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INTRODUCTION What is an instructional Systems Design model? According to Smith and Ragan (2005), instructional design is the entire process: from the analysis of learning needs and goals, through the development of instructional materials and activities, to the evaluation of all instruction and learning activities. Spector and Muraida (1997) refer to instructional design as a structuring of the learning environment for the purpose of facilitating learning or improving learning effectiveness. Instructional design is the systematic process of translating general principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials and learning (Seels and Glasgow, 1998; Morrison, Ross and Kemp, 2004). Instructional design is the application of theory to create effective instruction (Jonassen, 2001; Reigeluth, 1999). An instructional design framework focuses on the creation of a learning experience that delivers knowledge in a more effective, interactive, and engaging way, and that can be measured, managed and directed for maximum impact (Piskurich, 2000:7). Smith (2001: [online]) states that instructional design focuses on what learners are to know, the information to be provided, while the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) (2001) emphasises that instructional design is the process by which an educator determines the best teaching methods for specific learners in a specific context, in the attempt to achieve a specific goal. There are two classes of instructional design models. They are 1. The classroom/product models. 2. The comprehensive models. We shall proceed to examine two classroom/product models and one comprehensive model. The classroom models 1. The Gerlach & Ely Model Gerlach & Ely Instructional Model

In 1971, Vernom S. Gerlach and Donald P. Ely devised the Gerlach & Ely instructional model.…...

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