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Compaction Test

In: Science

Submitted By nur2tj
Words 3703
Pages 15
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction The students work experience scheme (SIWES) is the accepted skill training programme, which formed part of approved minimum academy standards in the various degree programme for all the Nigerian Universities, the programme was for six (6) months and formally at the end of first semester of 300 level and 400 level student. This programme started from July to December it is aimed at exposing students to machines, devices and equipments, professional method, ways of safe guarding, Health and environmental consciousness.
1.2 History of the Establishment/Company O.K. Isokariari and Sons Co. Ltd. (O.K.I.) located at 83 Rivoc Road Trans Amadi Industries Layout Port Harcourt, was established in the year 1970 as a non Limited liability firm which was formally known as O.K construction (Nig.) Ltd (O.K.C.), founding by Chief (Sir) O.K. Isokariara. Following its growth and success, the business I was incorporated as a Limited liability of Company in 1972. O.K Isokariari and Sons (Nig.) Ltd is basically on building and Civil Engineering contractors. Our reputation is based on our professionalizing the capacity to plan, design, construct and building projects to the satisfaction of our clients. Our services includes feasibility studies, design and surveying, construction programming, Reinforced construction programming, Reinforced concrete products (Electric poles, culverts, pipes etc.), construction of road a and bridges, Engineering Services, project Management, supply of materials and Equipment, Equipment leasing and maintenance. Our philosophy is “Consider it done.” O.K.I is committed to focus is Health, safety and Environment protection in accordance with international practice.

Chairman
Managing Director Executive Director
ADMIN. Manager
Project Manager
Logistics Store Manager
Workshop Manager
Chief Security Officer (CSO)
Operational manager
Supervisor
Clerks
Chief Accountant
Survey Supervisor
Supervisor
Supervisor
Supervisor
Lab. Supervisor
Supervisor
Supervisor
Site Engr.
Labour and others
Clerks
Clerks
Clerks
Formen
Site security
Gate men
Technicians
Mate and Trainees
Supervisor
1.3 Organizational chart of O.K. Isokariari and Sons. (Nig) Ltd

1.4 Departments and their Functions
There are eight (8) departments in the company and every one works in order to achieve the goal of the company. a. Engineering Department: They carried out site work, the sections that maintenance unit and sites engineers. b. Workshop Department: They work effectively in maintaining the company equipments, the sections that made up this department are the mechanics unit, welding unit, vulcanizing unit etc. c. Operation Department: They carried out every activity within the company yard. d. Administration Department: This department admin or control the workers in and outward movement in the company. e. Logistics/Stores Department: Their work is to control the movement of the company equipments, vehicles and also to keep the materials use by the company in the warehouse. f. Account Department: They work effectively to ensure that the entire worker’s salaries are paid both in the company yard and on sites. g. Security Department: This department safeguards the company properties both in the yard and on sites. h. Safety/medical Department: They work effectively in protecting the company workers from being harm and also ensuring the health of the workers both in the yard and on sites.

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITHOLOGIC LOGS
Soil sample collection and logging laboratory tests are performed on soil sample that are obtained in disturbed and undisturbed form. They are usually obtained by coiling and storing of U400 or U100 tubes, samples are regularly tabled at depths as requested by the client.
Apparatus
* Auger * (U100) Open tube sample * Sample bag * Permanent marker * Spatula * G.P.S * Paper tape

Procedure * Mark where the trail pit is to be made or borehole to make a small opening into the ground and place the auger over it. * Then turn the auger manually into the soil for a short time until it’s filled with soil and then withdraw and put it in a sample bag according to the depth required. * Lithology of borehole carried out in the field/laboratory a total number of twat (12) sample were obtained from the four (4) boreholes with three (3) from each.
2.1 DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT
Moisture Content (MC) is the same as Water Content; moisture content determination is the most useful relationship between the phase weights and its routine, whereby the test determines the amount of inter-particle water present in a quantity of soil in terms of it’s mass. It is usually expressed as percentage of dry mass.
MC= M2-M3M3-M1×100% or Mw×100Ms

Methods for Determining Moisture Content
1. Overt drying method
2. Sand bath methods
3. Calcium carbite method and psychometer method. But oven drying method is the standard method used * Metal contain with or crucibles * Digital weighing balance * Oven and tong
Procedure (Over Drying Method) 1. Weigh the dry and clean crucible (M1) 2. Take about 30g of the soil sample and place in the crucible 3. Weigh the crucible and soil together, let this be (M2). 4. Oven dried the soil completely for 12 hours, remove the crucible from the oven and weigh to obtain the mass. (M3). 5. Repeat the steps for all the samples needed for the determined of water content. 6. Calculate for moisture content and presentation of results.

