Premium Essay

Comment on the Relative Performance of the Uk, France, Germany and the Usa Since 1997

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Grac
Words 2029
Pages 9
Comment on the relative performance of the UK, France, Germany and the USA since 1997.

Over the last 10 years the economic performance of the European countries and the US has varied a lot, due to the external shocks (terrorist attacks) and economic policies. While France and Germany do not have control over their monetary policy, the UK and the US do. Therefore the rest of this essay will analyse the difference in the economic performance of those countries over the last 10 year and provide some explanations for the difference that occurred. Graph 1. Relative GDP Performance

Source: Euro State, 2007 From Graph 1, it can be seen that the UK has the most stable growth over the last 10 years, while Germany had the highest variation in its GDP performance. All of the countries saw a sharp decline in their GDP growth after the 9th September 2001, with the USA worst affected. However, such a sharp decline has also allowed the US to reshape its GDP the most by 2004. In comparison, Germany’s sharp decline in 2001 has led to a further GDP decline in 2002 and in 2003 the country saw negative economic growth. Over the last 10 years the US saw the highest overall growth in its GDP (28.9%), closely followed by the UK (28.5%) and France (22.8%). Germany struggled with only a 15.5% increase.

Graph 2. Relative GDP performance of Germany and France against EU15 Source: Euro State, 2007 Graph 2 shows the performance of France and Germany relative to EU15. It can be seen, that while France followed the EU15 performance closely until 2006, Germany’s performance lagged from 1998 and the country struggle to catch up

With the EU15 performance until 2006. After 2006, Germany’s performance has increased dramatically; allowing it to catch up with the EU15 and it is predicted that it will follow this trend in the future. France’s…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Difference Between Usa and Uk

...Difference Between Usa and Uk USA and the UK are two different conglomerate of states in the world. USA, completely known as United States of America has a federal and constitutional republic form of government while the UK (United Kingdom) instills the constitutional monarchy-parliament governance. In this regard, the head of the state along with the representatives are elected into office by the people in the US. They do their roles as government officials under the code of an already set constitution. Conversely, the UK has its monarch who acts as the head of state and absolute power is not vested unto this monarch because there is usually a duly elected separate head of the government that exercises political powers. These leaders, like in the US, uphold a set of laws in the form of a constitution. In terms of the number of states, the US is composed of fifty different states and a federal district (the seat of governance). The UK is a unitary or single state nation that is composed of four separate countries namely: Northern Ireland, England, Wales and Scotland. Geographically speaking, the US is like a large continent with most of its states residing in the Northern American continent. UK, on the other hand, is an aggregate of small and big islands. Thus, it is more similar to an archipelago. The US has an obvious advantage of land size because it is dubbed as the third or fourth largest country with a total of 9.83 million square kilometers of land. UK only has......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Incorporation of Muslim in Non-Muslim World: Focusing on France, Germany, Uk and Usa

...Incorporation of Muslim in Non-Muslim World: Focusing on France, Germany, UK and USA Abstract Though many European countries have large and growing Muslim minorities but since the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, Madrid in 2004 and London in 2005 the vast majority of Muslims in Europe became vulnerable to extremist ideologies. The matter of joy is that over the last several years, European governments have stepped up their efforts to improve Muslim integration. These have included introducing new citizenship laws and language requirements, promoting dialogue with Muslim organizations, developing “homegrown” imams more familiar with European culture and traditions, improving educational and economic opportunities for Muslims, and tackling racism and discrimination. By ensuring the Muslim integration, European governments have also sought to strengthen security measures and tighten immigration and asylum policies to prevent radicalization and combat terrorism. So this paper will illustrate the incorporation of Muslim in Secular Europe along with the policies of combating terrorism. Contents Abstract • Introduction • Presence of Muslim in Europe • France o Muslim attendance in France o French Efforts to Promote Muslim Integration • Germany o Muslim attendance in Germany o Germany Efforts to Promote Muslim......

Words: 5663 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Management Practice in Usa, Japan, China, Germany and Bangladesh.

...Introduction: Management practice around the globe has a lot diversities because of the presence of different social, economic, political and legal and tax systems. After independence the industrial enterprises of this country were initially brought under the control of the government. Very soon it was realized that the nationalized sector was not performing as desired because of unsuccessful management practice. Since then the country has been going through denationalization process. And then every type of concepts and theories of different countries has been practicing in our country. But it is very difficult to say which type of management practice should be applicable for our country. This paper is just an attempt to analyze the different types of management practice especially in U.S.A., Japan, Germany and China in the context of Bangladeshi management practices on the basis of the basic functions of management. As per the findings, management practice in Bangladesh is not being dominated by any specific country's management practice. This paper will describe what types of management practice are made in those countries with respect to socio-cultural or environmental circumstances and other legal and govt. policies. Why will we analyze and/or study Management Practices among the countries? The concept of comparative management has become more important in recent years because of the growing influence of multinational companies and global corporation. MNCs are......

