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42068711

COM 3703

08 October 2015

42068711
COM3703
Media Studies
PORFOLIO ASSIGNMENT: 04
OPTION 01
08 October 2015

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DECLARATION:
I, THE UNDERSIGNED, HERBY DECLARE THAT THIS IS MY OWN AND PERSONAL
WORK, EXCEPT WHERE THE WORK(S) OR PUBLICATIONS OF OTHERS HAVE
BEEN ACKNOWLEDGED BY MEANS OF REFERENCE TECHNIQUES.
I HAVE READ AND UNDERSTOOD TUTORIAL LETTER CMNALLE/301 REGARDING
TECHNICAL

AND

PRESENTATION

REQUIREMENTS,

REFERENCING

TECHNIQUES AND PLAGIARISM.
NAME: Ashley Vercueil
STUDENT NUMBER: 42068711
DATE: 08/10/2015
WITNESS: Sheree Gloss

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TABLE OF CONTENT

08 October 2015

PAGE

DECLARATION

2

1. INTRODUCTION

4

2. QUANTITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSIS
2.1 The research problem

4

2.2 Research question or hypothesis

4

2.3 Method

5

2.4 Findings

6

2.5 Analysis

7

3. FIELD RESEARCH IN MEDIA STUDIES

8

4. MEASURING MEDIA AUDIENCES

11

5. FILM THEORY AND CRITICISM

14

5.1 Film: An overview

14

5.2 Theoretical discussion

14

5.3 A German expressionist analysis of film

15

6. PSYCHOANALYSIS AND TELEVISION

17

7. CONCLUSION

20

8. SELF-EVALUATION AND SELF-REFLECTION

21

SOURCES

23

Addendum

24
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Portfolio Examination
Option 01
1. INTRODUCTION
In this portfolio examination I will conduct my own quantitative content analysis, conduct a focus group interview to explain field research in media studies. This analysis will give greater insight into the frequency of stories published about women and other related stories, as well as how they are portrayed in the media.
This will be done referring to the steps outlined by Wigston (Fourie, 2009: 10) for content analysis. I will also explain the relevance of measuring media audiences, and gain an understanding of the concepts of “Realism”, “film criticism” and “film theory”. Lastly I will discuss the relationship between psychoanalysis and film and apply the relevant theory to a television program of my choice.
2. QUANTITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSIS
2.1 The research problem
The purpose of this research is to investigate the coverage of stories related to women empowerment, the advancement of women’s rights, women abuse and other related stories. This will be done making use of the News 24 platform as reference, in order to determine the differences in the representation of Women empowerment stories, and the frequency and/or duration of the coverage given to publications of this nature.
2.2 The purpose of this research is to investigate the coverage of road safety
Research question and hypothesis
-­‐

Which units of analysis will be used?

-­‐

What determines the parameters of a Women empowerment/rights story?

-­‐

What will the measurement used to Women’s rights stories be?

-­‐

What is the frequency of Women’s rights stories found over a five-day period?

-­‐

Is priority given to Women’s rights/empowerment stories or stories of a different nature?
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2.3 Method
Quantitative content analysis involves some form of counting, and applies the scientific method rigorously (Fourie, 2009: 4). Content analysis is a research method based on measuring the amount of something (Fourier 2009: 5). In my research I will use quantitative content analysis to measure and compare the amount of Women’s rights/empowerment stories published on the front page of the News 24 platform, compared to stories of a different nature. The research requires us to analyse the frequency or the amount of times stories related to road safety are covered on the front page of the Pretoria Newspaper during a five-day research period. It is required one to determine the frequency and duration/amount of the coverage given to this particular form of advertising namely: advertisements related to Women, rights, achievement and issues related to women abuse. The categories will be: total Women Empowerment stories appeared within the 5 days, total stories related to other topics appeared within 5 days, size of coverage in Women empowerment and other stories, priority in each factor and the different types of Female related stories you get as well as the different types of other stories such as crime and political stories etc.
It is therefore important to determine what Women related stories are, as well as what other stories can be classified as, and how many times they appeared throughout the week as well the size of each category. The priority of the story will also be given. In each unit we will be analysing the frequency of Women related stories as well as the frequency of these stories and categorised for analysis and the amount of coverage they attain.
The units of analysis (what I am actually going to count and categories) are;
Time/space, where I would measure the number of space occupied in a newspaper that cover the two category stories – the column will be measured in centimetres to establish the amount of frequency given to crime.
Thereafter determining my units of analysis, I now need to develop categories in which I will place my units of analysis. These units should be exhaustive, mutually exclusive and equivalent.
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I have opted to categorise in terms of space (amount of centimetres occupied by crime articles).
0-5 cm; 5-10cm; 10-15cm; 15-20cm; 20cm and bigger
2.4 Findings
Stories occupying the following categories of Female related stories on the front page of The News 24 platform over a five-day period.
Monday 3 August 2015
-­‐