2.2 SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Specific gravity of soil is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of soil particles in air to the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at a temperature of 4°C.
This test is of limit value for Identification or classification of soils, because the specific gravity values of most soil falls within a narrow range, therefore it is an important factor required for computing most of the soil properties, e.g. void ratio of a soil weight.
Specific gravity is used often in Engineering Geology Calculation by definition
Specific Gravity GS= weight of volume materialweight equal volume of water
Also specific gravity is measured using a pyenometer or standard density bottle.
Apparatus
* Density bottle * Digital weighing balance * Vacuum pesiccator * Wash bottle
Procedures
1. Weight accurately the empty dry density bottle with the stopper, let this be W1 2. Transfer approximately 20g of the oven fried soil into the bottle and weight. Let this be W2 3. Fill the bottle and sand with distilled water using wash bottle, ensure that no bubbles are expelled by vigorous shaking W3 4. Fill completely the bottle with water only and weight let this be W4
The specific gravity, Gs is given as:
Specific Gravity Gs= W2-W1W4-W1-(W3-W1)
Specific Gravity (Gs) 5. Tabulate your results, by calculating using the above formula, then take the average of the specific gravity test repeated.

2.3 DETERMINATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION
Particle Size Distribution (PSD) refers to the percentage of the various grain size present in a given soil as determined by sieving, it is one of the geotechnical index properties used to classify soil based on their grains.
The particle size distribution of a soil is very important property which influences the engineering behaviour of soil and widely used in the identification and classification of soils. It can be determine by Dry sieving, wet sieving, hydrodynamic symmetry and particle surface characteristics.
Using Dry Sieving Method
This is employed when less than 5% of the soil passes through the No. 200μm sieve.
Apparatus used: * A set of sieves * Oven, brush * Electroshock. * Can/metal container
Procedure
1. oven dry about 200g of soil sample 2. Note its dry mass and pulverize it to• separate into individual grains. 3. Arrange the set of sieves with a pan at the bottom 4. Record the weight of empty sieves weighed 5. Place the dry soil sample on the topmost sieve, cover it with a lid and sieve then soil. Through the set of sieves by vibrating with an electric shaker for ten minutes 6. Weight each individual sieve with its retained. Particle 7. Record your result and calculate for the mass retained, mass passing and percentage mass passing 8. Draw the PSD curve by plotting, using the standard PSD data sheet.
2.4 ATTERBERG LIMIT OR CONSISTENCY LIMIT
Atterberg/Consistency Limit is the moisture content of a soil at the point where it passes from one stage to another which is used to classify cohesive soil (silt and clay).
The limits are based on the concept that a time grained soil can exists in any of the four states (solid, semi-solid, plastic and liquid) depending on the water content.
The cohesive sols show plasticity, which change the shape of the soil continuously under pressure and retain its new shape when the pressure is removed. Therefore after being limit occurs in three forms. 1. Liquid Limit (LL) 2. Plastic limit (PL) 3. Shrinkage limit (SL)
The most commonly used are liquid and plastic limit.
Liquid Limit Test (LL)
This is the moisture content at which a soil passes from the plastic to liquid state as determined by the liquid limit test, all these states of the soil will flow under its own weight.
Apparatus used * Crucible, wash bottle * Grooving tool, spatula * Cassagrander apparatus * Air dried soil * Mixing plate or glass plate * A set of sieves
Procedures
1. The soil is air dried and sieved through (ASTM) sieve of 0.425um 2. Weight the crucible to be used 3. Add distilled water little by little to dry soil and mix properly to form a uniform paste. 4. Place a portion of the paste in the brass cup of the device and compact it to smooth surface to a maximum depth of 1cm or 10mm. 5. A groove is made from back to front cutting the paste in half 6. Turn the handle at the rate of about two revolutions second and count the blows necessary to close the grove in the soil 7. Take approximately l0g of soil near the closed groove for moisture content determination. 8. Mix the sample in the cup and repeat step (5) and (6) until the number of blows required t close the groove does not differ by more than one. 9. Repeat stages(s) and (6) at Least three more time 10. Calculate the moisture content and plot for water content against number of blows. Then the water’ content which corresponds to the number of blows (25) on the flow cure 10 the liquid limit of the soil.
Plastic Limit
This is the water content below, which a soil no longer behaves as a plastic material is called the Plastic Limit. It is also maximum moisture content at which the soil can be rolled into a thread of 3mm in diameter without breaking.

