ ﮨﮯ ، ﻣﮕﺮ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻡ ﮐﻮ ﺑﻬﯽ ﻟﮯ‬......

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Impact of Social Media on Organizational Culture: Evidence from Pakistan

...Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.4, No.21, 2014 www.iiste.org Impact of Social Media on Organizational Culture: Evidence from Pakistan Muhammad Arslan (Corresponding Author) M.Phil,Bahria University Islamabad, Pakistan, PO box 44000, E-8, Islamabad, Pakistan Email: MuhammadArslan73@gmail.com Rashid Zaman M.Phil Scholar,Bahria University Islamabad, Pakistan, PO box 44000, E-8, Islamabad, Pakistan Email: Rashidzamantanoli@gmail.com Abstract This paper investigates the impact of social Media on Organizational culture. The approach used in this paper was to give the application and significance of development of Social media for organizations. With an introduction to social media, organizational culture is focused by studying communication, business focus, workplace harmony, workplace behaviors, and business discipline. A self-administered survey is used to collect responses from employees working at different organizations through e-mail and various social media tools. The main result of the research is the validation of the research framework of employees operating in the SME’s of Pakistan. It has been found that organizational culture is considerably affected by development and application of social media for business related activities in organizations. Keywords: Socail Media, Pakistan, organizational culture 1. Introduction The concept of Social Media is top of the agenda for many business executives today. Decision makers, as well as......

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Pakistan

...22 Points of Ullema One of the main arguments of the secularists in Pakistan was that the Ulema were divided on sectarian lines and they were not in a position to agree on one concept of Islamic system. After thorough discussions Ullema formulated a programme of 22 principles, which according to them were irreducible minimum for an Islamic State. The formula given by them is commonly known as the Ulema’s 22 Points. 1. Ultimate sovereignty over all Nature and Laws belongs to Allah Rabb al-Alamin. 2. Quran and Sunnah as the basis of all Law. Current laws considered in conflict with the Sharia to be abrogated or suitably amended to conform with the Shariah. 3. The State to be based on principles and ideals of Islam and not on any geographical, racial or linguistic concepts and considerations 4. The State to enjoin practices prescribed by the Quran and Sunnah and to prohibit those forbidden by it. Beliefs of various sects to be taken into consideration while reviving or establishing Islamic customs, practices and law. 5. The State to strengthen bonds of unity and solidarity with the Muslim world. 6. The State to undertake responsibili9ty for providing the basic needs of its citizens who are unable to earn their own livelihood irrespective of religion, race or creed. 7. All citizens to enjoy fundamental rights granted by the Shariah such as safety of life and property, freedom of religion, worship,......

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Where Is Pakistan in Pakistan

...Where is Pakistan in Pakistan? In 1947 Boundary of this country was defined by the British. Millions of people Migrated to new born Pakistan after partition. They lost hundreds and thousands of precious lives while they were traveling to their new country towards west. In eastern Pakistan stories were not very different from those of the migrants of the west. The death toll on both sides was huge. From the very first day the people started building their country. A nation that was born in its embryonic stage had to fight all kind of threats, economical as well as the geographical. Since the day we are in a process to build this country and trying to strengthen our nation. A number of cultures and traditions, customs and values, colors and races are still in a process of bonding together. Nation is still to be built and threats are still there since we were born. It is still in discussion if it had to be an Islamic country or a secular. No matter what foundation its founders wanted it to lie on; we lack a lot in every field. Religious institution is weaker than ever and financial crisis is following us since we were born, haunting our future. Political institution and defense are not able to define their boundaries resulting 3 marshal laws in last 60 years. 30 years were governed by the Army dictators and 30 years by the politicians. All of them tried to make amendments in the constitution for their personal benefits totally forgetting the masses of this country. The......

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Culture of Pakistan

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