Gender injustices
Tuesday 4 August 2015

-­‐

Inspirational women
Wednesday 5 August 2015

-­‐

Female safety
Thursday 6 August 2015

-­‐

Women’s rights
Friday 7 August 2015

-­‐

Women’s rights

-­‐
Tally sheet on stories covered
-­‐

Women related stories: 22cm

-­‐

Traffic violations: 12cm

-­‐

Political crimes/fraud: 24cm

-­‐

Murder; 2cm
Total- 60cm = 69%

-­‐

Political education-12cm

-­‐

Citizen education-16cm
Total- 28cm = 31%

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Women related stories

traffic related stories 20%

Murder 3%

Women's rights 40% Crimes 37%

2.5 Analysis
The results determine that a large part of news articles consist ofWomen related stories, nearly 40 %. The second highest news stories for the five-day duration were that of crime forming part of different catagories, with 37% of space occupied on the front page. Traffic violations and road safety (which included drunk driving, man slaughter, driving under the influence and road deaths and toll related issues) were
3rd highest of the week with 20%. The difference in the representation of Female related stories depend on the events during that specific period like Women’s day or as some deem it, Women’s month.
We see here that stories on Female related issues are published more than stories on political education or crime during of a 5-week newspaper publication. However we do realize that crime stories concerning the majority of South Africans, like political fraud and crimes on animals, do receive preference. This could be due to the fact that it involves the whole population of South Africa and would boost sales in newspapers. The fact that South Africans are faced with crime everyday makes it vitally important for newspapers to attract readers to buy their newspaper. Therefore news stories such as politicians caught in fraud scandals, appeal to majority of tax paying members of our society. Readers are attracted by crimes that involve them and not merely a story about someone or something else. This means that readers
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may feel that road safety issues due not apply to them directly, and therefor less importance is placed on it. My findings conclude that the duration/frequency given to different Road and traffic stories depend upon the target group/ readers, and what they find newsworthy.
3.FIELD RESEARCH IN MEDIA STUDIES
3.1.Theoretical background
3.1.1Ethnographic studies can simply defined as the study of culture. In this case more specifically, the study of culture within a media context and the influence that cultural elements have on the representation of media from the perspective of the sender and how it is received. (Fourie, 2009: 412)
3.1.2 Deciding on whether or not different media reception studies or techniques can be considered a valid part of ethnography is debatable. I feel although it may not be completely accurate, it legitimately seems to be a step in the right direction. It seeks to quantify the virtually unquantifiable variable, which is human reception or perspective within a certain cultural context. Members of different cultures are always going to perceive certain aspects of social life differently., but although this may be true there is a real possibility of micro contexts within individuals experience which can influence the way the perceive something. That said, the different techniques developed to do this study aim to achieve just that and therefore should be seen as a fundamental principal of ethnography. (Fourie, 2009: 507-512)
3.1.3 Participation observation requires to a well thought-out strategy in order to efficiently set in motion the necessary steps that are to follow. If this is not great confusion will occur and a failure to achieve the set objectives inevitable. These steps include firstly establishing the research problem and the relevant audience being observed. This is then succeeded by correct site entry, establishing the openness of the location, and subsequently observing the relevant elements pertaining to the site and audience. This would also include deciding whether observation will be done openly or covertly, as a full participant or onlooker

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considering the ethical issues may ensue. This is all done using field notes, tape recorders or videos.
In-depth interviews can also be employed as a technique of field research, which would consist of a compilation of standard questions, which are presented to participants on a one-on-one basis. Document analysis can also add insight to an organisation or project. Private or public documents can be observed and information divulged about crucial aspects of the project. Focus groups can be used to gain information into the views and attitudes of different groups or communities, which allows one to understand their point of view intersubjectively. (Fourie: 486504)

3.1.4 The purpose of this research is to investigate the viewing patterns of different ethnographic media audience members regarding television drama.” An important research question we need to answer for the main research problem is:
-What population parameter (age, gender and race) will we sample for our research? -What questions will be ask in the group interview, in order to determine the communities’ feelings and concerns?
- How will we conduct these group interviews to ensure that members will not be influenced by each other?
The Sample of 8 members is selected because they all have certain characteristics in common. The 8 members I have selected are purposive samples. The 4 male and 6 female samples are all members of the same community, living in the community of Silverton, Pretoria. The members chosen are all between the ages of
18-60 years old, 4 white and 4 Africans ‘members of the Silverton community, who are easily accessible and within reach of the researcher. I have taken into consideration the population parameters (age, gender and race) and find that opinions/feelings of members selected will not be influenced by these parameters.
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These were all considered and planned before the group interview could take place.
I also had to pre-plan my interview, do substantial research on how to conduct group interviews as well as form research questions and determine my research problems. I also had to determine before hand which recording devices I would make use of. I decided to use a tape recorder and to take notes. The recording procedures were explained to members and their consent was given.
I started by explaining the purpose of the research and the process that would follow. I ensured all members gave their consent to this. I motivated participants to speak freely and should not hesitate to speak without being invited.
The results determined that 2 out of 8 members of the group were over bearing, and that they did not even pay attention to these messages, of these all 5 were male.
The remaining 6 members affirmed that they actively participated in watching television dramas. 2 out of the 4 males denied any participation in such television programming. In conclusion, I realized that in order to analys a topic from an

ethnographic view point the researcher needs to plan and do substantial research on the sample size, interview process and results. The population parameters and opinions/feelings of group members should not be allowed to influence the results.
4 MEASURING MEDIA AUDIENCES
It is imperative that all activities of the media have an audience. Therefore it is important to determine through research that this audience is. In the marketing industry, increased competition due to factors such as product deluge and saturated markets has created the need for more precise identification of market segments in order to target advertising to designated segments more efficiently
(Fourie, 2009: 517). Since the audiences are so important for funding the mass media and also the primary source of the social and political power of the media, information on the audience has become vital to the media and marketing industries (Bornman:263).
The information obtained about audiences are used as the basis for a wide range of decisions regarding media content, scheduling, advertisement etc. in an
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attempt to obtain information on the audience, a multitude of informal and scientific methods and techniques have been developed. Three important research questions we need to address are:
-­‐

How many people are there in the audience?

