Premium Essay


In: English and Literature

Submitted By ky08012
Words 1814
Pages 8
Chapter 2
The Microbial World

Some Basic Biological Principles

Cell Theory

Robert Hooke coined the term “cell” in 1665, based on his initial microscopic observations of cork. These observations ultimately gave rise to the cell theory, as postulated by Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow, about two centuries later. The major points of the cell theory are as follows:

1. All organisms are composed of a fundamental unit, the cell.

2. All organisms are unicellular or multicellular.

3. All cells are fundamentally alike regarding their structure and metabolism.

4. Cells only arise from preexisting cells (“life begets life”).

Life begets life is a refutation of the once popular idea of spontaneous generation, a doctrine that proposed life could arise from non-living components (which was disproved in the late 1800s). Viruses and prions are not composed of cells; they are acellular or subcellular infectious agents. Neither of these two agents is considered to be alive by most biologists.

Metabolic Diversity

Living things possess several attributes commonly associated with life, as summarized in Table 2.1. The attributes common to life include the following: being composed of one or more cells, requiring energy, being able to reproduce, being able to respond to stimuli, and having the ability to grow.

Most cells obtain energy through a complex series of biochemical reactions termed metabolism. Cells metabolize organic compounds (proteins, fats, and carbohydrates) in food and capture the energy stored in chemical bonds by forming high-energy bonds in adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Most microbes are heterotrophs, which require an organic source of energy. Some microbes and plants, the autotrophs, do not need to extract energy from organic compounds. Photosynthetic autotrophs obtain energy…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Conformity and Obedience in the 20th Century

...Conformity and Obedience in the 20th Century The desire to be accepted and belong to a group is an undeniable human need.   But how does this need affect an individual?   Social psychologists have conducted numerous experiments and concluded that, through various forms of social influence, groups can change their members' thoughts, feelings, and behavior.         In her essay "Group Minds," Doris Lessing discusses our paradoxical ability to call ourselves individuals and our inability to realize that groups define and influence us.   We, as humans, hold individualism in the highest regard yet fail to realize that groups diminish our individuality.   Lessing writes, "when we're in a group, we tend to think as that group does... but we also find our thinking changing because we belong to a group" (p. 334).   Groups have the tendency to generate norms, or standards for behavior in certain situations.   Not following these norms can make you stand out and, therefore, groups have the ability to influence our thoughts and actions in ways that are consistent with the groups'.   Lessing's essay helps set the context to understand the experiments that social psychologists Solomon Asch, Stanley Milgram and Philip Zimbardo conducted to explain conformity and obedience. Solomon Asch's experiment in "Opinions and Social Pressure" studied a subject's ability to yield to social pressure when placed within a group of strangers.   His research helped illustrate how groups......

Words: 1201 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...According to Leon Mann, conformity means "yielding to group pressures". Everyone is a member of one group oranother and everyone expects members of these groups to behave in certain ways. If you are a member of an identifiable group you are expected to behave appropriately to it. If you don"t confirm and behave appropriately you are likely to be rejected by the group. Like stereotypes, conforming and expecting others to conform maintains cognitive balance. There are several kinds of conformity. Many studies of conformity took place in the 1950"s which led Kelman to distinguish between compliance, internalisation and identification. Compliance is the type of conformity where the subject goes along with the group view, but privately disagrees with it. Internalisation is where the subject comes to accept, and eventually believes in the group view. Identification is where the subject accepts and believes the group view, because he or she wants to become associated with the group. Leon Mann identifies normative conformity which occurs when direct group pressure forces the individual to yield under the threat of rejection or the promise of reward. This can occur only if someone wants to be a member of the group or the groups attitudes or behaviour are important to the individual in some way. Apart from normative conformity there is informational conformity which occurs where the situation is vague or ambiguous and because the person is uncertain he......

Words: 1378 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Conformity Essay

...Summary on Conformity, Defiance, and Crime In the book Essentials of Sociology in the 6th chapter tells us what conformity, defiance, and crime are, among other things of that nature. Conformity is falling in line with what the given rules and normal behavior society accepts. Defiance is exactly the opposite, its defined by the book as “nonconformity to a given set of norms that are accepted.” So doing anything most people in that culture wouldn’t see normal. It’s a very broad subject. Anything from wearing a long sleeve shirt in the middle of the summer to a murder can be seen as deviant behavior. Edwin Lemert told us that he viewed the first act of deviance as primary deviance; this is the one act that gives the individual the label as a deviant. Then there was secondary deviance in which the individual accepts the label of deviant and starts to relapse committing these deviant acts, the acts progressively getting worse. Sometimes groups do these deviant acts together, this is called a deviant subculture. These form when there is a group of people whom all have the same values and practices, just something’s they do are seen as deviant. If that’s not clear an example of this would be the Heavens’ Gates Cult, who believed the world was doomed and the only way to survive was to commit suicide and have your soul saved by a UFO. Most people reading this would find that very odd and not normal to believe, well that makes then deviants and since they’re a group it’s a deviant......

