Premium Essay

Converging-Diverging Nozzle

In: Science

Submitted By luke81
Words 349
Pages 2
Subject: Converging-diverging nozzle experiment

In this experiment, we used manometers to measure the pressures in the nozzle relative to atmospheric pressure. A water manometer is connected to the inlet pressure tap (P0-P1) and also connected to the throat (P0-P2) and downstream (P0-P3) pressure taps as well. To start this lab we adjusted the flow rate to increase (P0-P3) in equal steps of 2.5 inches of water until the nozzle is choked, which means there is no further increases in (P0-P2) and (P0-P1). For each step, we recorded the readings from all manometers. We did this experiment twice and averaged all readings and calculated the mass flow rate from (P0-P1) assuming incompressible flow in this region and a discharge coefficient of 0.96 after collecting all the data. Then we plotted the mass flow rate vs. (P0-P3) and plot (P0-P2) vs. (P0-P3).
This allowed us to compare the limiting values of throat velocity and pressure ratio (P2/P0) with theoretical values based on isentropic flow and also to find conditions that gave choked flow. We needed to use critical pressure ratio, theoretical critical pressure ratio, and theoretical velocity to help us to find choked flow.
The purpose of this lab is to simulate the operation of a converging diverging nozzle, which perhaps is one of the most important and basic pieces of engineering hardware associated with the high speed flow of gases. This experiment is intended to help engineers of compressible aerodynamics visualize the flow through this type of nozzle at a range of conditions.
We increased step size by 2.5 inches each time until it reached to 40 inches. After we recorded all the data, the choked flow should be around 27.5 inches of water; the manometer started to stop increasing around the reading of 1.88 and the pressure was around 6.24 PSID.
The generally good comparisons of data with theoretical results…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Wind Tunnel - Replica of the Wright Brothers' Wind Tunnel.

...[6] By the end of World War Two, the US had built eight new wind tunnels, including the largest one in the world at Moffett Field near Sunnyvale, California, which was designed to test full size aircraft at speeds of less than 250 mph[7] and a vertical wind tunnel at Wright Field, Ohio, where the wind stream is upwards for the testing of models in spin situations and the concepts and engineering designs for the first primitive helicopters flown in the US.[8] Post World War Two Later research into airflows near or above the speed of sound used a related approach. Metal pressure chambers were used to store high-pressure air which was then accelerated through a nozzle designed to provide supersonic flow. The observation or instrumentation chamber ("test section") was then placed at the proper location in the throat or nozzle for the desired airspeed. For limited applications, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can increase or possibly replace the use of wind tunnels. For example, the experimental rocket plane SpaceShipOne was designed without any use of wind tunnels. However, on one test, flight threads were attached to the surface of the wings, performing a wind tunnel type of test during an actual flight in order to refine the computational model. Where external turbulent flow is present, CFD is not practical due to limitations in present day computing resources. For example, an area that is still much too complex for the use of CFD is determining the effects of flow on......

Words: 3936 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Smooth Bore vs. Fog Nozzles

...------------------------------------------------- Old School: Smoothbore Nozzles in the Fire Service ------------------------------------------------- The City of ______ Fire Department is in current discussion of using either smooth bore nozzle versus combination nozzles in commercial structures. This conversation has been a topic within the fire service since the introduction of the fog/combination nozzles in the 1960’s. Although there are positives to both pieces of equipment, I believe that the department needs to make a decision on which nozzle to use for a standard operating procedure and safety purposes. To better understand the background of the contrasting views, we must look at how the fire service has developed around these two nozzles. The original nozzle was the smooth bore, partly because of its simple design-no moving parts or springs, just a piece of metal that allows water to take shape when it leaves. When Dr. Charles Oyston obtained a patent on a spray nozzle in 1863, the debate slowly emerged. The U.S. Navy introduced the fog nozzle to thousand of men during World War II. Lloyd Layman, commander of the Coast Guard Fire School, discovered the indirect application of fog technique. It was taught at great length, since shipboard fires are very easily compartmentalized and a flammable liquid was the combustible. This fire condition was efficiently and safely extinguished with ease with the indirect fog attack method. According to Layman, the rules......

Words: 1417 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Converging on an Hiv Vaccine

...Converging on an HIV Vaccine According to Bette Korber and S. Gnanakaran in their work of converging on an HIV vaccine, they talk about how the HIV virus attacks the body and how it can be suppressed. This work was first introduced on 19th September of 2011. They start of by saying that even after 3 full decades there hasn’t been a discovery of vaccine for HIV, also known as the human immunodeficiency virus. Even though Multidrug therapy can extend one’s life and health for those with HIV virus, it can’t really save a person’s life. Therefore, a vaccination is important for the treatment of these sick people. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs) can block the HIV infection from infecting target T cells and so it has the potential of preventing new infections. They also say that Nabs can block HIV infections, but making a vaccine that has the same result had been difficult. BNAbs only show up in little amount of people that are infected by HIV but that happens only after a substantial delay. Also efficacy trials that tried to activate protective antibodies for defense against this HIV virus either failed or showed only a little amount of protection. Therefore, trying to treat people that are infected with HIV with this HIV Envelope either failed or showed a tiny bit of protection. Since this method doesn’t work on treating HIV another approach suggested was the shared characteristics of a class of potent BNAbs that binds to the CD4 binding site of the heavy and...