-­‐

How often do people show up in the audience?

-­‐

Who are the members of the audience?

There are certain methodologies and techniques we need to consider when measuring audiences.
-­‐

The concepts of ‘watching’, ‘listening’, ‘reading’, and/or ‘visiting’. It should be considered what behaviour is involved in the activities ‘watching’, ‘listening’,
‘reading’ and/or ‘visiting’ and how long is it necessary to peruse with these activities in order to be considered, for example, to have ‘watched’, to have
‘listened, to have ‘read’ or to have ‘visited’ an internet website (Fourie,
2009:522).

Currently,

most

methods

and

techniques

of

audience

measurement rely on respondent’s own subjective definitions and whether they themselves believe that watching, listening, reading and/or visiting has taken place (Fourie, 2009: 522).
-­‐

Coverage or research is an indicator of audience size that is associated with the households in a particular population reached by a particular medium, channel or program (Fourie 2009).

-­‐

Audience share refers to the percentage of total viewing or listening households within the universe whose sets are tuned to that program (Fourie,
2009: 523). It is therefore necessary to have information on the total number of viewing or listening households in a particular population during particular time slots (Fourie, 2009: 523). The statics obtained from audience share is not used to sell advertising time, but rather help make decisions on scheduling. -­‐

Audience rating is associated with the overall popularity of particular programs. The rating also determines the rank of stations or channels as well

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as their monetary value. Frequency is an indication of how often particular media behaviour (e.g. watching, listening, reading and/or visiting) takes place.
-­‐

We therefore realize that due to the unique nature of each mass medium, some methodologies and techniques can be used for a particular media and not for others. It is imperative that audiences are reached and that the information obtained are used to make important decisions in media. The use of meters (people meter panel) has become the universal standard method for measuring television audiences in more than 70 countries (Fourie, 2009:
546). Audience measurement in South Africa is a set of joint research bodies, which generally acceptable and commonly acknowledged data. Since high levels of precision and accuracy are required into media audience research, these collective bodies together illuminate saturated and/or duplication in audiences in South Africa, and the South African advertising research foundation (SAARF) was born (Fourie, 2009: 563). The SAARF oversees a wide range of audience measurement endeavours, the most important of which are the following:

-­‐

SAARF AMPS: this is perhaps the most well known SAARF product. The survey (questionnaire) not only covers media behaviour related to television, radio, print media, cinema, outdoor advertising and the internet, but also usage patterns of products and services as well as a range of activities such as exercising, travelling, and so forth as well as attitudes towards typical
South African issues (Fourie, 2009:565).

-­‐

SAARF RAMS®: this measures radio audiences by means of diaries to provide detailed information on radio listening behaviour.

-­‐

SAARF TAMS®: this entails measuring television viewing by using the means of a people meter panel.

-­‐

SAARF OHMS: this is a relatively new initiative to measure audiences for outdoor media by means of a GPS device called the ‘Npod’.

-­‐

SAARF LSM®: the ten categories of the well-known SAARF LSM measure serve as complex indicators of socioeconomic status that are, among other things used in the segmentation of media audiences.
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SAARF MGM: this new product involves the segmentation of the South
African public into eight categories concerning media usage patterns.

-­‐
SAARF has thus the responsibility to measure the audiences of all traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and cinema and out of home media. This is done by ensuring that the necessary joint industry research surveys are conducted every year to provide updated audience information for all traditional media (AMPS, RAMS, TAMS and OHMS) (www.saarf.co.za).
Thus far, various aspects of audience research have been identified and explained.
However audience researchers are continuously confronted with new problems and challenges due to the ever-changing environment. The nature of the audience is becoming increasingly complex as well as technological innovations make audience research problematic. Today, many households have not one, but several television/radio sets. Cable and satellite television, as well as the deregulation and commercialization of the media, have furthermore extended the available choice of stations and/or channels (Fourie, 2009: 576). It is difficult to obtain information on
DSTV audiences, which in the end could lower the quality of research. Audience measurement is furthermore criticized for generalizing across individuals. It is also accused of failing to highlight the vibrancy of audience behaviour and the variety of practices involved in being a member of the audience, as well as the experiences of actual members of the audience and how meaning is produced through processes of media consumption (Fourie, 2009: 578).
5. FILM THEORY AND CRITICISM
The series I have chosen is Vampire Diaries, Season 4 Episode 14. The characters in this episode are Eleina Gilbert, Stefan Salvatore and Damon Salvatore. In this episode the 3 character are on a mission to save their town from the strongest vampire named
Klaus from awakening. They go and a search to get a cure that this Klaus has in his tomb. On their journey they encounter difficulties and solve the problems as a group.
In this episode we will discuss viewer involvement referring to the model for analyzing