Procedure 1. Using the same dry sample in liquid limit, mix about 20g with distilled water to form a soil paste. 2. Mould a portion of the soil into a ball and roll by hand into a thread. 3. Roll into thread on the glass plate, until it crumbles at diameter of 3mm.
N/B: If the thread is smaller than 3mm in diameter and shows no sign of crumbling, then the specimen is wetter than the plastic limit. 4. Put the crumbled soil into the crucibles and oven dried to determine moisture content. 5. Repeat step (1) and (4) to obtain three additional test of different depth, then determine for the average moisture content which gives the plastic limit of the soil.

2.5 COMPACTION TEST DETERMINATION
From definition compaction is the compression of soil due to the expulsion of air from the voids and may be brought about by rolling or tamping, It takes place during construction and cannot be reversed.
The purpose of these tests are to determine the proper amount of water at which the weight of the soil grains that unit volume of the compacted soil mass is maximum by using the standard proctor method.
Fig. 2.2: Compaction Mold and Rammer

Fig. 2.1: Digital Weighing Balance

Fig. 2.3: Crucible Fig. 2.4: Oven with Soil
Apparatus
* Proctor mound, (compaction mould) * Tray, manual weighing balance (kg) * Rammer, digital weighing balance, (g) * Spoon, oven * Cylindrical glass (Graduated jar) * Crucibles, spatular.

Procedure
Before starting the experiment, calculate the volume of the cylindrical mold from its diameter and height. V=r2h 1. Take about 5kg of air dry soil pulverizes it completely in the compaction tray. 2. Add an initial amount of water (300cm) to the soil and mix thoroughly 3. Clamp the mound to the base plate and weigh 4. Place a quantity of soil in the mould, use then rammer to compact using a standard number of blows (25) in three (3) approximately equal layers 5. Remove the extension collar and level off the soil from the top of the mould. 6. Weight the mould, base plate, and the compacted soil. 7. Take one sample each of the base and top of the compacted soil for moisture content determination, after over dried. 8. For each successive test, repeat steps (2) and (4) to (7) but with decreasing amount of added water (250cm), 200cm, 150cm, 100cm, and 50cm) until the mass of compacted soil begins to fail 9. Then compute the average water contents samples. 10. Further calculate for pure and dry and plot each dry density against the corresponding moisture content. 11. Draw the compaction curve and read off the OMC MDD from the curve.

Compaction Test
Compaction means reduction of air from the soil by mechanical means such as rolling, ramming or vibrating etc.
The compaction test determines the range of moisture content at which maximum compaction at optimum void content can be achieved.
Provided this range of moisture content is not exceeded, stability of the layer is ensured. Where conditions of moisture content are likely to disturb the balance then the shearing resistance or strength of the soil is further evaluated by the CBR test on a soaked sample on the layer. The compaction test ensures that further deformation of the layer by consolidation shall not occur provided the imposed load does not exceed the value used in the test.
The compaction test therefore is used to determine the optimum moisture content are likely to disturb the balance then the shearing resistance or strength of the soil is further evaluated by the CBR test on a soaked sample on the layer. The compaction test ensures that further deformation of the layer by consolidation shall not occur provided the imposed load does not exceed the value used in test.
The compaction test therefore is used to determine the optimum moisture content at which the given soil has to be compacted in order to attain maximum dry density. The laboratory compactive effort is standardized and it is assumed that it is a higher percentage of the field compactive effort. Compaction increases the bearing capacity of a soil.
2.6 Theory
Compacted granular soils are used as materials for the base of pavements. The degree of compaction normally depend on the type of soil and its griding its moisture content and the resultant curve has a peak value which represents the maximum dry density at the optimum water content. This particular state represents the most suitable condition fur the base of the pavement. The dry density D can be expressed as
Dd=D1+m
Where D = Bulk density M = Moisture content
Procedure:
* Mix about 5kg of air dried soil with about 5% of its weight of water. * Compact the mixed soil in 3 layers in a mould of known weight collar attached), each layer being compacted with 25 blows of the 2.5kg hammer with a drop of 300mm (standard AASHTO) or compact the mixed soil in 5 layers in a mould of known eight (with collar attached), each layer being compacted with 25 blows of the 4.5kg hammer with a drop of 150mm (Modified AASHTO). These are the proctor and the modified proctor after R.R Proctor of Los Angles. * Remove collar, level soil and weigh. * Extrude soil from mould and determine its moisture content (m) * Break up compacted soil and mix it with the rest of the sample. Add more water and mix thoroughly and repeat steps 2 to 4. * Repeat steps 2 to 5 several times until weight of compacted soil reaches its maximum and decreases

Figure 2.5: The 105mm diameter compaction mould and standard compaction hammer.
Result
Calculate Dd= D1+m
A graph of Dd against m determines the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) and Maximum Dry Density (MDD). Figures 2.2 and 2.3 are showing moisture content and dry density relationships in compaction tests.

