Free Essay

Confucious Teachings in China

In: Historical Events

Submitted By magomoabu
Words 636
Pages 3
Confucius regarded three things that is people, wealth and education as the three essentials of any country. He is believed to be greatest advocate of popular education and the first person in Chinese history to give his almost entire life to teaching (Zhang 1999). He worked to establish private education and make education accessible to all. He believed that the purpose of education was to provide with the ability to reason, to develop right thoughts, right feelings and right actions and that a good education system should provide young people with enough chance for developing the right concepts and capacity for leading a happy life and for seeing service to other people as their duty. He also believed that if people do not have knowledge they could not cooperate in an effective way and the direction of man’s moral growth depends very much on his education and merit should be the social way in awarding political and economic privileges. Respect for knowledge and the lifelong pursuit of learning was a fundamental human obligation in his tradition.
According to Mackerras (2008), the dominant ideology of traditional China was Confucianism which was secular, hierarchical, authoritarian and family centred. The imperial family was at the top and an amazing small number of officials just below who were largely selected and maintained in office after going through a comprehensive, complex and stereotyped examination system.
2. Civil Service Examinations
The Civil service examination was an examination system in imperial to select the best administrative officials for the state's bureaucracy. The system of using examinations system played a key role in the emergence of the scholar-officials in early Chinese system, which came to dominate society. The system continued to be used in China as years went by with some modifications.
2.1. The Nature of the Examinations
The examinations were held at three levels that is district, provincial and at metropolitan. At district level exams were conducted by district magistrates for candidates of his local area where 8 legged essays on subjects taken from the Confucian four books- the Analects, the Book of the Mean, the Book of Menicus and the Great Learning. One would be asked to write a short poem of six couplets with five characters to the line. Many students were said to be dismissed in this first district session due to wrong use of words and violation of rules of rhyme. The successful candidates would proceed to the provincial level where a similar test to the previous one at district level would be administered to make sure that no one had proceeded by luck. Successful candidates would be undergo yuan exam given by the provincial education commissioner. At this stage extreme care in hall of exam was taken to avoid corruption and favouratism. Successful candidates would be given degrees in the emperor’s name and a governor general would give a banquet in honour of new degree holders, and later sent home, only to return in the third month of the following year for metropolitan exams in Peking. A further scrutiny of exam papers was done by Board of Rites in Peking and afterwards, the papers were kept safe. Those who failed would be sent to their homes as community leaders to await the next exams. The metropolitan exams was in three sessions:- first session, candidates wrote four essays , of which three would be expository and one critical on historical subjects. Hutchings Graham, A Guide to A Century of Change, Harvard University Press Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2001.
2. Hsu Immanuel C. Y, The Rise of Modern China, 6th Edition, University of California, Barbara Santa, New York Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000
3. Lary Diana, China’s Republic, University of British Columbia, Cambridge University Press, 2007
4. Mackerras Colin, China in Transformation 1900-1949, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education Limited, 2008.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Teaching

...Sydnie Saucedo Mrs. Webb English 0321 8, November 2012 Teaching Have you ever thought what you would be doing when you finished college? Do you ever think about what you would like to be when you grow up? It really is a lot to think about when you are going to school. Is there something that you just enjoy doing? I know that I really enjoy helping little kids and teaching them new things. I always wanted to be an elementary school teacher ever since I was a little girl. College students who are looking for a career should choose teaching, because of the requirements, job description and future options. First, college students who are looking for a career should choose teaching, because of the requirements. You will need to be patience with your students. It is very helpful that you are very organization and can communicate well with others. As a teacher you need to be very enthusiasm and have lots of energy. Especially if you want to be an elementary school teacher.to become a teacher you will need a four year bachelor’s degree. Most elementary school teachers teach a variety of different subject; Meaning that you will need a well-rounded education. The subjects that you will need to study are science, and language, math, and social studies. You will also need to be very good with working with computers. Once you are in college you can choose to get a bachelor’s degree in elementary education. Work cited “Teachers.” Education: Meeting America’s Needs?......

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Teaching

...Upon completing the Teaching Prospective Inventory (TPI) questionnaire the result gave me an interesting insight to views as a future educator. The results were as followed: Transmission (31), Apprenticeship (39), Developmental (40), Nurturing (33), and Social Reform (34). The results on the profile sheet are quite consistent with how I view myself as a person. My high overall scores in the developmental and apprenticeship make perfect sense due to my own development in education. As a mentor, student, and an athlete I have learned to understand the fundamentals of learning skills and truly comprehend them in order to use them effectively and pass the on the same skills along to others. I was in fact a bit surprised by my nurturing and social reform scores. I received a lower score in nurturing than I would have estimated, yet a higher score in social reform than I imagined. I figured I would have score higher in nurturing since I have 4 years of experience in the K-12 system, but when I received a higher social reform score it made sense. I spent a lot of time explaining to the children about what and why society needs them to be good people. Overall I feel the scores are truly reflective on the way I have learned and will teach children. I expectations for my student will be for them to understand the critical skills needed to be successful in their educational and future professional careers. I would also expect them comprehend the role education will play in their......

