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Previous winners YOU ARE IN > > Medical > Condition centres > Erectile Dysfunction > About Erectile Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction

About Erectile Dysfunction
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How ED can affect the mind
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Ask an Expert Sexologist Erectile dysfunction (impotence)
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Last updated: Wednesday, August 11, 2010

Description
Erectile dysfunction (“impotence”) is the inability to get or maintain an erection that is sufficient to ensure satisfactory sex for both partners.
Erectile dysfunction can have a physical or psychological cause, but in the majority of cases it is primarily physical.
Most men experience occasional problems with obtaining an adequate erection and this should not be a cause for concern.
Erectile dysfunction can be treated at any age.
Treatment options include psychotherapy, drug therapy, vacuum pumps and surgery.
Erectile dysfunction (previously called impotence) is the inability to get or maintain an erection that is sufficient to ensure satisfactory sex for both partners. This problem can cause significant distress for couples. Fortunately more and more men of all ages are seeking help, and treatment has advanced rapidly. The enormous demand for “anti-impotence” drugs, suggests that erection problems may be more common than was previously thought. Erectile dysfunction should be distinguished from other male sexual functioning difficulties, sometimes erroneously referred to as impotence, such as premature ejaculation, male orgasmic disorder (delay or absence of orgasm) and hypoactive sexual desire disorder (lack of or diminished sexual interest or desire). Men with erectile dysfunction may or may not suffer from these other problems.
Erectile dysfunction can occur at any age. Occasional episodes are considered normal
How common is ED?
Current statistics are not available for South Africa, but in America about 10% of men are believed to be affected. Incidence rises with age: about five percent of men at the age of 40 and between 25 and 40% of men at the age of 65 suffer from erectile dysfunction and the percentage grows to 70% as men reach 80 years of age. As men age, they typically report some loss of sexual desire as well, although neither loss of desire nor erectile dysfunction is an unavoidable feature of ageing.
Many erection problems can be prevented or even reversed by a more relaxed approach to sex and by rediscovering sensuality. Sexual intimacy is a form of communication. If you and your partner talk about your lovemaking, it will help reduce your stress and anxiety, so that your sexual activity may become more relaxed. Many people avoid talking about problems in their sexual relationship. It may gradually become more difficult to get and maintain an erection as you get older. However, foreplay and the right environment can increase your ability to have an erection, regardless of your age.
Causes of ED
A firm erection is the result of a whole series of psychological and physical events. If a problem occurs at any step in the process, the erection may be absent, insufficient or short-lived. There is therefore a range of possible causes of erectile disorder. These can be grouped into three general types: ageing, vascular (related to the blood vessels and/or sponge tissue) and psychological. Most erection problems are due to a combination of these factors. Until the early 1990s, most cases of erectile dysfunction were thought to be of psychological origin, but new research has shown that in 85 to 90% of cases the causes are physical.
How does a successful erection work?
An erection begins with sensory and mental stimulation. Impulses from the brain travelling down the spinal column and impulses from the nerves in the penis relax smooth muscles in two spongy cylinders that run the length of the penis, parallel to the urethra (the conduit for urine and semen). When the impulses cause the muscles to relax, blood flows into spaces in the spongy tissue, and this pressure makes the penis swell out. A membrane surrounding the cylinders helps to trap the blood in the penis and maintain the erection. The penis returns to its flaccid state if the muscles contract, stopping the inflow of blood and opening outflow channels.
An erection problem can occur if any of the events in this sequence are disrupted: the problem may involve mental processes, nerve impulses, or responses in muscles, fibrous tissue, and veins and arteries in the penis.
Physical causes
The most common cause of erectile dysfunction is damage to arteries, smooth muscles and fibrous tissues.
Problems with the blood vessels (vascular problems) make up 48% of erection problems.
Problems with the nerves (neurological problems): 14%
Problems with the structure of the penis or surrounding tissues: 3%
These problems can in turn be caused by a variety of factors:
Disease: illnesses account for 70% of erectile dysfunction. These may include diabetes, kidney disease, and multiple sclerosis. Atherosclerosis or "hardening of the arteries" can prevent adequate blood from entering the penis.
Injury to the penis, spinal cord, prostate, bladder or pelvis: such injury can be the result of sports or car accidents, or even riding on hard bicycle seats (almost always temporary).
Complications of surgery or radiation (e.g. for prostate cancer): these can interfere with nerve impulses or blood flow to the penis. When the nervous system cannot transmit arousal signals, or when the blood vessels in the penis cannot fill or stay filled with blood, you cannot have an erection.
Side effects of common medication: these include drugs taken for high blood pressure, anti-depressants, anti-histamines, tranquillisers, appetite suppressants, and the ulcer drug cimetidine.
Substance abuse: chronic use of alcohol, marijuana or other drugs often causes impotence, which may be aggravated by decreased sexual drive. Excessive tobacco use can also block penile arteries.
Hormonal factors, such as low testosterone levels.
Erection problems in men over 50 are more likely to have physical causes.
Psychological causes