Words: 2106 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Rule Compliance and Conformity

...(Cialdini & Trost, 1998). Adhering to these social rules is described in terms of conformity or adversely conversion. Various social norms can alter an individual’s response to a specific situation depending on their environment and individual gains from doing so. For example to judge whether a person will dispose of their rubbish one must account for their personal norms and perceived social norms within the culture. Cialdini et al., (1991) developed the norm focus theory stating that only those norms which are focused on a given situation predict behaviour. For example if a person in a food court see’s a ‘Don’t waste Victoria, do the right thing’ then they have the focus of rubbish and the willingness to abide by the social rules to dispose of their waste. Even considering recycling in the home, social norms have been shown to be a considerable determinant of these voluntary contributions (Festinger, 1957). However these social norms may act against a person and their willingness to put their rubbish in the bin, for example if the majority of a group knowingly does not dispose of their waste that may act as a cue for the others to act accordingly. Conformity as a phenomenon has been widely studied since the beginning of the twentieth century (Reysen, 2003). Many studies have found support for difference in conformity between men and women, women generally showing greater conformity (Bond & Smith, 1996).A study by Eagly, Wood & Fishbaugh, (1981) showed that......

Words: 892 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Research Report Conformity due to Social Pressure _________________________________ ABSTRACT- Social influences can be a strong cause in conformity. The more people doing a particular thing, the harder it is for more people not to conform. This study explored whether more people would turn another direction if there were only one person facing that other direction and if there were three people facing that other direction. _________________________________ The hypothesis that my group and I tested was that if three or more people were faced another direction in an elevator rather than one person turned a different direction that they were more likely to conform. The independent variable in this experiment would be the control groups of one or three people standing in the elevator that were in on the experiment and the dependent variable would be the people in the elevator conforming due to the independent variable. I think the independent variable (one or three people) will influence the dependent variable (people conforming) by people conforming more to the group of three people rather than the group of one person because there is more social group pressure to conform to more and more people doing it. Experiments have shown that the most people will conform in an experiment with 3-5 people doing it and usually levels off around 10 people. Sometimes in an experiment unanimity will happen where one brave person will resist to the group pressure and if that......

Words: 1877 - Pages: 8

Free Essay


...Jeffrey Joseph Adam Levy Social Psychology 31 January 2014 Conformity: Do We Really Have A Choice? It’s Wednesday night. A Duke basketball game is on. I’m sitting on the couch, surrounded by my old roommates, watching the game. Dylan is the only one among us who is a Duke “fan”, but there is nothing else to do on a Wednesday night. The question came up. It always does. Someone asks Dylan, “Why are you a Duke fan? You don’t live anywhere near Duke.” Dylan, upon hearing the question, quickly and defensively answers, “uh…my family always liked them.” No one says anything and we continue to watch and give our critique on the game. I barely paid attention to his answer. I wasn’t interested. I already knew what he was going to say. How did I know what he was going to say? Did I just know him that well? Well, that’s a little bit of the reason, but mainly I knew because there is such a cliché response to that particular question that it is almost automatic. See, there’s this unwritten rule in society that you have to live physically near a sports team to be able to appreciate them and call yourself a true fan. I know, it makes no sense, but since when did society have to make sense? The point is that unless you live close to the team, it’s your alma mater, you or one of your relatives played or does play on the team, you lose all credibility as being a “true fan.” So, Dylan, not having met any of these criteria, took the cliché escape root…the only “get out of jail free” card.......

Words: 695 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Conformity as it pertains to the Military Baker College 1.0 Introduction Conformity is the practice of involving attitudes, opinions and behavioral characteristics that are applicable to a specific group, in this context the military. It entails the application of these norms to match the culture embedded in the military society. The conduction of such habitual traits assumes the control by the environment and social stimuli. These stimuli manipulate the way in which the military society conditions its performances. The military not only practice conformity in their society, but also to the general public. Conformity pertinence in the military acts a guide to military sociology by enforcing their obedience to the governments in which they serve and to how their conduct their training and operations in their role of ensuring international security of global territories. Conformity is instilled into soldiers in the advent of their recruitment in the forces and the control of their social relations in the military society. 2.0 Indoctrination Process The indoctrination process involves the inculcation of ideologies and attitudes towards a certain notion to change a person’s behavioral characteristics. In the military context, soldiers are stripped their previous personalities and develop new personalities by internalizing new values. Several techniques are applied during the indoctrination process in relation to the social......