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viewer involvement namely; desire and pleasure; regression, mirror identification and mode of enunciation.
Vampire diaries is a fictional series which viewers watch for various reasons, the main reason being the fact that it resembles their dreams.
Desire and pleasure: Vampire Diaries is a fictional narrative which consists of wolves, vampires and witch characters. These characters resemble strength, power and immortality. The viewers attach themselves to these characteristics, which put them in a dream-like state. Viewers find these characteristics therapeutic as it is an escape from reality. Due to the fact that the series is fictional, it allows viewers to develop his/her imagination. Thus creating desire and pleasure as viewers involve themselves in the lives of these super-natural beings.
Regression: regression is the mental process where viewers have a double suspension of belief or disbelief. In Vampire diaries the viewers are aware that the characters and their actions are super-natural. Due to the fact that they are aware of this false reality, the pleasure of the imaginary stage allows them to unconsciously believe that what they are seeing is true. This allows viewers to remain in their dream-like state. Example in episode 14 is when Stefan Salvatore jumps from a waterfall and lands on his feet. We as viewers are aware that this cannot happen in reality, yet our imagination find these unrealistic events intriguing and allow us to believe in it. In other words regression is believing and not believing simultaneously.
Mirror identification: is when viewers can identify themselves with an image through experiences in infancy. Viewers of vampire dairies associate with certain characters or characteristics in the series because of previous childhood experiences and memories.
This allowing them to identify themselves with what they see on screen. For example in episode 14 Elaina Gilbert kisses Damon her boyfriends’ brother. Viewers can associate to this as we have all had a childhood crush and our hearts broken.
Modes of enunciation: in vampire diaries the way characters communicate (dialogue), as well as certain production techniques are used to depict the series as real as possible. The setting of Vampire diaries takes place in a small isolated town,
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surrounded by woods. This giving the impression of vampires, wolves and witches, making it seem as real as possible. The production techniques used illustrate how these characters balance their super-natural life within ordinary town. An example of how viewers observe their own fantasies in the episode could be where Bonnie, the witch brings Jeremy back to life. Viewers could fantasise about mortality and having super powers. 5.1. Theoretical discussion
Siegfried Kracauer
Siegfried Kracauer was a German writer, journalist, sociologist, cultural critic, and film theorist. Kracauer sought to portray the meaning of reality in a realistic way rather than filming realistic portrayals or recording reality. He preferred to use film to create a perception of reality thus giving him artistic freedom to use unrealistic film portrayals to produce scenes or actions which are staged but are perceived by the recipient to be real. (Fourie,2009:342)
Andre Bazin
To Andre Bazin reality was more important than film and he made a clear distinction between the two. Bazin preferred the ambiguity of reality and he favoured to obscure the multiple meanings of reality denying the viewers the potential of choice thus preventing them from making connections within in the images they see. He made use of sequence shots and depth perspective attempting to portray the union of humanity and reality and the interdependence of the multiple meanings of things. By withholding information from the viewer the viewer is forced to ascribe his own meanings to the reality of what he saw.
(Fourie, 2009:343)
Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc felt that the dishonesty of directors could distort reality as montage does by choosing certain images to portray. Thus by choosing specific images he is still prisoner to the act of abstraction. “To Godard, realism resides not in the content and form of the images, but in the intellectual reality that the director creates with his message – the dialog that he conducts with the viewer”. (Fourie, 2009:346-347) He was concerned about revealing peoples inner experience and their relation with reality. His films were human-centered cinema, evoking emotion.
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(Fourie, 2009:347)

5.2 The film: an overview
5.2.1

The film Open Waters is a movie directed by Chris Kentis (2003)which is based on a true story of a couple, Daniel and Susan who are on an island holiday. The roles of Daniel and Susan are played by Daniel Travis and Blanchard Ryan respectively. The themes that characterise this film are man’s defenselessness in the void of nature and the terror of being isolated by a new reality separating one from the normality of human existence.
(www.rogerebert.com/reviews/openwater-water-2004)

5.2.2

The story begins with an American couple on holiday at an island destination.
The plot unfolds when the characters go on a scuba diving excursion. During the excursion two scuba divers are counted twice so that the boat returns to port with eighteen divers even though it left with twenty. The main characters,
Daniel and Susan are thus left behind to fend for themselves in the open ocean.
The climax of the film portrays Daniel and Susan struggling to survive this terrible ordeal, defending themselves against sharks and dehydration. They try to make sense of this reality of being left behind. At one point they are given hope when a ship passes by. They cry out for help but to no avail.
The resolution of the film is depicted after Daniel is attacked by a shark and eventually dies of the wound. Susan seemingly accepts their fate after realizing that Daniel is dead.
The denouement of the film shows Susan choosing to drown herself. Susan looks around for any sign of rescue before drowning herself. The film closes with fisherman having cought a shark, finding Susan and Daniels diving camera after gutting the shark. (www.rogerebert.com/reviews/openwater-water-2004)

5.3 A Realist analysis of film
The film Open Waters can be characterised as a realist film because it depicts a true story in the most realistic way possible. The line of the plot isn’t immediately clear and seemingly evolves from the characters own reality or
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situation. The film is characterised by a rustic cinematography giving it a documentary visual style. No special effects are used and natural lighting is preferred. No sets were built for this film but actual locations were used. The actors are relatively unknown and their dialogs are more natural or conversational thus rendering a film which creates a kind of reality that is believable and one which the audience can relate to. (Fourie,2009:342).
The plight of the main characters forces the viewer to place himself in the position of the main characters. The viewers are exposed to this harsh reality and the naked fear which it induces bringing about a feeling of helplessness and a feeling of empathy for the main characters. Therefore one could argue that Godard’s perspective of realist film can be applied to Open Waters because
Open Waters is a human centered film and one which appeals to people’s inner experience and their relation to reality. (Fourie,2009:347)
It is also plausible to argue that Bazins theory of realist film is also applicable because the viewer can ascribe multiple meanings to the experience and reality of the main characters. The film doesn’t seek to make a point but instead tells the story as it is. (Fourie,2009:343)