Psychological problems, such as anxiety, interfere with the erection process by distracting the man from things that would normally arouse him. These problems cause between 10 and 40% of erectile dysfunction. Even in cases where the underlying problem is physical, these factors can play an important secondary role, for example when a man who has had some erectile difficulty starts to anticipate and fear sexual failure. As a result, psychological factors play some causal role in at least 80% of cases of erectile dysfunction.
These factors include:
Depression: erectile dysfunction is twice as likely among men suffering from depression as it is among those without depressive symptoms.
Relationship problems: a man who loses sexual interest in or desire for a particular partner may develop erection problems.
Anxiety and stress, including such as caused by major life changes
Grief and other reactions to major loss: recently widowed men may have erection problems.
Low self-esteem.
Guilt because of extramarital affairs, especially if sexually transmitted diseases are feared.
Psychological causes are more prominent in younger men.
What are the symptoms?
Inability to have an erection at any time, either alone or with a sexual partner.
Inability to maintain an adequate erection until completion of the sexual activity.
If erectile failure:
Is only temporary or occasional, the problem is probably not serious; all men go through periods of erectile problems.
Develops gradually and persistently, a physical cause is likely; this is generally the case with chronic impotence.
Develops abruptly but you still have early-morning erections and are able to have an erection while masturbating, the problem probably has a psychological cause.
Sexual interest and desire may be normal or impaired, as may be your ability to have an orgasm and to ejaculate.
Course
When erection problems become persistent, they can affect your self-image and sexual life. If you have had persistent erection problems, "performance anxiety" can worsen your problem. A man who cannot have satisfactory intercourse may still have a strong sex drive, which can be frustrating. In some cases, for example where the problem is the result of transient factors such as a major life change or relationship difficulty, erection problems may clear up spontaneously once the causes have disappeared. In other cases, particularly where there is more than one cause and the problem has become a source of great distress, spontaneous recovery is less likely. Fortunately, many of the physical and psychological factors that cause erection problems respond to treatment.
Risk factors for ED
The following factors increase the risk of having a problem with the blood vessels or nerves that are needed to have normal erections:
Diabetes. Between 35 and 50% of men with diabetes have erection problems. About half of men with diabetes develop erection problems within five years of being diagnosed with diabetes.
High blood pressure, blood vessel disease, stroke
High cholesterol and low HDL (high density lipoproteins) cholesterol (a "good" form of cholesterol that protects you against heart disease)
Low levels of the hormones needed for the normal development and function of the sex organs (hypogonadism). This leads to low levels of testosterone, the hormone necessary for erections, but does not affect the nerves or blood vessels. Thyroid problems may also increase the risk of erection problems.
Multiple sclerosis
Injury to the penis or pelvic region
Pelvic surgery or radiation treatment
Use of drugs to treat high blood pressure or depression, diuretics, or tranquillisers
Chronic alcohol or recreational drug abuse, cigarette smoking
The following factors increase the risk of a psychological cause of erection problems:
Depression
Anxiety or stress
Relationship problems
Recent major life change (birth of a child, retirement, job change, loss or death of a partner, divorce, marriage)
Restless legs syndrome. Recent studies show higher incidence of ED in men with this condition.
Diagnosis
Determining the cause of erection problems is often the key to reversing them. Since both physical and psychological factors are often involved, it can be complicated to make an exact diagnosis.
As part of the initial evaluation, your doctor may do the following:
History taking. He may ask about your sex life, diseases you’ve had and drugs prescribed to you. This will enable him to review risk factors.
A complete physical exam (including the abdomen, penis, prostate, rectum, and testicles). If the penis does not respond as expected to certain touch stimuli, there may be a problem with the nervous system. Abnormal secondary sex characteristics, such as loss of armpit or pubic hair, can suggest problems in the endocrine system affecting hormone levels. A circulatory problem might be indicated by, for example, an aneurysm in the abdomen (such as disease of the large artery, the aorta, which supplies blood to the abdomen and lower limbs).
Routine lab tests. These include blood counts, urine analysis, lipid profile, and measurement of liver enzymes and kidney function. If sexual desire is low, the levels of testosterone in the blood may be measured to determine if there are any endocrine abnormalities.
Nocturnal penile tumescence testing (rigiscan). This test, which monitors if you have erections while asleep, can often help to determine whether the cause is predominantly psychological or physical. Physically healthy men have involuntary erections in their sleep; if these occur, the cause is more likely to be psychological. However, these tests are not completely reliable, and have not been standardised. These tests are only required in severe erectile dysfunction and are offered by specialist clinics. The modern era of effective oral treatment has reduced the indications for penile tumescence testing drastically.
Tests to evaluate the penile arteries and veins. This includes the use of medication to assess erections, ultrasound and angiography (a radiographic technique for examining the anatomy of a blood vessel).
Extensive nervous system tests. These are not well standardised and are generally done only at major medical centres.
Psychological evaluation. This may be recommended when a major psychological cause is suspected.