Figure 2.6: Typical Moisture Density Relationship

Figure 2.7: Typical Component Test Results
The Zero-air Void Curse indicates the moisture contents for various dry densities if the material is fully saturated i.e. all its pores are filled with water. It means that in a regularly compacted earth, material there is some air in the pores;
For zero air Voids, Dd= GsDw1+mGs
Where Dd = dry density of soil
Gs= specific gravity of soil
M= moisture content
Dw= Density of water
For characterizing pavement materials with Dd value it is recommended as
Follows (6): i.e. Table 2.1
Table 2.2: Recommendation for compaction of soils Dd | Comment/Remark | Less than 14440kg/m3 | Unsatisfactory as a base material | 1760kg/m3 | Satisfactory | 1920kg/m3 | Excellent |

The compaction in the field is related to the laboratory value by the following
Table 2.3 Percentages Material | Laboratory value | Field value | Granular | X% | 90 – 95% of X | Fine grained | X% | 95 – 100% of X |
The idea is that higher compaction is achieved in the laboratory than in the field to the extent that some researchers assumes that the laboratory effort duplicate the field compactive effort. It is to be noted however that the optimum moisture content depends on the compactor and so it is important to specify the type of compactor and the specific test while in practice.
Table 2.4: Compaction classification Max Dry Density Kg/m3 | General Value as a subgrade Foundation material | Over 2121 | Excellent | 1958 – 2121 | Good | 1795 – 1958 | Fair | 1632 – 1795 | Poor | 1142 – 1632 | Very Poor |

OTHER SPECIFICATION OF FIELD DRY DENSITY
The required dry density can be specified either by relative compaction or in terms of the final air void percentage obtained.
The ratio between the maximum dry densities obtained in situ and those derived from standard compaction test known as the relative compact, typical values being as follows: Pdmax from the standard test | Minimum relative compaction | (Mg/m3) | (%) | 1.45 – 1.60 | 100 | 1.60 – 1.75 | 95 | 1.75 – 1.90 | 95 | 1.90 – 2.05 | 90 | Over 2.05 | 90 |

If dry density is expressed in terms of the final air void percentage, a value of 5 to 10 percent is generally demanded, depending upon the maximum dry density achieved from the standard compaction test.
For most work, a 5 percent variation in the value specified by either method is allowed for a fine grained soil and about 10 percent for a coarse grained soil, provided that the mean value achieved is equal to or greater than that specified. The Department of the Environment specifies that, in the construction of an embankment, the upper 0.6m below formation level should have an air voids ratio of not more than 5 percent, whilst for compacted material below this figure of not more than 10 percent is required.
Typical Dry Density Value Attained in situ
The maximum dry density depends upon the type of soil compacted. For a well graded gravel a dry density about 2.25Mg/m3 is possible, but with a heavy clay the dry density may be as little as 1 .44mg/m3.

Fig. 2.8: Proctor Device

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED * Power Failure * Allowances and monthly payments discouraged me a lot, working exhaustedly without rewards for work but encouragement and assistance from friends and families keep me going. 4.2 RELEVANCE OF SIWES PRGRAMME * It provides the student with the opportunity to relate with others in the working environment such as their superiors, colleagues and management in working as a team towards achieving a goal. * It gives the student the understanding on how to conduct a scientific research independently * It exposes the student to practical application of the theoretical knowledge gotten in the class room/schools and also provides a platform on which the student can put the principles which he has learnt to practice.

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 WAYS OF IMPROVING THE PROGRAMME * Institution that observes SIWES Programme should make sure that they conduct a strict and thorough SIWES defense session. This is to make student take their training more seriously and also compel students who would want to evade it to observe it. * The programme can also be enhanced if special prize and award are given to outstanding performance during the training. * SIWES programme will also be enhanced if the managers can organizes and implement a functional supervision or visitation to every organization where students are undergoing training.
4.2 ADVICE FOR SIWES MANAGERS * SIWES Managers should design the programme in such a way that in the middle of the training, student are recalled for a mid-way assessment. * SIWES Manager should in terms of implementing the policies of the programme he more honest. * The numerical strength of supervisors should be increased so as to reach every firm where student are undergoing training. * SIWES Managers should through the ITF provide job opportunities for student after graduation.
4.3 ADVICE FOR FUTURE PARTICIPANTS * Future participant should start searching for organization where they would be allowed to observed the training early to prevent disappointment. * Also they sold be prepared to be obedient hardworking and respectful to the official of any organization they are going to be trained in. * They should take their classroom work serious because they form the foundation of the industrial training

4.4 CONCLUSION AND APPRAISAL
The instilled experience to the student through exposure to practical activities in the fields of study has created an environment that gives professionalism to the student as their first industrial experience.
I commend the manager and directors and all those who have contributed immensely to the success of this programme, and may the program continue to achieve its purpose of establishment.…...