Words: 1882 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Conformity and Disobedience

...deliberate or sometimes occur subconsciously and the individual in question may not be aware of them (Wood, 2000). There are various forms of social influence among which the most important and widely recognised ones are conformity and obedience. They are concepts that put into perspective how individuals’ behaviours are affected or influenced in a group or social circumstances. This essay looks to explore compliance and obedience in detail. It may seem sometimes these two concepts might be slightly similar in how they affect behaviour in such situations; however they are not to be confused for each other. This essay aims to clarify such perception and distinctively point out the similarities and differences between these two concepts by exploring how they come about and factors that influence them using relevant research evidence. Conformity can be defined as the inclination by individuals to modify their attitudes or manner of behaving to suit that of the social standards. It simply means to succumb to pressures of the society (Crutchfield, 1955) However, it does not necessarily mean that their opinion or perception has changed; it simply means that they have changed their behaviour just for the purpose of being considered acceptable by the society. Conformity is also known as the majority influence. It occurs as a result of informational social influence or normative social influence. Informational social influence is one in which individuals tend to change their......

Words: 1576 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Conformity Defeats Non-Conformity: the Conformist, Bernardo Bertolucci

...Conformity defeats Non-conformity: The Conformist, Bernardo Bertolucci Bernardo Bertolucci’s The Conformist (1970) is a denunciation of the individual cowardice and moral paralysis during the ‘Black Twenty Years’. The protagonist, Marcello, spies on his former professor while working for Benito Mussolini’s political police. He accepts the assignment because he is eager to build a so-called normal life. He always keeps silent about his conformity and the deep space utilized in the scene when he walks though the huge building to meet the Minister reflects the lack of individuality in fascist era. The diegetic sound of Marcello’s steps without verbal communication illustrates that he is a copycat and always chooses to be silent so to conform and to belong. These footsteps reveal that he just follows the path of society; for example, he wants nothing more than to conform to the upper-crust expectations, join the Italian Fascist movement and marry to a middle-class woman. Actually, the people surrounding Marcello are both conformists: Manganiello states that one should just follow orders; Italo’s blindness expresses the blind faith of Fascism to a high degree. People conform to the ‘normality’ of Italy society and live in their own world as reflected by the two people who walk on two sides of the oversized building without any physical and mental connection. Especially, the marble floor creates the only loud sound of the steps in the scene and its echoing is due to the......

Words: 426 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Pressure of Conformity

...Anissa Nehls The Pressure of Conformity Throughout history, society's conception of women and their attributed behavior has changed quite frequently. Popular culture enforces idealistic views, pressuring girls to conform into stereotyped portrayals of the female gender. Seduced by these commonly approved ideals of beauty, many adolescents struggle to fit in with the "cool crowd". Mentally tormented by loss or confusion of personal identity, female teenagers strongly desire the feeling of belonging to a certain group of friends. This usually harmless concept of peer pressure can lead to a teenagers demise, by ultimately including hazardous actions, such as drug and alcohol misuse, teen sex, and even criminal conduct. This dangerous clash of adolescent inexperience and youthful yearning for adventure and danger is portrayed in the two teen movie "Thirteen" and "Mean Girls". Cady and Tracy, the protagonists from these socially critiquing movies, both deteriorate to the prevalent teen royalties, hence destroying relationships with true friends and family. Thirteen year old Tracy is an exceptional student, gets along with her family and has never been in any sort of trouble before. Although living a fulfilled life, the young girl desires to be friends with Evie, one of the cool girls at school. The urge to fit in and to experience the exhilarating lifestyle Evie seems to lead, Tracy blindly follows and familiarizes with boys, alcohol and even drugs. All these......

Words: 992 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Outline and evaluate explanations of conformity. (12 marks) Normative social influence says people conform because they feel they need to be accepted and belong to the group. They accept the majorities’ views publicly, but privately they disagree – this type of conformity is compliance. The majority control the other group members, and use the fear of rejection to get others to conform. This is because humans are a social species and need companionship and are afraid of rejection. Research to support this explanation comes from Asch’s experiment, where participants knew the group was wrong privately but chose to conform in order to be accepted. This suggests that normative social influence is a valid theory of why people conform as it states we conform to be part of a social group, not because they believe the group to be right. On the other hand, in real life they aren’t part of that social group so don’t fear rejection, so factors other than the group may influence conformity. Another explanation of why people conform is informational social influence, where the individual changes their opinion both publicly and privately, which is described as internalisation. They do this as they believe the group are right. Conformity tends to increase when the situation is ambiguous, in matters of crisis or if they feel others are better qualified to make decisions. Fein et al found that participant’s opinions of political candidates in a debate were influenced by the......