Words: 3670 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Uk Pestle Analysis

...(PESTLE) structure in the UK. Each of the PESTLE factors is explored on four parameters: current strengths, current challenges, future prospects, and future risks. Summary Key findings The UK has a strong democratic system, but differences between coalition partners in the incumbent government pose a challenge The UK adheres to a democratic, parliamentary system of governance known as the Westminster system. This system ensures adequate distribution of power between the executive branch led by the prime minister, the bicameral legislature and the judiciary. Growing ideological differences between the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats in the current government is making the coalition vulnerable. Tensions between pro-Europe Liberal Democrats and euroskeptic Conservatives continue to plague British politics. Further, conflicting views on issues such as welfare reforms, immigration and the economy are straining relations. The UK economy is developed, but rising government debt remains a concern The UK is one of the largest economies in the EU and is one of the strongest in terms of social welfare and standard of living. Among the EU countries, the UK has one of the highest levels of per capita GDP in terms of purchasing power parity. According to the World Bank's Doing Business indicators for 2013, the UK is the seventh best country in the world to do business. The country ranks first in ―getting credit‖, implying that any company wishing to enter the UK faces fewer hurdles......

Words: 22764 - Pages: 92

Free Essay

Course Comparison Uk vs Usa

...assessments and are recorded on transcripts as high distinction, distinction, credit, pass, and fail. This system represents a mixture of the pass/fail system and a numerically graded system. Most institutions also provide a number to represent qualitative descriptions. It is important to note that in Australia, instead of beginning with 100% in a course, students begin with 0% and earn points. Therefore, earning a 75% is actually a very good grade. Austria 1 (Sehr guy) 2 (Gut) 3 (Befriedigend) 4 (Genuegend) 5 (Nicht genuegend) A (81-100%) B (69-80%) C (58-68%) D (50-57%) F (below 50%) A A-/B+ B C+/C F A/B+ The equivalent to aUS “D” does not exist. Belgium B-/C+ C-/D+ D F Botswana 100-80%/ 5.0 grade point A Performance in a course is assessed on a 79.9-75%/4.5 74.9-70%/4.0 69.9–65%/3.5 64.9 – 60%/3.0 59.9 – 55%/2.5 54.9 – 50%/2.0 49.9 – 45%/1.5 44.9 – 40%/1.0 39.9 – 35%/.5 34.9 or below Brazil 9.0 – 10 (excelente) B+ B BC+ C CD+ D+ DE A A B C F percentage scale, a letter grade, and a 5point scale. The grading system in Botswana is far more stringent than in the US . It is extremely difficult for a University of Botswana student to obtain an A. Grading scales may even vary within each 7.0 – 8.9 (bom – good) 5.0 – 6.9 (regular) 3.0 – 4.9 (insuficiente) 0 – 2.9 (deficiente) institution, and grading is fairly severe. Top grades are awarded to few students, and the failure rate in a given course can be high. In a 10–0 system, 10 is......

Words: 2500 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Relative Performance Tournaments

...is subject to a relative performance tournament; staff members who perform relatively better than their peers will be rewarded with a prize; a raise and tenure in this case. Studies have shown that relative performance tournaments result in the participants exerting more effort, ultimately increasing productivity (Nalbantian & Schotter, 1997). Nevertheless, there are several detrimental factors to be considered. Relative Performance tournaments are costly and difficult to monitor. Furthermore, they can undermine work ethic and sabotage cooperation (Holmlund, 2009). Finally, faculty members could neglect important objectives of their job to focus on parts that would benefit their performance evaluation. Consequently, it is crucial to realize that while relative performance can increase productivity among junior faculty, its disadvantages can potentially undermine the university’s overall objectives. The key element of relative performance tournaments is that participants are evaluated “on the basis of their performance relative to their peers” (DeVaro, 2006, p. 5). Potentially receiving a raise and tenure dependent on their relative performance therefore enhances competitive behaviour as not all participants can win. Consequently, relatively better performance is incentivised. Müller and Schotter’s as well as Nalbantian and Schotter’s studies show that relative performance contract do increase productivity (Müller & Schotter, 2003)(Nalbantian & Schotter, 1997). This is......