6. PSYCHOANALYSIS AND TELEVISION
6.1 Theoretical discussion
6.6.1 Psychoanalysis could be seen as a method of investigating the interaction of the conscious and unconscious elements in the mind and bring repressed fears and conflicts into the conscious mind. (Fourie, 2009: 371) This is different in film as a psychoanalytical approach refers to the study of unconscious psychological structures that operate humankind. These structures are thought to greatly influence the concept of self-image and behaviour in humans. (Fourie,2009: 370) Psychoanalysis is the name
Sigmund Freud gave in 1896 to a scientific theory of human mind and personality and therapeutic method of investigating unconscious mental processes. Freud also used psychoanalysis as a tool for analysis of literary texts. For Freud, human personality is the product of a relationship between inner, biologically determined drives or urges and the external constraints of the physical world and society (Fourie, 2009; 583-584).
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6.1.2. Regression- viewing a film or television entails a mental process of denial or disavowal, a double suspension of belief of disbelief- believing and not believing simultaneously – in the reality of the fiction and regression to the pleasures of the imaginary stage (Fourie, 2009: 591). Mirror Identification- viewing a film or television is pleasurable to the viewer precisely because he or she has experience of this in infancy.
In viewing the viewer identifies with his or her own act of looking and the look itself is termed primary identification (Fourie, 2009: 593). Lastly we look at modes of enunciation, which could be summarized as the specific structure of the text and use of production techniques that create.
6.2 Psychoanalytic analysis
The series I have chosen is Vampire Diaries, Season 4 Episode 14. The characters in this episode are Eleina Gilbert, Stefan Salvatore and Damon Salvatore. In this episode the 3 characters are on a mission to save their town from the strongest vampire named
Klaus from awakening. They go and a search to get a cure that this Klaus has in his tomb. On their journey they encounter difficulties and solve the problems as a group.
In this episode we will discuss viewer involvement referring to the model for analysing viewer involvement namely; desire and pleasure; regression, mirror identification and mode of enunciation.
Vampire diaries, is a fictional series which viewers watch for various reasons, the main reason being the fact that it resembles their dreams.
Desire and pleasure: Vampire Diaries is a fictional narrative, which consists of wolves, vampires and witch characters. These characters resemble strength, power and immortality. The viewers attach themselves to these characteristics, which put them in a dream-like state. Viewers find these characteristics therapeutic, as it is an escape from reality. Due to the fact that the series is fictional, it allows viewers to develop his/her imagination. Thus creating desire and pleasure as viewers involve themselves in the lives of these super-natural beings.
Regression: regression is the mental process where viewers have a double suspension of belief or disbelief. In Vampire diaries the viewers are aware that the characters and
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their actions are super-natural. Due to the fact that they are aware of this false reality, the pleasure of the imaginary stage allows them to unconsciously believe that what they are seeing is true. This allows viewers to remain in their dream-like state. Example in episode 14 is when Stefan Salvatore jumps from a waterfall and lands on his feet. We as viewers are aware that this cannot happen in reality, yet our imagination find these unrealistic events intriguing and allow us to believe in it. In other words regression is believing and not believing simultaneously.
Mirror identification: is when viewers can identify themselves with an image through experiences in infancy. Viewers of vampire dairies associate with certain characters or characteristics in the series because of previous childhood experiences and memories.
This allowing them to identify themselves with what they see on screen. For example in episode 14 Elaina Gilbert kisses Damon her boyfriends’ brother. Viewers can associate to this as we have all had a childhood crush and our hearts broken.
Modes of enunciation: in vampire diaries the way characters communicate (dialogue), as well as certain production techniques are used to depict the series as real as possible. The setting of Vampire diaries takes place in a small isolated town, surrounded by woods. This giving the impression of vampires, wolves and witches, making it seem as real as possible. The production techniques used illustrate how these characters balance their super-natural life within ordinary town. An example of how viewers observe their own fantasies in the episode could be where Bonnie, the witch brings Jeremy back to life. Viewers could fantasize about mortality and having super powers. 7 CONCLUSION
In this portfolio examination I have learned how to conduct quantitative content analysis by using the correct methods, determining research problems and categorizing units of analysis. I have also dealt with field research in media studies and I can now successfully plan, sample and conduct a focus group. In the portfolio I also dealt with measuring media audiences and the reasons for measuring audiences, as well as methodologies and techniques used in measuring audiences. We also covered film
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theory and criticism and explained the realist perspectives to have an understanding of
‘realism’, ‘film criticism’ and ‘film theory’. Lastly we covered psychoanalysis and television and explained how psychoanalysis is applied in film and television.