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Conformity and Obedience

...Conformity and Obedience Conformity: Conformity is a type of social influence or compliance in belief or behaviour in order to fit in or it could be known as behaviour in accordance with socially accepted conventions (also known as social norms) which could be standards or regulations within the public services such as dress regulations within the armed forces or the police. Compliance means the act of conforming or obeying an order or request and compliance with common practices is conforming to a common or reoccurring act, an example of this is when a recruit within the armed forces sees other soldiers saluting officers or standing in attention and this act keeps occurring the recruit would soon comply with those common practices. Social norms are what seem normal in a group or society, this could be acts or beliefs. Most people comply with social norms so that they do not feel an outcast within their group and to not seem abnormal within the group. An example of this could be that a group of friends seem to think it is normal to bully people, one of the members may see this as a terrible act but to not feel an outcast like the bully victim, the person complies with the social norm and starts to bully with the rest of the group. Self-esteem is how an individual may see their own worth and how much self-respect and confidence that person has towards themselves, a person’s background or upbringing may have an effect on their self-esteem. Someone who has a low......

Words: 2296 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Enforced Conformity

...Matthew Boehm Marianne Shabolousky Intro to Psych 1 November 2015 Enforced Conformity Conformity drives people to do crazy things, and in turn, it has sculpted history, but the psychological strategies and effects are rarely recognized. Highly influential individuals have used conformity as a tactic to brainwash and control massive groups of individuals. People such as Adolf Hitler and Jim Jones are notorious for their ingenious ways of causing wide scale conformity. Their schemes affected the way their followers thought, leading to global change. To begin with, Adolf Hitler’s approach to expanding the Nazi population required intense propaganda and brainwashing. In his book, Mein Kampf, he addresses the importance of propaganda and the correct psychological implementation it requires. He states: “Propaganda must always address itself to the broad masses of the people. (...) All propaganda must be presented in a popular form and must fix its intellectual level so as not to be above the heads of the least intellectual of those to whom it is directed. (...) The art of propaganda consists precisely in being able to awaken the imagination of the public through an appeal to their feelings, in finding the appropriate psychological form that will arrest the attention and appeal to the hearts of the national masses.” Hitler clearly understands it is important to reach out to the majority, and the material must be presented in a way that is comprehensive. It must also......

Words: 1483 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Discuss Two Explanations for Conformity

...Discuss two explanations for conformity. Refer to Polly and Jed in your discussion. Normative social influence is a form of conformity. It is when an individual conforms because they want to be liked or respected by a group even whilst knowing the difference between right and wrong. This is linked to compliance because it is the action of ‘going along with others’ and publically agreeing with their opinions although not privately; this is why the individual’s behaviour stops as soon as group pressure stops. Polly is seeking acceptance from her friends in order to not be the ‘odd one out’ and therefore goes along with what her friends wear although she may not privately agree with what they are wearing. Here, Polly is complying with her friends and is Normative socially influenced. Asch’s research investigated whether people would conform to a majority in situations where the answer was obvious using a ‘line perception’ test. 7 confederates and 1 naïve participant were shown lines and asked to name a corresponding line from the listed answers; when the 7 confederates all gave the same answer, the naïve participant usually conformed. In fact the average conformity rate was 33% from the 12 trails Asch created. However, Asch’s control group showed that less than 1% of participants made a mistake when answering. This shows that participants conformed and gave the wrong answer in order to be liked and accepted by the confederates. This supports Normative Social Influence......

Words: 715 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Conformity and Rebellion

...“Lead or Follow” Should I conform? Should I rebel? This has and always will be, a constant battle struggled individually, or as a society. A certain amount of conformity needs to exist in life in order to avoid disorder. This is the reason we have laws. Take those laws, rules, control, or even expectations, to an extreme, and some form of rebellion is probable. Struggle with these opposites, and you have a catalyst for war, or perhaps, being fired from a job. Literature represents life, and this theme can be found at the root of many literary works. “The Lottery,” by Shirley Jackson, reflects blind conformity by the villagers with a hint of rebellion. Every June 27th the lottery takes place; the prize for winning is death. The villagers believe sacrificing one of their own will ensure a good harvest. The villagers are so blasé about the lottery it is said “the whole lottery took less than two hours, so it could begin at ten o’clock in the morning and still be through in time to allow the villagers to get home for noon dinner” (339/1). We get our first sense of possible rebellion when Mr. Adams says, “over in the north village they’re talking of giving up the lottery” (342/31) Mrs. Adams adds, some villages have already given it up. Old Man Warner’s retort is, “Pack of crazy fools…Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon. First thing you know, we’d all be eating stewed chickweed and acorns,” (342/32) summing up the villagers belief in the continued need of this tradition....

Words: 832 - Pages: 4