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

China

...hardship, and the Chinese economy is set to surpass the U.S.’s before the end of this decade, China looms very large on the horizon. A U.S. intelligence report stated that China's economy is likely to surpass the U.S. in less than two decades while Asia will overtake North America and Europe combined in global power by 2030. Modern China’s rise to world economic power, like its predecessor from 1100 to 1800, is based on its enormous productive capacity. China’s rush to economic development is beautifully depicted in the documentary, “Last Train Home.” Trade and investment was governed by a policy of strict noninterference in the internal relations of its trading partners. Unlike the U.S., China did not initiate brutal wars for oil; instead it signed lucrative contracts. Also, China does not fight wars in the interest of overseas Chinese, as the U.S. has done in the Middle East for Israel. China’s sustained growth in its manufacturing sector was a result of highly concentrated public investments, high profits, technological innovations, and a protected domestic market. While foreign capital profited, it was always within the framework of the Chinese state’s priorities and regulations. The regime’s dynamic export strategy led to huge trade surpluses, which eventually made China one of the world’s largest creditors, especially for U.S. debt. In order to maintain its dynamic industries, China has acquired huge inflows of raw materials, resulting in large scale overseas......

Words: 1357 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Teaching

...and material preparation, and I believe you make approximately 19 cents an hour.   And then people say, yeah but teachers get three months off for summer, and then we all clutch our guts and die laughing because WHATEVER, MAN. Like teachers leave on the last day of school and just show up on the first with a miraculously prepared classroom and a month’s worth of lesson plans. But seriously, thanks for the laugh. The amount of work and energy you pour into your work and our children is so astonishing, it is a crime that you don’t all make 150K a year. Since you couldn’t possibly do it for the money, we can only assume you love your job and love our kids. Can you understand how much we appreciate you?   You are doing far more than teaching our kids the building blocks of knowledge and learning; you are helping us raise our children. You provide a second environment in which they have to practice respect, obedience, teamwork, diligence. We tell them take initiative on your work and they are like this house is a drag, and then they come home from school and say I’m starting this project early because Mrs. Pulis says to take initiative, and we wonder if you have magic powers or if our children are just willfully obtuse. The answer is…yes.   That high standard you set for our kids? We freaking love it. Thank you. Thank you for insisting on kindness and respect, excellence and persistence. Thank you for sometimes saying, “This is junky work and you can do better. See you......

Words: 1314 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Teaching

... al-Farabi Kazakh National University Faculty: Philology, literature and foreign languages Lesson plan Teaching Speaking Student: Maral A. Akhanova Z. Zamanbekova A. Kabdullina G. Teacher: Aksholakova A.Z. Almaty,2013 Teaching Speaking Goals for Teaching Speaking The goal of teaching speaking skills is communicative efficiency. Learners should be able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency to the fullest. They should try to avoid confusion in the message due to faulty pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, and to observe the social and cultural rules that apply in each communication situation. Speaking involves three areas of knowledge: * Using the right words in the right order with the correct pronunciation (Mechanics) * Knowing when clarity of message is essential and when precise understanding is not required......

Words: 838 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ways of Teaching

...Yuhang Sun College writing 1102 Christen Enos 9/19/2013 Ways of teaching Nowadays education becomes very important and significant issue in the world since people started getting wealth, because families believe good education can bring bright future to their children and countries needs education to cultivate their talents which helping push forward the development of the countries. Parents and government spends a lot of money on tuition and school construction, respectively, in order to providing best education to the kids. But sometimes it doesn’t help. Thus, most of educators are trying to find a best way of teaching. In the passage “The “Banking” Concept of Education”, author Paulo Freire summarized two ways of education which are Banking education, and problem posing, and they are totally opposite to each other. Banking education method is like action of deposing that students are depositories and teachers are depositors which make education such more efficient. In contrast, problem posing is like teacher promote and encourage students to be creative. Both of them have their drawbacks and benefits. So, which one of them is the best way of teaching? Based on my own experiences, I think problem posing is best way to help studying in the earlier studying life, because children needs to open their mind and being more creative, but in the further life of studying banking education seems more suitable for......