Words: 573 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Aaaa

...For other uses, see Lens. A lens. Lenses can be used to focus light. A lens is an optical device which transmits and refracts light, converging or diverging the beam.[citation needed] A simple lens consists of a single optical element. A compound lens is an array of simple lenses (elements) with a common axis; the use of multiple elements allows more optical aberrations to be corrected than is possible with a single element. Lenses are typically made of glass or transparent plastic. Elements which refract electromagnetic radiation outside the visual spectrum are also called lenses: for instance, a microwave lens can be made from paraffin wax. The variant spelling lense is sometimes seen. While it is listed as an alternative spelling in some dictionaries, most mainstream dictionaries do not list it as acceptable.[1][2] Contents * 1 History * 2 Construction of simple lenses * 2.1 Types of simple lenses * 2.2 Lensmaker's equation * 2.2.1 Sign convention of lens radii R1 and R2 * 2.2.2 Thin lens equation * 3 Imaging properties * 4 Aberrations * 4.1 Spherical aberration * 4.2 Coma * 4.3 Chromatic aberration * 4.4 Other types of aberration * 4.5 Aperture diffraction * 5 Compound lenses * 6 Other types * 7 Uses * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links * 11.1 Simulations History | This section requires expansion with:......

Words: 2141 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Leadership Theory

...AE). Diverging (feeling and watching - CE/RO): These people are able to look at things from different perspectives. They prefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather information and use imagination to solve problems. They are best at viewing concrete situations several different viewpoints. These people perform better in situations that require ideas-generation, for example, brainstorming. People with the diverging style prefer to work in groups, to listen with an open mind and are excellent team players. Assimilating (watching and thinking - AC/RO): The Assimilating learning preference is for a concise, logical approach. Ideas and concepts are more important than people. These people require good clear explanation rather than practical opportunity. They excel at understanding wide-ranging information and organizing it a clear logical format. People with an assimilating learning style are less focused on people and more interested in ideas and abstract concepts. People with this style are more attracted to logically sound theories than approaches based on practical value.People with this style prefer readings, lectures, exploring analytical models, and having time to think things through. Converging (doing and thinking - AC/AE): People with a converging learning style can solve problems and will use their learning to find solutions to practical issues. They prefer technical tasks, and are less concerned with people and interpersonal aspects. People with a converging......

Words: 2498 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Developing Criminological Skills

...reflection approach to experiences by watching others throughout the tasks, and reflect on the situation. Based on the four elements, Kolb defined four distinct definitions of learning styles: diverging, assimilating, converging and accommodating (Kolb 1984). Diverging type has the elements of concrete experience and observation and reflection. Diverging type of people performs better in situations where creation of ideas needed, and collecting information. They look at things from a different perception, and employ their own imagination to solve problems. People with this type of learning style usually have good interested in cultural and peoples, and prefer to work in groups. They also like to be given comments and listen with an open mind. Assimilating type of people learns by thinking and observing, this type of style consists of abstract conceptualization and observation and reflection. They are attracted to logical theories and explanations, rather than practical approaches. They are more focused on abstracting ideas and concepts, these are very important to their learning in comparison to peoples. Assimilating type prefers to read and analyses, they are also good at understanding an open range of information and organizing into a clear logical form. Converging is the combination of active experimentation and abstract conceptualization. They learn by actual doing the tasks themselves, rather than watching and listening from others who are involved in......

Words: 1060 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...that the learning process is not the same for everybody: As a result of heredity, past life experiences and demands linked to environmental circumstances, everybody develops an individual learning style, which has both strong and weak points (Jonassen & Grabowski, 1993). Learning styles help to resolve problems and conflicts in day-to-day situations. Some people tend to be more abstract, others more concrete. A mathematician may come to place great emphasis on abstract concepts, whereas a poet may value CE more highly. A manager may be primarily concerned with the active application of ideas, whereas a naturalist may develop his observational skills more strongly. While teaching at universities in different countries, one may notice the diverging cognitive abilities of students. Some of them learn best during formal lectures, while others prefer exercises or discussions. This is why Kolb built his model on the following assumptions: Learning is conceived as a four-stage cycle. Immediate concrete experience is the basis for observation and reflection. An individual uses these observations to build an idea, generalization, or ‘‘theory’’ from which new implications for action can be deduced. These implications or hypotheses then serve as guides in acting to create new experience. The learners, if they are to be effective, need four different kinds of abilities: Concrete Experience abilities (CE), Reflective Observation abilities (RO), Abstract Conceptualization......