You and your doctor will use the results of the examination and tests to develop a treatment plan that may include medications, other non-surgical treatments or surgery.
When to see a doctor
Consult your GP or urologist if persistent erectile dysfunction is present. Even if no other symptoms are present it might be an indication of an underlying disease, e.g. cardiovascular disease, low testosterone or medication side-effects.
Watch and wait if you’ve only had a single episode of an erection problem. It could be a temporary, easily reversible problem. Do not expect it to recur. If possible, forget about it and anticipate a more successful experience next time. Discuss the problem and fears or anxieties with your partner. However, if you are having persistent, bothersome erection problems, talk to your doctor. Men wait an average of five years before seeking treatment for erection problems, and this is unnecessary.
Seek care immediately if an erection lasts longer than four hours after you use an erection-producing medication. This problem, called priapism, can cause permanent damage to your penis.
See a health professional who has experience and interest in dealing with erection problems. Urologists are specialised in this area, and your GP will be able to refer you to one.
Treatment
Treatment for erectile dysfunction depends on whether the problem is caused by psychological or physical factors, or a combination of these. Even if erectile dysfunction has a physical cause, it often has adverse psychological effects that make the problem worse and treatment more complicated. The following treatments have a reasonable chance of success:
Treatment to modify reversible causes
Change in current medication e.g. blood pressure medication
Hormone replacement with male hormone testosterone
Corrective surgery in case of penile curvature (Peyronie’s disease) and trauma
First-line treatment
Oral treatment
Vacuum constriction devices
Psychosexual therapy
Second-line treatment
Intra-cavernosal injection therapy
Third-line therapy
Surgery (prosthesis)
The least invasive treatment should be considered first. Non-surgical treatments work for 60 to 70% of men and may make surgery unnecessary. Although treatments like injections are effective more than 80% of the time, up to 60% of men may eventually drop out of treatment. Sometimes, once men can get an erection again, they realise they have overestimated its importance in their relationships. They may decide that the nuisance or cost of the treatment is not worth the effort.
Medication
Erectile dysfunction, whether caused by blood vessel (vascular), hormonal, nervous system, or psychological problems, can be treated with a range of prescription drug therapies.
Oral medication (by mouth medication):
Increase of blood flow into the penis (erection-producing medications)
Reduction of performance anxiety by ensuring successful erections
Adjustment or replacement of medication taken for other conditions. If such drugs affect your erections, your doctor may review them in an attempt to reduce side effects. Never adjust your dosage without consulting your doctor.
Correction of abnormal hormone levels through testosterone replacement therapy. Abnormal hormone levels, however, are a rare cause of erection problems.
Sildenafil (Viagra)
The oral drug sildenafil, sold under the trade name Viagra, has been a media sensation. Since its introduction in America in April 1998 there has been unprecedented demand and it earned its manufacturers, Pfizer, global revenues of about $800 million in 1998. The diamond-shaped blue tablet is taken about 60 minutes before sexual activity. Sildenafil works by inhibiting an enzyme called 5-phosphodiesterase, thus increasing the levels a substance called cyclic GMP. Cyclic GMP is a powerful dilator of blood vessels in the penis, leading to inflow of blood and an erection under stimulating circumstances.
There have been reports of Viagra users dying from heart attacks, but these attacks were not thought to be related to the drug. A certain percentage of heart attacks will occur during strenuous activity. Nevertheless, the manufacturers have issued warnings to individuals with cardiovascular disease. Caution is specifically advised for groups for which the drug has not yet been studied, such as men who've had a heart attack, stroke or life-threatening arrhythmia in the past six months, those with significant hypotension (low blood pressure) or hypertension (high blood pressure), those with unstable angina and those with retinitis pigmentosa, a disease that causes retina deterioration. The only current absolute contraindication is the concomitant use of nitrate-containing cardiovascular medication.
Nitrates such as Glyceryl tri nitrate (GTN) or isosorbide mononitrate are usually prescribed for ischaemic heart disease and angina.
Viagra has also become popular for recreational use, for example in night-clubs. However, it is a prescription drug that should only be taken under medical supervision. Experts say that it does not have benefits for men who have normal erections. It can be lethal when used in conjunction with inhaled amyl nitrate (“poppers”), a recreational drug particularly popular among gay men. It is used to create a “rush” of sexual stimulation, but in the process also causes blood pressure to plummet to levels that may be dangerously low. This also applies to Viagra use in conjunction with heart medications that contain nitrate.
Because of the potential misuse of the drug, the Medicines Control Council, which delayed approval of the drug after reports of possible Viagra-related deaths in the US and Europe, warned that it would withdraw the drug if evidence of misuse emerged.
Viagra costs between R70 and R100 a tablet, depending on its strength. Following the phenomenal success of Viagra, several other drug companies launched similar type of drugs in the last year. Two such therapies are Vardenafil (Levitra) and Tadalafil (Cialis).
Vardenafil (Levitra)
Vardenafil or Levitra like Viagra is a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor and was developed specifically for erectile dysfunction as an oral agent. Multiple trials have shown that Levitra (Bayer Pharmaceuticals) is effective in improving the rate of achieving and maintaining an erection during sexual intercourse. Improvement also was noted in other aspects of sexual function, including confidence, orgasmic function and overall satisfaction.