Words: 1601 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Uk Operating Performance

...UK operating performance We achieved strong sales growth in the year with stores open more than one year increasing their sales by 8.9%. Of this, 4.8% was due to an increase in the volume of products sold and 4.1% was due to inflation. The trend in existing stores sales growth is shown in Chart 1. On this measure, we continue to outperform the industry average. Sales from new stores continue to be encouraging, with all formats - superstores, compact, Metro and Express - trading in line with our expectations. New stores (after allowing for closures) contributed 10.9% to our overall sales growth. For the year ahead, we expect a further useful contribution despite a smaller opening programme weighted towards the year end. Our total UK sales increase was 19.8%.This contributed to the estimated rise in our market share from 12.0% to 13.6% (see Chart 2). The market continues to be highly competitive. Our ongoing commitment to offer customers excellent value for money has meant we have reduced selling prices on many products.Through managing improvements in our sales mix, better buying and more efficient sourcing we have been able to limit the impact of reduced prices on gross margins which fell by only 0.2%. We have continued our drive to improve the productivity of all areas. This has helped us to finance the significant improvements we have made to checkout service and more labour intensive departments such as pharmacies. As a result, UK wages as a percentage of sales reduced by...

Words: 2330 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Has Constitutional Reform Since 1997 Gone Too Far?

...Has constitutional reform in the UK gone too far since 1997? Due to the uncodified nature of the UK constitution it is organic and the lack of higher law enables constitutional reforms to occur far quicker and with greater ease than seen in other countries, such as the USA. A constitutional reform is a political change in the constitution. There are varying bodies of opinion on the extent of constitutional reforms that are currently required within the UK. Constitutional changes have been mainly seen since 1997, under Blair and Brown, such as the establishment of a Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly in 1999, a constitutional reform some argue to be unnecessary while others argue should be extended and developed. A key issue that has divided constitutional opinions since 1997 is the idea of the unelected House of Lords, which some say undermine the legitimacy of democracy within the UK. The Salisbury convention already exists and ensures that the House of Lords does not obstruct proposals, which are previously contained in the elected government’s most recent manifesto, which is argues as an example of the removal of undemocratic sovereignty held previously by the Lords. However the fact that it is unwritten has been opposed to as the Lords is not fully controlled by the Government. To counteract the opposition other reforms have been introduce to reduce the powers of the House of Lords, such as the 1999 reform reducing hereditary peers to 92 from 600, and also the loss......

Words: 1560 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

The Changing Geographies of Manufacturing in the Uk Since the 1970s

...The Changing Geographies of Manufacturing in the UK since the 1970s Since the 1970's, the geographies of manufacturing in the UK has been one of steady decline in relative contribution to GDP and in relative and real terms of employment. This dominant trend can be explained by 4 Theses and this essay will focus on them. The Maturity thesis focuses on the decline in the relative contribution of manufacturing to the employment in the UK. A typical Industry is going through: 1. Growth Phase, in which the industry share in the country's employment rises rapidly. 2. Maturity Phase, when the share stabilises. 3. Declining Phase, marked by decline in this share. Figure 1 Employment change through maturity A sector in growth phase takes the labour needed for its growth from other sectors. The service sector was experiencing growth from the 1970’s onwards and in immature countries the labour was mostly taken from the agricultural sector. But the UK had just 3,6 % of civil employment in agriculture in 1966.(Martin and Rowthorn 1986, 2010) The consequence was that almost all of the labour needed for its growth (20%) from 1971 until 2009 was taken from the industry sector. This explains why the UK was the first developed country to experience de-industrialisation and its strong influence. Figure 2 UK Unemployment by broad sector, 1971-2009 Cambridge Econometrics analysis of ONS......

Words: 2426 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Italy Germany France

...Hofstede Analysis of Italy, Germany, France and USA 1. Dimensions of Management Culture Comparison Chart |Dimension |Italy |Germany |France |USA | |PDI |50 |35 |68 |40 | |IDV |76 |67 |71 |91 | |MAS |70 |66 |43 |62 | |UAI |75 |65 |86 |46 | |LTO |61 |83 |63 |26 | 2. Analysis of Section I Results Question 1. How do the dimensions of management culture of the 3 foreign nations differ from each other? There are varying variances between the different countries, Germany was well below Italy and France on Power Distance, indicating that “Germany is not surprisingly among the lower power distant countries…control is disliked and leadership is challenged to show expertise and best accepted when it’s based on it” (Hofstede Centre).......

Words: 651 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

English Eap Uk Education System

...English for Academic Purposes 1 (EAP 1) UK Education System Booklet Autumn 2015 Contents | Page | Tips for Using this Booklet | 3 | 1. Organisation | | Education System in the UK | 4 | 2. Funding | | Trends in education and schools spending | 8 | School budgets facing significant cuts | 10 | 3. Quality | | UK second best education in Europe | 11 | GCSEs to become more demanding and rigorous, says Michael Gove | 13 | 4. Comparison of UK education system | | The United Kingdom Education System in Comparative Context | 15 | Tips for Using this Booklet Choose three topics only: although the articles in this booklet cover a range of areas you only need to focus on three in your essay. You may choose to look at another topic not covered in this booklet but check with your tutor if you are unsure if it is suitable. Read selectively: the journal article in section 4 contains a lot of useful information about the UK as well as other countries. However, it is quite long and contains quite a lot of historical background information in the first few pages which will not necessarily be useful for your assignment. Use the sub-headings to focus on the sections that will be most useful to you. Use only relevant details: Be selective when choosing the information you want to include and make sure it remains relevant to the topic of the paragraph. E.g. If the paragraph is on the structure of the education system, do not start discussing......