Words: 6757 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Diverging Learner

...Diverging is my learning style; this style of learning, is defined as learning by feeling and watching. Furthermore these individuals analyze things from different perspectives. Diverging learners are usually sensitive and prefer to watch as things are being done rather than jump right in and assist. People with Diverging learning styles like to brainstorm and gather information pertaining to the subject, very emotional and use their imagination, has a strong background in the arts, likes to work in teams, very open minded and can absorb personal feedback. Strengths for Diverging learners consist of observing before acting this is a solid tool which will allow the learner to observe all aspects before taking action. Brainstorming is a strength that helps put all information together in a strategic manner which helps keep ideas in order. Working in teams and absorbing feedback from others are both strong attributes. Challenges of being a Diverging learner include not having the strength to jump in and help when needed and over analyzing. Sensitivity can be confused with being weak and timid this can be perceived as a challenge. Learning styles differ from work, home and school. Meaning while at home, you’re more relaxed and you may not over analyze or work so hard to figure something out. ent situations and absorb personal feedback, good or bad. So you’re learning style does change depending on surroundings.When at work you tend to over think to ensure you working to......

Words: 382 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Report on David A. Kolb's Model

...explained in his book Experiential Learning. The model outlines two related approaches toward grasping experience: Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization, as well as two related approaches toward transforming experience: Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. The first learning style is the diverging that is a combination of concerts experimentation and reflective observation. On individual, that is really dominant with the divergence and has a strong concrete experimentation and reflective observation skills. This type of person is innovative and imaginative and is going to love to work in groups. They are people-oriented, feeling-oriented and group-oriented. They do care about the diversity of culture around the group. These people are able to look at things from different perspectives. They are sensitive. They prefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather information and use imagination to solve problems. They are best at viewing concrete situations several different viewpoints. Kolb called this style 'Diverging' because these people perform better in situations that require ideas-generation, for example, brainstorming. People with a Diverging learning style have broad cultural interests and like to gather information. They are interested in people, tend to be imaginative and emotional, and tend to be strong in the arts. They prefer to work in groups, to listen with an open mind and to receive personal feedback. The second one is seemed......

Words: 1335 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Optic Eyes Lab Physic

...relaxed, focused at infinity b) Lens thickened, focused on a nearby object Nearsightedness refers to an eye that can focus only on nearby objects. Because the far point is not infinity but some shorter distance, distant objects are not seen clearly. This defect is usually caused by an eyeball that is too long and images of distance objects are focused in front of the retina. In order to correct this defect, a diverging lens should be used as it causes parallel rays to diverge which allowing the rays to be focused at the retina. Figure 3: a) Nearsighted eye b) Nearsighted eye is corrected by use of diverging lens Farsightedness refers to an eye that cannot focus on nearby objects. Although distant objects are usually seen clearly, the near point is somewhat greater than the “normal” 25 cm, which makes reading difficult. This defect is caused by an eyeball that is too short and the image is formed behind the retina. This defect can be corrected by using a converging lens. Figure 4: a) Farsighted eye b) Farsighted eye is corrected by use of converging lens In this lab, instead of using the focal length, the power of the lens which is the reciprocal of the focal length will be used to specify the strength of eyeglass lenses. P = 100f (in cm) Diapter 1f = 1do + 1di PASCO Model of the Human Eye: Specifically, PASCO model of human eye is a scaled up model of the human eye in which it uses a sealed plastic tank roughly shaped like the horizontal......

Words: 1974 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Others

...(a) watch or (b) do , and our emotional response to the experience i.e. 'transforming experience' - preferring to think or feel. Choosing to emotionally transform the experience into something meaningful is carried out in tow ways: by contemplating on the outcome further, or to have a tangible outcome that is concrete: • adding information by thinking, analyzing, or planning - abstract conceptualization' • the experiencing of the 'concrete, tangible - concrete experience' The combination of these two choices produces a dominant learning style. Kolb's model can be adapted further to help learners explore their dominant or preferred learning style. Kolb has introduced terminology to cover the four learning styles; diverging, assimilating, converging and accommodating. Most of us use the two approaches identified earlier. We can also describe a learning style through the 4 segments. See below. You may be able to determine your dominant learning style. If you can decide your approach, look at the ways that you learn. Are you interested in 'doing' rather than 'watching' the task and 'feeling' rather than 'thinking' about the experience? Use the learning style model above to place yourself by combining the styles that best represents those processes and approaches that you take. We haven't mentioned how the stages of the learning cycle can interrelate. A feature of the cycle shows show how the two approaches have been combined,......