8 SELF-EVALUATION AND SELF-REFLECTION

8.1 What have you learnt (what knowledge have you gained) by doing the portfolio task?
Through this task I have learnt the importance of research as well as the proper methods of conducting research. How to conduct my own quantitative content analysis, conduct a focus group interview and how to explain field research in media studies and gained an understanding of the concepts of “Realism”, “film criticism” and “film theory”. I have also learnt how important it is to learn the proper definitions of the various terms used in research.
8.2 What skills, abilities and orientations (attitudes and values) have you accomplished? I have accomplished this task and with it the ability to conduct research about an aspect of communication science. I have acquired the skills of identifying and formulating various research questions, conduct a focus group interview and how to explain field research in media studies, as well as how to conduct questionnaire surveys inn media research. I can also now measure media audiences and understand the methodologies and techniques in measuring audiences for broadcasting media. I have also learnt how to apply psychoanalytical film and television theory to film.
8.3 Which strengths could you apply in your future life and work environment? In my future life and work environment I can use the proper method of conducting quantitative content analysis, determine research problems, and conduct field research by conducting focus group interviews, I will be able to do sampling and complete tasks involving research more effectively.
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8.4 Which shortcomings do you need to address in the future?
The shortcomings I will need to address in future are my time management skills as well as that detailed research is time consuming and very rigorous, which demands proper planning and implementation.
8.5 To what extent have you achieved the learning outcomes formulated for each study unit?
The learning outcomes for this portfolio assignment is to understand quantitative content analysis, field research in media studies, measuring media audiences, film theory and criticism and lastly psychoanalysis and television; I have achieved this in my portfolio and I have completed it to the best of my ability.

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SOURCES



Fourie, PJ (ed). 2009. Media studies: media content and media audiences. Volume 3. Landsdowne, Cape Town: Juta



Reid, J & Van Heerden, M (eds). 2009 only study guide for COM3703.
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Addendum
Source A
But South Africans, what is gender EQUALITY?

But South Africans, what is gender EQUALITY?
Equality, as a word, denotes good-ship and appreciating one's existence as a human.
The crisis we have now raises eyebrows on whether this social system, "equality" is being misinterpreted or wrongly executed... Equality is the state of being equal, especially in status, rights, or opportunities. One cannot dispute the fact that women need economic and social upliftment by our society. It is our nature as human being to uplift each other. Are we rather oblivious to the fact that, despite presenting equal opportunities, men and women are different. That is a fact! Men are physically stronger compared to women, it's a fact. A young professional female still spends 3-7 days of every month in pain due to menstrual syndromes, that affects her occupational and professional performance and production. There are other factors like pregnancy, postnatal and recovery which put women a bit behind with their professional duties. That's a fact. It is unfair for a young military male sergeant to be in the same rank with the same salary as a female soldier but he is the one prioritized for the most dangerous missions and deployments. Women are equally important to the society as men. It is through understanding, acknowledging and appreciating the differences that we can live together and shine for each other not against each other. The competition that our society is fronting is rather unfair, unhealthy and destructive. We need each other. It is through confrontation of facts that we will understand each other. Any man who may try to compete with women for their giving birth and reproduction ability deserves a special place in a psychiatric ward, and so as a woman trying to compete with men for their reproduction ability. No matter how much a man tries, he cannot keep the household better than a woman, it's within their genes. We cannot subject our women to changing car tires, their physique cannot adapt daily to that. Why are we claiming that men had more economic opportunities during the colonization era than women did? I choose to look at the positive side which is attributed by partnership and understanding. It was out of generosity and love that men could not allow their wives to sleep in bridges to be closer to their work place for survival and submitting to slavery, they did it instead. It is through generosity, love and understanding that men could not allow their women and/or wives to sleep in hostels, 10 of them in one room. That was not an advancement of opportunities, it was an arrangement necessary for survival against an oppressive regime. And they did so taking into account their physical and biological differences.
Why should that be used as an excuse to shield the competitive mentality advanced by people who suffer memory lapse? Men stood strong for their families, and women equally stood strong for their families in their own way. Why are we comparing or rather competing? Men were working for their families, sleeping in pipes and sending money every month to the wives. The purpose of my article is for the society to be wary of damaging the male population while empowering the females. We do support women empowerment but not how it's done. Why does one have to lose for the other one to
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win? What opportunities did a 24 year old male have that a 24 year old female did not have. What are we saying to young males when everything is about females? They were not part on female oppression. They acknowledge and appreciate the gender differences and believe equal opportunities should be presented to them, and fairly so.
Males were born of mothers and fathers who were disadvantaged too. It is a fair discrimination that it would not serve a female soldier better if she spends 2 months in the bush without bathing... their biological made cannot cope with those circumstances.
Our differences are what keeps us together because what a man cannot do, a woman can master and visa versa. Even the way we reproduce, you cannot expect a man should be penetrated in order to achieve the notion of equality... that's insane. We live in a society where, no-matter the infidelity carried by wife/ mother, she is still guaranteed automatic custody of the child and we still preach equality in the same vein. Why are we not affording Habedi's family the same support we gave to the Steenkamp's family? Or we prejudged the merits of the case? Where is the ANC women's league to support
Flabba Habedi's daughter or rather his mother? Does that mean men only matter as providers and emotionless creatures?
The word equality is not a bad concept but it's used in a very destructive way. It's used to destroy families as those who use it are victim of memory lapse. To build the society, we need both men and women however you cannot judge the ability of men by asking them to try to be pregnant. It's impossible. We better advance a notion of partnership instead of competition. And young men need support too.
By Mancha wa ga Mashilo