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... 890,000 infants are born each year. Since the 1960s, each individual born in a hospital is screened soon after birth for medical conditions such as phenylketonuria and sickle cell anemia via obtaining a few drops of blood from the baby’s heel as part of standard hospital procedure, irrespective of parental consent. These tests commonly analyze hormone and protein content from the samples. Each state oversees their own screening program and currently there is little uniformity among the conditions studied. The costs of these tests vary from $15 to $60 and are often covered through state fees and by health insurance plans. The addition of mandatory postnatal genome sequencing would add a tremendous burden to the healthcare system. Whole genome sequencing tests can currently cost around $1000, creating a deficit of around 4 billion dollars a year. Parents would be required to meet with a genetic counselor to interpret the data and the functionality of many genes has yet to be discovered. There is room for tremendous ambiguity without prior research and a shortage of qualified individuals to interpret all the data. False positive test results for genetic tests occur, on average, more than 50 times per every true positive finding according to a study conducted by Kwon et al from JAMA Pediatrics. This could potentially lead to an increase of vulnerable child syndrome, a condition that affects the family of an infant or child who has suffered what the parents believe is a “close......

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...Testing Life Cycle (STLC). The different stages in Software Test Life Cycle - Each of these stages have a definite Entry and Exit criteria  , Activities & Deliverables associat In an Ideal world you will not enter the next stage until the exit criteria for the previous stage practically this is not always possible. So for this tutorial , we will focus of activities and delive different stages in STLC. Lets look into them in detail. http://www.guru99.com/software­testing­life­cycle.html 1/12 6/28/2015 Software Testing Life Cycle STLC Requirement Analysis During this phase, test team studies the requirements from a testing point of view to identify requirements. The QA team may interact with various stakeholders (Client, Business Analyst, System Architects etc) to understand the requirements in detail. Requirements could be eith (defining what the software must do) or Non Functional (defining system performance /secur .Automation feasibility for the given testing project is also done in this stage. Activities Identify types of tests to be performed.  Gather details about testing priorities and focus. Prepare Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM). Identify test environment details where testing is supposed to be carried out.  Automation feasibility analysis (if required). Deliverables RTM Automation feasibility report. (if applicable) Test Planning This phase is also called Test Strategy phase. Typically , in this stage, a......

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...Quantitative research methods in educational planning Series editor: Kenneth N.Ross Module John Izard 6 Overview of test construction UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning Quantitative research methods in educational planning These modules were prepared by IIEP staff and consultants to be used in training workshops presented for the National Research Coordinators who are responsible for the educational policy research programme conducted by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ). The publication is available from the following two Internet Websites: http://www.sacmeq.org and http://www.unesco.org/iiep. International Institute for Educational Planning/UNESCO 7-9 rue Eugène-Delacroix, 75116 Paris, France Tel: (33 1) 45 03 77 00 Fax: (33 1 ) 40 72 83 66 e-mail: information@iiep.unesco.org IIEP web site: http://www.unesco.org/iiep September 2005 © UNESCO The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without......

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...sections How to meet girls online – 2 sections, including a cut and paste magnetic profile How to text a girl – 4 videos How to get an Ex back How to deal with a breakup or divorce How to date models How to be a rockstar in the bedroom How to get in amazing shape These files' direct download links are stored in this txt file: http://bit.ly/12b5MgJ The Tao of Badass Everything You Have To Know To Be A Complete Badass With Women Joshua Pellicer CONTENTS Introduction........................................5 Gender Roles..................................... 15 Confidence........................................ 27 The System....................................... 49 The Approach. ................................... 77 . Tests. .............................................. 89 . Reading Body Language........................ 97 Creating Love. ................................. 123 . The Biggest Mistakes You Make............. 137 Conclusion...................................... 147 DISCLAIMER AND TERMS OF USE AGREEMENT The author and publisher of this Ebook and the accompanying materials have used their best efforts in preparing this Ebook. The author and publisher make no representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy, applicability, fitness, or completeness of the contents of this Ebook. The information contained in this Ebook is strictly for educational purposes. Therefore, if you wish to apply ideas contained in this......

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