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

3d Printing

...Factors 10 Ecological Factors 10 3D Printing is Coming 10 Works Cited 11 Executive Summary You might have heard of 3D printing from newscasters and journalists, astonished at what they’ve witnessed. It can print in plastic, metal, nylon, and over a hundred of other materials. 3D printing can be used to print little objects of candy to producing a whole apartment complex. 3D printing has been used over recent years to print small scale objects. However, some architects and other construction professionals are looking to introduce 3D printing technology in the construction industry. The research below will cover: application areas of the technology, type of innovation, technology life cycle stage, technologies that it is converging or diverging from, technology forecasts, types of forecasts, forecast intent, and assessment of the potential impact of the technology. Introduction While the basic process has existed for over 30 years, 3D printing has exploded onto the world’s scene in capability and availability to be the most revolutionary manufacturing processes known to man. Where early stereolithography machines could cost hundreds and thousands of dollars, now-a-days 3D printing machines can work with an abundance of materials. 3D printing: in manufacturing, any of several processes for fabricating three-dimensional objects by layering two-dimensional cross sections sequentially, one on top of another. The process is equivalent in the sense the ink or......

Words: 3950 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Nozzle Report

...DEN 306 AIRCRAFT PROPULSION NOZZLE THRUST EXPERIMENT ASAD SHAHID 090174120 Table of Contents Introduction 3 Objective 3 Background Theory 4 Derivation of the theoretical value of thrust 6 Apparatus 9 Experimental Procedure 10 Sample Calculations 11 Results 14 Graphs 17 Discussion 19 Conclusion 20 References 20 Introduction Nozzles are used in everyday life, whether they are in the form of a garden hose or in rockets. They are used extensively in rockets and turbo jet engines. Nozzles come in several different types, whether its convergent, divergent, convergent –divergent and divergent-convergent nozzle. Convergent nozzles are used to accelerate subsonic flow to sonic (m=1) and a convergent divergent nozzle accelerates the flow from sonic to supersonic. This investigation looks into the flow of a fluid through a converging nozzle therefore subsonic and sonic flow will be considered. Objective To study the thrust produced by a convergent nozzle operating under both subsonic and choked conditions. This was achieved using three methods; firstly by calculating the volumetric flow rate (Q) for each condition then plotting these results against the pressure ratio. From these graphs the Mach number can be deduced at the throat of the nozzle. At the throat of the nozzle is also where choking occurs when the appropriate conditions are applied. The last step is to produce a graph of non-dimensional thrust for each condition against the......

Words: 3335 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Shifting Scopes: Redefining Media in an Ever-Converging Society

...Shifting Scopes: Redefining Media in an Ever-Converging Society Through the application of convergence theories, governmental policies and previously conducted research, it is clear that the impact of media platform consolidation and convergence is an ever relevant factor in the changing face of our perceptions of technology and the distribution of media content. In order to adapt to the ever-shifting scopes of media, one must be readily adaptable and compliant when it comes to distinguishing new aspects of digital technologies in this age of redefine. No longer do we live in a society with definite mediums and platforms for the distribution of media content. The way we as humans obtain entertainment, news and information is too changing with the initiation of new multi-faceted technologies. However, researchers and members of society argue whether the consolidation of vehicles for media consumption is beneficial for society as a whole. As the pace of lives for many citizens becomes ever more rapid, consumers of media technology expect to intake incredible amounts of content in a dwindling amount of time, which has pressured the media industry to transform from traditional measures of transference. Researchers Dr. Frederic Gundelsweiler and Dr. Christian Filk attribute this societal demand for instantaneous consumption and its consequences in their article, Future Media Platforms for Convergence Journalisms. “When we examine the traditional media of mass communication, we...

Words: 2020 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

David Kolbs Learning Cycle

...which contains information about the theory he came up with (the experiential learning theory) (http://www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles.htm), and also lists the stages of what he called the learning cycle. In his learning theory Kolb lays down four diverse learning styles, which are constructed on a four –stage learning cycle. With the formation of that cycle the four learner types are; 1- Diverging: People with a Diverging learning style have broad cultural interests and like to gather information. They are able to look at things from different perspectives. They are sensitive. They prefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather information and use imagination to solve problems. (http://www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles.htm) 2- Assimilating: People with an Assimilating learning style are less focused on people and more interested in ideas and abstract concepts. They are more attracted to logically sound theories than approaches based on practical value. (http://www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles.htm) 3- Converging: People with a Converging learning style can solve problems and will use their learning to find solutions to practical issues. They prefer technical tasks, and are less concerned with people and interpersonal aspects. (http://www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles.htm) 4- Accommodating: People with an Accommodating learning style prefer to work in teams to complete tasks. They set targets and actively work in......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4