SOURCE B Influential women inspire at event
A TOTAL of 50% of all 18- to 35-year-olds in South Africa is unemployed and of this 50%, 30% will never work. This is according to Prof. Helena van Zyl, director of the School of Management at the University of the Free State (UFS). Speaking at a women’s breakfast event held in
Bloemfontein recently, Van Zyl emphasised her concern about the changing environment and how technology was hampering employment. To counter this, Van Zyl said people needed to be proactive and step out of their comfort zones. She suggested that people find their passions and purpose and make a conscious decision to create jobs and secure the future of this country. Also, she believes it is important for every individual to find that thing that makes them different. The theme of the breakfast was
Women Empowerment and among those who addressed the gathering were Dr Danisa
Baloyi, a businesswoman, and Farai Lorraine Gundan, a master’s in Business
Administration (MBA) graduate, TV and radio personality and an African entertainment blogger. The women shared their stories and personal experiences on the journey to thriving and excelling in a male-dominated world and age. Baloyi, with many interests in various fields and different ventures, has served and still serves on many boards as deputy
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chairperson, chairperson or director for a number of JSE-listed companies. She said women often believed that they were not capable.
“Intelligence and tenacity are not gender based. We believe that we are not capable, otherwise we would change things,” said Baloyi.
She spoke on the importance of women empowering one another and how distasteful it was that after some women had risen, they “shut the doors” instead of equipping their fellow women to rise with them. Baloyi concluded by telling the guests that the world did not owe them anything and that it was entirely up to them to get up and make their dreams come true. Gundan was the last guest speaker. She expressed her burning passion for African girls. She was born in Zimbabwe, raised by her single South African mother and later moved to the United States of America.
“It is important to know your life story, whether it is good or bad, and to tell your story.
You don’t have to be ashamed of anything. Your story will bring you glory,” said
Gundan. She is also a speaker and commentator on the role of women in Africa, and was even featured on the Oprah Winfrey Show. Gundun finished off by saying: “Nothing is impossible for you, get that education.” Connie Rampai, the deputy mayor of the
Mangaung Metro Municipality, reminded the audience that they need not rely on government for employment and encouraged everyone to use the treasure within.
SOURCE C
Is public transport safe for women?
Anastasia Moloney ranging from lewd comments, groping and sexual assaults. Image:
AFP ~ AFP
BOGOTA, Colombia - As Beatriz Rodriguez leaves her home in Bogota at dawn for work, she braces herself for a 40-minute scrum to get into the bus station and board a bus, and the dangers that come with it.
Rodriguez, a domestic worker, said: "Public transport is a nightmare. Mobile phones are frequently stolen and you can be a victim of harassment as I've been." The 26-year-old lamented that most people turn a blind eye and assaults are rarely punished.
CONCERNS OVER SAFETY "At first I thought what I felt against my back was a bag but when I turned around I realised it was a man rubbing up against me, exposing himself. It's disgusting to have to face this on your way to work."
Rodriguez's concerns about her safety are echoed by women across the Colombian capital, with Bogota ranked as having the most dangerous transport system for women in a Thomson Reuters Foundation poll of 15 of the world's largest capitals and New
York, the most populous city.
Bogota and two other Latin American capitals - Mexico City, and Lima in Peru - were named as the three capitals with the least safe transport systems for women in the poll of more than 6 550 women and gender and city planning experts. Delhi in India came fourth followed by Jakarta , Indonesia's capital and the Argentinian capital Buenos Aires was sixth. New York was ranked as having the safest transport for women followed by
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Tokyo.
Rodriguez's story is typical for many women living in Latin America, a region known for its macho culture and high levels of violence against women, despite consensus that safe transport is key for women to go to work, school, and enjoy economic freedom.
Women in Latin America say they face daily threats on public transport ranging from lewd comments and groping to sexual assaults, with men rubbing up against them and taking photos up their skirts and that not enough is done to ensure their safety.
SEXUALLY HARASSED
Liliana Diaz, a Bogota school teacher, said overcrowding on buses in a city estimated by the United Nations to have 9.6-million people, is a major problem. The city has no trains. Diaz said: "There aren't enough buses to cater for the demand. A lot of pushing and shoving goes on. Among the crowds it's easy for a man to start touching a woman and go unnoticed."
Martha Lucia Sanchez, women's rights secretary for the mayor's office in Bogota, said she was surprised Bogota fared worst in the poll conducted online by YouGov and with a Thomson Reuters Foundation survey of specialists in each city.
Sanchez told Thomson Reuters Foundation: "I'm convinced violence against women on public transport, and in society at large, continues because of impunity and because society tolerates it."
"About 80% of crimes involving violence against women in general remain in impunity.
Harassment of women on public transport is still seen as a minor offense and not sexual abuse. There's a lack of solidarity towards women who have been victims of crime among passengers."
The survey involved six questions and found Bogota was ranked as the worst city when it came to women travelling alone at night and for the overall perception about safety.
WOMEN FEEL INSECURE A spate of sexual assaults on women on Bogota's red bus system, known as TransMilenio, have hit local headlines, adding to the sense of insecurity felt by women.
In response, a small team of armed undercover policewomen recently started patrolling the city's TransMilenio buses while women-only carriages were introduced as a pilot programme on three routes during off-peak hours earlier in 2014.
Similar initiatives were introduced in Mexico City in 2008 where women board the front of some buses and wait in special areas at bus and train stops. Yet many women are still victims of assault on transport.
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The survey found Mexico City fared worst when it came to women being verbally and physically abused on buses and trains; with more than six out of every 10 women surveyed online by YouGov, or 64 % of 380 women, saying they had been groped or physically harassed.