Vardenafil produces significant improvements in erectile dysfunction regardless of age, baseline severity and cause of erectile dysfunction. It is also effective in patients with diabetes and after radical prostatectomy surgery for prostate cancer. Levitra has a rapid onset of action and sexual intercourse is possible as early as 16 minutes after its administration by mouth in some patients.
Twenty milligrams of Levitra has sustained longterm efficacy by providing up to 92% of patients with improved erections during more than two years of treatment.
Levitra is well tolerated with side effects very similar to that of Viagra. The most common side effects are headache, flushing, rhinitis (stuffy nose) and indigestion (heartburn), which are mild or moderate and generally decreases with continued treatment.
Levitra comes in two dosages namely ten and twenty milligrams. Ten milligrams is more than adequate for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.
Tadalafil (Cialis)
Cialis is one of the new PDE-5 inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Also dubbed the weekend drug for its long duration, up to 36 hours in some patients. This is because the chemical structure is completely unrelated to the other two PDE-5 inhibitors.
It has been demonstrated to be effective in all severities of erectile dysfunction and for different causes of erectile dysfunction.
Side effects, although similar to the other two PDE-5 inhibitors, have the addition of back pain that appear to be self limiting, mild and benign.
Cialis is also contra-indicated with nitroglycerine or any nitrate medications because of a drop in blood pressure.
The daily use of low concentration (5mg) of Tadalafil is now available. Although expensive (R700) it might be advantageous for use after radical prostatectomy to regain erectile function.
More on medication
Some drugs are claimed to be effective, but have not been proven to be so in scientific studies. These include yohimbine hydrochloride, dopamine and serotonin agonists, and trazodone.
Medications may be used in conjunction with counselling, psychotherapy or psychiatric medication if your erectile problems have psychological causes.
Vacuum erection apparatus
This is a vacuum pump that sucks blood into the penis and then a constriction band is placed around the base to prevent outflow of blood. Intercourse can then take place. This is often a difficult process to get use to, but some men are extremely happy with it. It is often the only effective treatment after a radical prostatectomy.
Injection therapy
Intracavernosal injections (into the body of the penis) sounds painful, but are actually not. It will produce an erection for 20-30 minutes. Different drugs can be used, namely Prostaglandin, Papverien or Fentolamine. Prostaglandin is the most widely used and marketed as Caverject. Combination injection therapy is available at clinics and some pharmacies. It must be stated that it should not be used for recreation in normal men because it can lead to prolonged erection and permanent damage.
Surgical treatment
Surgery for erection problems is frequently chosen when non-surgical treatments and psychotherapy have not been effective. Surgical approaches include penile implants, which can be very successful and produce satisfactory results in 80 to 90% of men, and repairs to the vascular system in the penis as well as surgery for penile curvature correction (Peyronie’s disease). This is a painful condition of the penis which in time results in deformity or curvature of the penile shaft, making penetration impossible.
A bendable rod can be implanted into the penis. This makes the penis rigid enough to have sex, yet leaves it flexible enough to be tucked away in your pants unobtrusively.
A cylinder may be implanted that extends when fluid from a reservoir tucked under the abdominal muscle is pumped into it. This is done by manually squeezing a small pump that is connected to the reservoir and implanted into the scrotum.
While implants mean that you can avoid using drugs, they do require surgery and involve all the risks normally related to surgery: adverse reaction to anaesthesia, possible blood loss, and infection. About two percent of implants have to be removed as a result of infection. In five to 10% of cases there may be mechanical failure of the device, in which case a second operation is necessary for repair or removal. Urologists perform most penile implants, and cost can range from about R20 000 to more than R60 000, depending on the type of implant.
Surgery to repair or remove blood vessels of the penis may be appropriate in the case of a young man who suffers erectile dysfunction as a result of injury, such as a car accident. In older men, it tends to be more difficult to repair damaged blood vessels, as damage may be extensive. These specialised blood vessel repair (revascularisation) operations should only be done by specially trained urologic surgeons.
Venous Occlusion:
Reduction of venous outflow can sometimes improve erections. This condition is very rare and the operation only done after proper workup using blood flow evaluations.
Prevention
Many erection problems can be prevented or even reversed by a more relaxed approach to sex and by rediscovering sensuality. Sexual intimacy is a form of communication. If you and your partner talk about your lovemaking, it will help reduce your stress and anxiety, so that your sexual activity may become more relaxed. Many people avoid talking about problems in their sexual relationship. It may gradually become more difficult to get and maintain an erection as you get older. However, foreplay and the right environment can increase your ability to have an erection, regardless of your age. Add to this: a healthy lifestyle, maintaining the correct weight, doing exercise, not smoking and treating underlying diseases. What is good for your heart is good for your penis.
Bicycle seats can cause impotence
Cycling is an important exercise to keep fit. In a small percentage of men it might cause erectile dysfunction which is usually temporary. Special saddles might lower the risk.
Reviewed by Dr Frans van Wijk, Private Urologist in Pretoria, July 2010. < Back to Erectile Dysfunction centre