Words: 12012 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

O What Extent Have Constitutional Reforms Since 1997 Made the Uk More Democratic?

...of government is changed or where a change is proposed. In the UK this may also involve the process of codification. Since 1997 there have been many key reforms that have impacted on the UK whether it makes the country more democratic or even undemocratic. The first reform is the reform of the House of Lords, this was were the voting rights of most hereditary peers were abolished. The Blair government subsequently passed the House of Lords Act 1999, on 7th November 2001 the government undertook a public consultation. This helped to create a public debate on the issue of Lords reform. In 2010 all three main parties promised to take action on the Lords reform in the 2010 general election, this was then followed up by the House Of Lords Reform Bill 2012, however this Bill was abandoned by the Government on 6th August 2012 following opposition from within the Conservative Party. A successful attempt to pursue minor reform of the House was made on 14 May 2014 when the House of Lords Reform Act 2014 gained Royal Assent. The original idea of abolishing voting rights of most hereditary peers, makes the UK less democratic rather than more democratic. This is due to the House Of Lords as a whole being an unelected chamber and therefore makes it undemocratic, however by removing the hereditary rights of some peers makes it less undemocratic as they are born into it at birth and not voted in. So this reform does make the UK slightly more democratic, but overall some peers remain and......

Words: 996 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

To What Extent Have Constitutional Reforms Introduced Since 1997 Made the Uk More Democratic?

...To what extent have constitutional reforms introduced since 1997 made the UK more democratic? Since 1997 the UK has seen many constitutional reforms; it is argued about whether or not they have made the UK more democratic, this easy will be going through a few of these reforms and explain how they have effected the UK. The word democracy means a system of government in which all the people are involved in making decisions that effect the country/state, it can further be defined as a government for the people, by the people, of the people, the people of the state can have their say through electoral votes, referendums lobbying or protests. Democracy has many aspects such as decentralisation, accountability, participation, open government and rights protection; decentralisation means the process of distributing or dispersing power away from the central government, an example of this can be seen in the Devolution Act of 1997. Accountability is the act of the government being liable for everything they do; this relates back to the rule of law which states that anybody can be taken to court if they have broken the law including the law makers themselves. Holding the government accountable means that anybody of the public can take the government to court if they have broken the law or if someone feels like an Act has been broken. Open government definitely helps democracy as it means that citizens have the right to access documents and proceedings of the government to allow......

Words: 1303 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Uk Versus Usa Education

...According to the world university rankings compiled by the Times Higher Education, more than half of the world’s top 200 universities are located in either the US or the UK. Both countries share a rich tradition of quality higher education, excellent research facilities, and a culture that promotes intellectualism as well as academic freedom. However, while both certainly provide an excellent environment for learning, there are many differences between the two countries regarding the structure of the university as well as student life. In this article, we will explore the primary differences between the American and British systems of education. Length of Time Perhaps the most important difference between the education system in the US, and the UK, is the amount of time it takes to finish your degree (except in Scotland, where a bachelor’s degree also lasts four years). In general, degree programs in the US take about one year longer than programs in the UK, although this varies depending upon whether you receive a Master’s degree prior to a PhD. In both systems, you can go directly to a PhD program out of your undergraduate program, but in the UK it is more common to complete a Master’s degree program before moving on to a PhD. Courses of study are shorter in the UK because the course programs are generally much more focused than in the US. Academic Term Most universities in the US begin their terms in mid to late August, although smaller liberal arts colleges may......

Words: 1206 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Relations Between Usa and Uk

...Relations between the US and the UK Any complete justification of the relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom will need to start since the very beginning when a group of men migrated to another country and started to think up in a different idea of nation, but recognizing after all their inheritance from English traditions. This essay is going to be more focused on to the ethnic and political relations these two countries share in common and how their relation is distinguished to the point that it has been called a “special relationship.” In order to have a clear understanding about the relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom is necessary to know their past since most of their history reflects present-day manifestations. First of all, it is important to state that every epoch is different, everyone who intends to give historical approach to these major countries needs to be situated in time and context since the history of the two has many particularities and it is too broad to explain all aspects. When the first north Americans settled in that new and extended land they started to think in a rebellion sense of been independent; subsequently of what would be the leading politic of this nation, then for British soon weakened their relation; at that moment, the five men including Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson started...

Words: 1198 - Pages: 5