Words: 1722 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Teaching

...an actual credit card. • Students will make an advertisement for their credit card. • Students will make a collage of their purchases. • Students will calculate their total purchases. • Students will enter into Excel the correct formulas to aid in their calculating of their payment schedule. (for all 4 schedules) • Students will write an analysis of the project and credit card spending. Required Materials: • Credit Card project hand out • Credit card receipts • Computer • Magazines • Calculator • Glue • Scissors Anticipatory Set (Lead-In): I will ask the students how would they like to have their own credit card!!!! Step-By-Step Procedures for Teaching the Lesson: 1. First, students will make a credit card proportional to an actual credit card. They can choose to make it as large as they would like (within reason) as long as it is in proportion. 2. Second, students will create an advertisement. It can be done in a variety of ways: billboard display, TV ad, radio ad, etc… 3. Third, students will be given the opportunity to go on a shopping spree with their credit card. Their limit is $10,000 and they must spend at least $1,000 but no more than $10,000. They need to cut out pictures of their purchases and make a collage. They also need to calculate their total spending. 4. Fourth, students will be given a bill for their purchases. They will then use......

Words: 1822 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Teaching

...motivated to study harder in a friendlier academic environment. According to a survey done by the Korea Daily, 82% of the students interviewed responded that they would study better with a teacher that can relate to students. The statistics clearly show that students prefer to study with teachers whom they can confide in compared to clear-cut, stern teachers that only serve to deliver information to students. In such an environment, students will be naturally inclined to listen to lectures more carefully and absorb in information at a quicker pace. Consequently, a teacher’s ability to bond with students is a crucial component of teaching because it encourages students to be more studious. Second, the teacher will also be able to teach students efficiently if he or she can relate to each student. To be specific, the teacher can adapt different teaching styles to each student accordingly if he or she knows each student well. I would like to talk about my personal experiences to illustrate this. When I first entered middle school in Korea, I had trouble understanding math concepts quickly. Fortunately, the teacher knew enough about my strengths and weaknesses that she noticed that I was struggling with comprehension. After school was over, the teacher volunteered to explain the concepts again slowly, and I was finally able to understand the concepts. Likewise, a teacher can better help out students learn if he or she is aware of each student’s tendencies and personalities....

Words: 397 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Teaching

...language teaching (CLT) emphasizes interaction and problem solving as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning English or any language. As such, it tends to emphasize activities such as role play, pair work and group work. It switched traditional language teaching's emphasis on grammar, and the teacher-centered classroom, to that of the active use of authentic language in learning and acquisition. CLT is interested in giving students the skills to be able to communicate under various circumstances. As such, it places less emphasis on the learning of specific grammatical rules and more on obtaining native-speaker-like fluency and pronunciation. Students are assessed on their level of communicative competence rather than on their explicit knowledge. It is more of an approach or philosophy than a highly structured methodology. David Nunan famously listed five key elements to the communicative approach: 1. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. 2. The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation. 3. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on the language but also on the learning process itself. 4. An enhancement of the learner's own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning. 5. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom. The most obvious advantage in communicative language teaching......

Words: 1059 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

China

...the Han Dynasty, but notably not before.It is unlikely that Zhuangzi was familiar with the text of the Daodejing. Additionally, Graham states that Zhuangzi would not have identified himself as a Taoist, a classification that did not arise until well after his death. Taoism does not fall strictly under an umbrella or a definition of an organized religion like the Abrahamic traditions, nor can it purely be studied as the originator or a variant of Chinese folk religion, as much of the traditional religion is outside of the tenets and core teachings of Taoism.Robinet asserts that Taoism is better understood as a way of life than as a religion, and that its adherents do not approach or view Taoism the way non-Taoist historians have done.Henri Maspero noted that many scholarly works frame Taoism as a school of thought focused on the quest for immortality. Beliefs Taoism has never been a unified religion, but has rather consisted of numerous teachings based on various revelations. Therefore, different branches of Taoism often have very distinct beliefs. Nevertheless, there are certain core beliefs that nearly all the sects share. Principles Taoist theology emphasizes various themes found in the Daodejing and Zhuangzi, such as naturalness, vitality, peace, "non-action" (wu wei, or 'effortless effort'), emptiness (refinement), detachment, flexibility, receptiveness, spontaneity, the relativism of human ways of life, ways of speaking and guiding behavior. Tao "Tao"......