In Bogota this figure was 57% and in Lima 58%. This contrasted with London where the figure was 19%. PROTECTION NEEDED According to local press reports, authorities in
Lima introduced undercover female police officers on packed buses to identify offenders after a front page story in June 2015 of a well-known local actress, Magaly Solier, catching a man masturbating behind her on a bus.
A senior female minister, Ana Jara, suggested at the time that women should carry rudimentary weapons like scissors to protect themselves in case "authorities are slow to react". But the number of women who come forward to officially report abuse is low, with the poll finding little confidence that authorities will thoroughly investigate reports of abuse.
Experts say initiatives such as improving lighting around stations, reducing overcrowding at rush hours, and making it easier for women to report crimes by boosting the number of police on patrol at transport terminals could help.
Aldo Tudela a consultant for the World Bank's transport department in Mexico City said:
"The key is to forge empathy among users of public transport and create communities to confront this issue together and not allow victims to be alone."
SOURCE D
Uganda's top court bans 'bride price' refund
Kampala - Uganda's top court on Thursday banned the practice of refunding bride price
- normally livestock given by the groom to his bride's family - when a marriage ends in divorce. The Supreme Court agreed with activists that the practice undermines the dignity of women but it upheld the practice of paying bride price.
Activists who petitioned the court had hoped the whole culture of giving gifts would be declared unconstitutional on the grounds that it reduces women to the status of property. Still, Leah Nabunnya, a spokesperson for a Ugandan group that launched the case, said the court's decision is a victory for women's rights. "The court's pronouncement is a win for us," said Nabunnya, of the Mifumi Project. Nabunnya said studies conducted by her group show that many women are stuck in abusive marriages because quitting means their families will be obligated to make a refund of the bride price. Such women's families often cannot afford to return the gifts, she said. In banning the practice of returning gifts in the event of a failed marriage, the judges said on
Thursday that women were not commodities being traded in the marketplace. The case
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against bride price was first launched in a lower court in 2007 by activists who argued that bride price is a major cause of domestic violence in this East African country.
SOURCE E
Inside Labour: Beijing, the Olympics and women's rights
EVERY YEAR as August dawns there is an annual media ritual about women’s rights and, on August 9, a positive rash of declarations of intent and remembrances about the
1956 anti-pass march of the women on Union Buildings. But while institutionalised apartheid has gone, the position of women in South Africa and around the world remains demonstrably unequal and, in some cases is worse now than it was 20 or more years ago. However, this year there was great irony in the media murmurings about the
“Women’s Month” being eclipsed by news of the awarding of the 2022 winter Olympics to Beijing. And not only because China has a hardly sterling record for human as well as women’s rights. In 1995 Beijing hosted what was claimed as a major breakthrough for women: The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. It was adopted by 189 countries and was hailed as “a visionary agenda”. According to the United Nations, this
Platform for Action “imagines a world where each woman and girl can exercise her freedoms and choices, and realise all her rights, such as to live free from violence, to go to school, to participate in decisions and to earn equal pay for equal work”. Twenty years on, for millions of women, that Beijing vision remains a mirage. And the fact that
Beijing was awarded the winter Olympics has also doubled the irony because of the history of this international competition. It started out 119 years ago as an elitist and exclusively male preserve, an approach that has echoes today in the payments and publicity differentials that persist in male and female sports. The fact that women now compete in the Olympics can also be attributed, not to the founding ethos of the
“modern Games”, but in substantial measure to the labour movement. This is another part of largely forgotten history. The first of the modern Games was the brainchild of a wealthy French nobleman, Baron Pierre de Courbetin. His vision of the Olympiad was a way of uniting what he perceived to be the cultured — male and white — elite of the world across national boundaries. All competitors, De Courbetin ruled, should be amateurs. As such, he ensured that the modern Games would also be exclusive on the basis of class. Professionals — those paid to compete — were clearly unsuitable and this effectively excluded working men who had neither the time to train nor the money for equipment. In the face of this class and gender bias, and in the wake of the nationalist bloodbath of World War I, the labour movement in Europe and the United
States supported the establishment of an international “worker sports” Games. This was open to all, irrespective of gender, race or religion. The first “Worker Games” were staged in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1921. Ten years later, the workers’ summer
Games in Vienna attracted 100 000 athletes and 250 000 spectators — on both counts more than the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics. But by then, in Germany, Hitler and the
Nazis were on the rise, promoting ultra nationalism and the idea that a woman’s place was in the home as a housewife and baby producer. When, against widespread opposition, Germany, with the support of the Olympic Committee, won the right to stage
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the 1936 Olympics, the Nazis introduced three innovations that still persist: the Olympic flame (symbolising burning out the filth of the world) and torch relay along with national anthems instead of the single, unifying, Olympic anthem. Just as these symbols persist, so too, in different ways and in various parts of the world, do the nationalist and male chauvinist attitudes that accompanied them. And since the Beijing Declaration there has been a number of similar declarations of intent to end discrimination and to halve or abolish poverty, war and other forms of violence. Beijing, 20 years ago, called for action to bring about radical change. It hasn’t happened. And that is what we should really be concerned about on Sunday and on every other day of the year.

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