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...Computer and our life Importance of computer: Computer is an important machine in our life. Without computer our life is nothing. We need to use it in every sector of our life. What type of work sector that is we are using computer. It makes our job easier and simple. Computer creates a great opportunity for us. We are changing our life style quickly through computer. We are using it in education sector, medical sector, research and experimental job, designing, architectural designing, planning, public administration and etc. Computer changed our education system. We can learn through long distance education system. Now we do not need to go far from home to learn something. We can save our time and money by this. Without that we are able to get every service at home. Computer is also able to provide us another service. Now doctor can do operations through computer. It resumes risk for a patient. Doctors do not need to work more. Computer also helps us in research like educational, scientific, medical and etc. Really, computer is a great invention of human life. Computer and communication: ------------------------------------------------- Without helping in our work we can communicate through computer. Now-a-days computer is the powerful communication media. Generally it communicates through network and internet is the well known network system. We can talk, chat, mail through computer. We can keep contract with international community by internet. E-mail is a......

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...Title: Windows: How to manually remove a computer from the Princeton domain Synopsis: How to manually remove a computer from the Princeton domain Solution: Reasons why you should remove their Windows machine from the PRINCETON domain if you are leaving the University (for faculty, staff and all students): • Windows machines can only be joined to one domain at a time. After you leave Princeton, and you attempt to join your machine to another Windows domain, you would not be able to, unless the computer is first removed from the PRINCETON domain. Once joined to another domain other than Princeton, it becomes difficult to retrieve files or other information stored locally under your Princeton\netID domain account. • Once away from the Princeton network, your machine may at some point stop allowing you to log in with your PRINCETON windows credentials. This would additionally make it difficult to retrieve files or other information stored locally under your Princeton\netID domain account. • If you continue to attempt to log in to a domain profile and you one day forget your password, there is no way to reset that password (there is no local account associated with it). ________________________________________ Windows Manual Instructions The following is the process to manually remove your computer from the domain. Section One: Create a new user profile 1. Open the Start Menu and Right click Computer and Click Manage. 2. Expand Local Users and Groups......