Words: 4425 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Teaching

...Although there are many things that characterize me as a new teacher, my teaching philosophy is based on a fundamentally optimistic view. I’m currently volunteering at the African Center. I teach basics English to refugees. I believe that all of my students, with the help of the right tools, will be able to overcome any difficulties that the study of a foreign language might present. I don't mean that every student who enters my class will be able to express him or herself equally simply as a result of how I present the lesson, but rather that each of my students will be guaranteed the opportunity to express him or herself to the best of his or her abilities. I believe that one of my best qualities as a new teacher is my ability to inspire confidence in my students so that they feel comfortable expressing themselves regardless of their level of ability. In my language classes, students are required to speak in English at all times: this is not always easy for those who are having their first encounter with this method of foreign language instruction. The first step, then, is to put the student at ease in such a way that even the most timid student is able to make the most of his or her time in the classroom. In my teaching evaluations, many students refer to the type of atmosphere that a language class should have, and to how the learning environment in my classroom allowed them to express themselves: "He created such an amazing class environment; no one was ever afraid......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Teaching

...Teaching is often called the major factor in the society’s development. It is well known that there exist three main factors that influence the development of the personality. They are: heredity, social encirclement and education. Good and Bad Teachers Essay Parents usually use the term of education meaning to make great impact on the future personality of their children. Nowadays, when parents are very busy, teachers are the people who teach children what is right and what is wrong. Children learn to perceive the inner world through the teachers. And the way they perceive it depends on the teacher’s personal particularities that are transmitted to children through interaction and the knowledge that the teacher offers them. Therefore there is much more to a teacher than high professionalism. High professionalism in the field of the taught subject is very important, but when it comes to being a bad or a good teacher this is not main factor. A good teacher is a person who not just reproduces the knowledge he got or that brings up the interest to the subject. It is a person who finds individual approach to every student, taking care about the child’s adaptation in class, increasing one’s social status in class and making sure the children learn to take into account and respect the thoughts of other people. It is a man or a woman that can not “play” the teacher’s role but he in the first place “ a feeling human being” in front of the students, a person that can show emotional......

Words: 515 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Teaching

...LESSON 1 1. Which of the instructional materials enumerated in this lesson do you often use? Are there categories you have not tried? Why? Materials often used: A. Printed and Duplicated Materials I do use a lot of printed materials in teaching my pupils. I do find that my pupils do better when we are making use of the board but I do need an evidence to show how the pupil is doing to their parent or guardian and that is by means of printed materials. B. Non-Projected Display Materials I handle kids with different needs; one for example is that I have pupils with Autism. Those who are on the spectrum learn best with visual materials that is why the center that I’m in has a lot of instructional materials to choose from. C. Cine and Video Materials Most of the cases we have in the center are children with communication problem, from speech to language disorder. The use of videos is a good help in exercising their communication. With the catchy tune and the colorful or even funny images it’s with, it surely helps maintain my pupil’s attention. D. Computer-mediated Materials I do make use of the different computer program. I am thankful that there are lot of computer programs that I can download for free, from application to help mu pupils learn facial expression, to learning colors, shapes and alphabets to learning good attitudes. Materials that I haven’t tried: A. Still Projected Display Materials Most of the kids that I’m handling are......

Words: 1787 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Teaching

...place for teachers of faith in public schools. According to the author, teaching is not just a skill or a day of rigid routines. However, it is about knowledge and developing the child as a whole. Teachers help children learn their place in the world and how to interact in social environments. They have high expectations for their students because they know that Christ created them. Faith influences a teacher’s character; therefore, the teachers show love, joy, and integrity in their work. In this article the author gives a few accounts of teachers that were called to serve in different geographical locations and in different situations. In each situation they served their students with joy and love, furthermore, sharing their faith through actions. I agree with the author’s stance on respecting the legal and ethical boundaries when it comes to religion and public schools. There are many different cultures and beliefs in our schools. Therefore, families trust that teachers will not teach or thrust a set of beliefs they deem as the correct beliefs on their children (Eckert, 2014, p. 21). There are many ways I can show the Gospel of Christ’s love through myself without ever having to argue or preach to someone. One way is to practice godly character by being, honest, sincere, and remaining humble. Another way to show Christ’s love is through actions of love, grace, and joy. When God called me into teaching he gave me a passion and desire to spend my life doing this type of......

Words: 502 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Teaching

...who was also previously trained in Giovanni Bellini’s workshop, that he mainly developed his early style. He was also known as a painter of various profane subjects, in which he usually painted nude females to represent beauty and charm, his “ Venus of Urbino” is one them, which shows the goddess of love. These skills drew the attention of intellectually ambitious Italian dukes and aristocrats. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art. The painting shows nude young woman, reclining on a bed in the luxurious surroundings. The painting represents the allegory of marriage and was a “teaching” model to Guilia Varano, the young wife of eroticism, fidelity and motherhood. The evident eroticism of the painting, in fact, reminded the women of the marital obligations she would have to fulfill to her husband. The erotic allegory is evident in the representation of Venus, the goddess of love, as a sensual and delectable woman staring at the viewer who could not ignore her beauty. The light and warm color of her body is in contrast to the dark background, bringing out her eroticism. The dog at the feet of the woman is the symbol of marital fidelity while, in the background, the house maid looking down at the young girl as she rummages in the chest symbolizes motherhood. The strong sensuality of the painting was therefore consistent...

Words: 917 - Pages: 4