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...Computers in Our World Our world is constantly evolving. The only thing in life that is constant is change, and Computers are no different. Even though computers have only existed in the last seventy years, many believe computers have changed the world more than any other technological advance. Over the past seventy years, computers have made a quick evolution into our world with several major advancements. Just as with all things, however, there was a beginning to the computer generation. Computers were invented to solve “complex mathematical problems using calculators within a computer(De la Bedoyere,1). Computers now can do anything within a large box. A desktop computer has many external parts joined together. A computer consist of a mother board,the motherboard controls and processes what is typed and clicked and programs running. The middle of the motherboard consist of all the work being processed. Including work and data which is sent through the motherboard to the Central Processor unit (CPU). The computer has to hold memory also to save things within computers. The Ram is a major component in saving information but only works when the computer, is running. The reason a Ram is used is to save and store information,so that when it is being worked on it wont be erased. A Computer also has external and internal drives that can read information. When the computer came out for personal use, it made it better for communication possibilities(ceruzzi,6,7) 1939 was an......

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...The History of Computers http://inventors.about.com/library/blcoindex.htm "Who invented the computer?" is not a question with a simple answer. The real answer is that many inventors contributed to the history of computers and that a computer is a complex piece of machinery made up of many parts, each of which can be considered a separate invention. This series covers many of the major milestones in computer history (but not all of them) with a concentration on the history of personal home computers. Ads Cars - Motor Traderwww.motortrader.com.myBuy and Sell New Cars, Used Cars You Can Find 15000+ Cars From Here! BGS Repair Servicewww.lelong2u.comRepair/Sales/Buy/Used-Projector,LCD Laptop,Server,PC,Printer and iMAC. Network Traffic Shapingwww.exinda.comVisibility of all Applications. Traffic Shaping for WAN & Web. Computer History Year/Enter | Computer History Inventors/Inventions | Computer History Description of Event | 1936 | Konrad Zuse - Z1 Computer | First freely programmable computer. | 1942 | John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry ABC Computer | Who was first in the computing biz is not always as easy as ABC. | 1944 | Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper Harvard Mark I Computer | The Harvard Mark 1 computer. | 1946 | John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly ENIAC 1 Computer | 20,000 vacuum tubes later... | 1948 | Frederic Williams & Tom Kilburn Manchester Baby Computer & The Williams Tube | Baby and the Williams Tube turn on the......

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...Introduction:- Computer is an electronic device which can take input from the user and process this input data and if need, store data or information on storage devices and give output on output devices. It follow the instructions us it is which we input. It takes input through Keyboard, mouse, etc and then it processes the input data and give output on display screen and store data if need. Desktop Computer:- Mostly called personal computer (PC), design to fit completely on a typical desk of office or home. It mainly comes with a monitor, a minitower or horizontal casing. Today, mostly Casing contains processor, hard disk in gigabytes, built-in modem, LAN port, USB ports and CD-ROM. Over the past few years. CPU processing speed has been increasing processing speed can be increase by adding capable RAM, capable BUS, high processor which have high processing cycle, hence more heat is also produced we use heat sinks and fans for the removal of heat from the computer as higher temperature can cause severe damage to the computer, fans are noisy and aren’t much effective so the new trend is liquid cooling. It’s just like a radiator installed for cooling, a liquid is circulated in the heat sink attached to the processor heat is transferred from the processor to the liquid is then transferred to the radiator the liquid is cooled down there and then again circulated to the heat sink. It’s less noisy as compared to fan as high speed processor clocked at higher speed need......

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...A computer is a machine that manipulates data. The first devices that resemble modern computers date to the mid-20th century (1940†1945), although computer concept and various machines are similar to computers existed earlier. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PC).[1] Modern computers are based on tiny integrated circuits and are millions to billions of times more capable while occupying a fraction of the space.[2] Today, simple computers may be made small enough to fit into a wristwatch and be powered from a watch battery. Personal computers, in various forms, are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "a computer"; however, the most common form of computer in use today is the embedded computer. Embedded computers are small devices that are used to control other devices—for example, they may be found in machines ranging from fighter aircraft to industrial robots, digital cameras, and children's toys. The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile and distinguishes them from calculators. The Church†Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a certain minimum capability is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore, computers with capability and complexity ranging from that of a personal digital......

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...The computer is one of the most brilliant gifts of science. This device was originally developed by Charles Babbage. Most countries have developed fast due to computerization. Writing a program is essential for a computer. Speed, accuracy, reliability, and integrity are the main characteristics of a computer. Many of the routine activities today at home and in business are done by computers. The computer has proved a friend and servant of science, technology and industry. Most offices, shops, factories and industries use computers. The Internet is a storehouse of information. The computer is a boon to all. Telecommunication and satellite imageries are computer based. Computers have made the world a global village today. The computer is one of the most brilliant gifts of science. It is an electronic device for storing and analyzing information fed into it, for calculating, or for controlling machinery automatically. Charles Babbage developed this device first in 1812 followed by George Boole in 1854, Howard and Aitten in 1937, Dr. John Nouchly and J. P. Eckert in 1946. These computers were named the first generation equipment. Today, wit the 'Artificial Intelligence' technology, we are using fifth generation computers. Each new generation of computers has been smaller, lighter, speedier and more powerful than the earlier ones. Now note-book sized computers like laptop are fairly common. Computers have been dominating technology since 1970s, and has now entered almost all......

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...Structure and Functions of a Computer "Hardware: the parts of a computer that can be kicked." ~ Jeff Pesis After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Explain the importance of computer literacy. 2. Define the term computer. 3. Identify the components of a computer. 4. Compare the uses of various types of: input devices, output devices, and storage devices. 5. Describe categories of computers and their uses. Structure and Functions of a Computer 1 1.0 Introduction A computer is an electronic machine designed for the storage and processing of data. The machinery is called hardware, and this highly sophisticated equipment needs equally sophisticated programs (called software) to become a working computer system. Modern society has come to depend very heavily on the use of computer systems. Banks, businesses, government departments, industries, shops, people at home and school all rely on computer to play a vital role in their daily activities. These activities are centered on information. In business, the computer system has been used a lot and replaced filing cabinets as means of storing information, and clerical workers as a means of processing it. By storing and processing information on a computer system, these businesses can function more quickly and efficiently, because information can be found and collated much faster. Discovery Learning: A computer was also called a data processor. Why? 1.1 Major Parts and Functions A Computer is an......

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... THE HISTORY OF COMPUTER One of the earliest machines designed to assist people in calculations was the abacus which is still being used some 5000 years after its invention. In 1642 Blaise Pascal (a famous French mathematician) invented an adding machine based on mechanical gears in which numbers were represented by the cogs on the wheels. Englishman, Charles Babbage, invented in the 1830's a "Difference Engine" made out of brass and pewter rods and gears, and also designed a further device which he called an "Analytical Engine". His design contained the five key characteristics of modern computers:- 1. An input device 2. Storage for numbers waiting to be processed 3. A processor or number calculator 4. A unit to control the task and the sequence of its calculations 5. An output device Augusta Ada Byron (later Countess of Lovelace) was an associate of Babbage who has become known as the first computer programmer. An American, Herman Hollerith, developed (around 1890) the first electrically driven device. It utilised punched cards and metal rods which passed through the holes to close an electrical circuit and thus cause a counter to advance. This machine was able to complete the calculation of the 1890 U.S. census in 6 weeks compared with 7 1/2 years for the 1880 census which was manually counted. In 1936 Howard Aiken of Harvard University convinced Thomas Watson of IBM to invest $1 million in the development of an electromechanical version of Babbage's......

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...CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 1.1 Introduction Modern civilization has become so complicated and sophisticated that to survive one has to be competitive. This compels people to keep themselves informed of all types of happening in the society. And this in turn entails the need for an infrastructure of information. This is the point where information technology or IT becomes most important, as it is the infrastructure that allows us to get information accurately and in time. Before we define information technology, it is important to understand the notion of Data, Information, Technology, and Knowledge. In everyday conversation, people use the terms data and information interchangeably. However, some computer professional make a distinction between the two terms. Data It is the words, numbers, letters, symbol, sound, video and graphics that describe people, events, things and ideas. It is raw facts about people, objects, and events that have little or no meaning. It is the raw material used to create useful information. It becomes information when you use it as the basis for initiating some action or for making a decision. Information It is defined as the words, numbers, letters, symbol, sound, video and graphics used as the basis for human action or decisions. It is data that have been processed and presented in a form suitable for human interpretation, often with the purpose of revealing trends or patterns that can be used in decision-making. It is data...

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...Computer The word'computer ' is an old word that has changed its meaning several times in the last few centuries.The Techencyclopedia(2003) defines computer as " a general purpose machine that processes data according to a set of instructions that are stored internally either temorarily or permanently" Computer history The trem history means past events.It indicates the gradual development of computers.Here we will discuss how this extraordinary machine has reached of it's apex. In the begining............................... The history of computers starts out about 2000 years ago, at the birth of the 'abacus' a wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with breads strung on them.Just like our present computer,abacus also considered a digit as a singal or codeo and processed the calculation. Blasie Pascal ists usually credited to building the first digital computer in 1942.It added numbers to help his father.In 1671,Gottofried Wilhelm Von Leibniz invented a computer that was built in 1694.It could add,and, after changing somethings around,multiply. Charles Babbage: A serious of very intersting developement in computer was started in Cambridge,England,by Charles Babbage, a mathmatics proffessor.In 1982,Babbge realized that many lng calculations,espically those need to make mathematical tabes ,were really a series of predictable actions that were constantly repated.From this he suspected that it......

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...The computers process information's that come in all shapes and sizes from any fields so accurately that, some people may call these "Informatics"— The Science of Informal ion Processing, i.e. the methods of recording, manipulating and retrieving information's. It may be from a mathematical equation to a company's work-force necessary to produce a payroll or from meteorological department to forecast tomorrow's weather or from space research to project a new space craft. The following characteristics that make the computers very popular for its multifarious uses may give the befitting reply. Speed First, the computers are regarded as high speed calculators. They can process voluminous data within a fraction of second which no human being could do earlier. If we want tomorrow's forecast today, meteorologists can use the computers for necessary calculations and analyses. The units of speed of a computer are the microsecond, the nano (10)-9 second and even the picot second. Storage As human brain can store the knowledge in memory and can able to recall it, the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer can do the same job without any failure. But the internal memory of CPU is only large enough to retain a certain amount of information. So, to store each and every information inside the computer, an Auxiliary or Secondary Storage Device is being attached outside the memory of the CPU. Accuracy The computers are much popular due to their high speed along with......

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