Free Essay

Causal Essay

In: Other Topics

Submitted By seesunne2
Words 897
Pages 4
Prohibition of drugs and alcohol causes crime.
Ostrowski a political analyst from the Cato institute, states that drug laws greatly increase the price of illegal drugs, often forcing users to steal to get the money to obtain them. Although difficult to estimate the black market prices of heroin and cocaine, these drugs appear to be many times greater than their pharmaceutical prices. For example, a hospital-dispensed dose of morphine (a drug from which heroin is relatively easily derived) costs only pennies; cocaine costs about a dollar per ounce. It is frequently estimated that a good percentage of all property crime in the United States is committed by drug users so that they can maintain their habits. That amounts to about four million crimes per year and billions of dollars in stolen property. Supporters of prohibition have traditionally used drug-related crime. They have even exaggerated the amount of such crime in the hopes of demonstrating a need for larger budgets. But in recent years, the more astute prohibitionists have notices that drug related crime is in fact drug law related. The fact is, while some researchers have questioned the causal connection between illegal drugs and street crime, many studies over a long period have confirmed what every inner-city dweller already knows: drug users steal to get the money to buy expensive illegal drugs.
Studies were reviewed in an article entitled “Narcotics and Crime: An analysis of Existing Evidence for a Causal Relationship.” The authors conclude that heroin addiction can be shown to dramatically increase property crime levels. A high proportion of addicts’ pre-addiction criminality consists of minor drug offenses, while post-addiction criminality is characterized much more by property crime. Moreover, prohibition also stimulates crime by criminalizing users of illegal drugs, creating disrespect for the law; encouraging young people to become criminals by creating an extremely lucrative black market in drugs, destroying the economic viability of low-income neighborhoods, leaving young people fewer alternatives to working in the black market, and removing the settling of drug-related disputes from the legal process, creating a context of violence for the buying and selling of drugs. Every property crime committed by a drug user is potentially a violent crime. Many victims are beaten, severely injured, and murdered each year. A New York City crack user murdered five people in an eight-day period to get the money to buy drugs. The user survived the crack, but his victims did not. So in actuality, the act of prohibiting drugs is to blame for so called “drug-related violence.” Legal drugs like morphine, alcohol, and a pack of smokes are more detrimental to the user and those around the user than one joint smoked a week. Plus, if pot were to be legalized, it would be regulated, and DUIs could be given to those who drive while high.
Legalization will not increase drug use. Ostrowski says that long-term trends in legal drug use suggest that there would be no substantial increase in drug use under decriminalization. As a society, we are gradually moving away from the harmful use of alcohol and tobacco. Alcohol consumption and death caused by alcohol have also been gradually declining as people switch from hard liquor to less potent formulations. Finally, use of marijuana has declined according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). As our society grows increasingly health-and fitness-conscious, heavy drug use loses its appeal. Many people are trading in the tavern for the health club and choosing vitamins instead of martinis. The value of health and moderation clearly has less influence on the illegal drug scene, where hardcore drug users form subcultures that reinforce heavy reckless drug use. For most of human history, even under conditions of ready access to the most potent of drugs, people and societies have regulated their drug use without requiring massive education, legal, and interdiction campaigns. Before drug prohibitions in both America and England, narcotics use peaked and then declined long before national prohibition was adopted. Today, in spite of the availability of alcohol, problem drinkers are considered to compose a small percentage of the population. In spite of the fact that marijuana can be purchased on virtually any street corner in some cities, only a small percentage of the population has done so in the last month according to NIDA. Prohibition is at best a comfort. Perhaps the most telling indicator of the ineffectiveness of U.S. drug laws is their failure to reduce the overall use of illegal drugs. On a per capita basis, the use of narcotics was no more prevalent before prohibition than it is today. Seventy years of intensive law enforcement efforts have failed to measurably reduce drug use. The failure of drug control should not be surprising. During prohibition, alcohol consumers merely switched from beer and wine to hard liquor, resulting in a drastic increase in deaths from alcohol poisoning. Whether prohibition actually reduced total consumption is disputed, but it is known that the repeal of prohibition did not lead to an explosive increase in drinking. More recently, in those states that have decriminalized marijuana, no substantial increase in use has occurred. When the Netherlands decriminalized marijuana, use actually declined. In conclusion, drug use will not increase after legalization, and crime will go down, because all “drug-related” crimes are actually drug-Prohibition related crimes.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Essay

...are dismissed in an argument. The claims to not agree with the main conclusion. * A counter-example is an example that challenges the truth of a claim. Counter-examples challenge generalizations. * Hypothetical reasoning - Something will happen on the condition that something else happens . * Value judgements – A judgement based upon a value (e.g. murder is wrong). People have conflicting values and values change over time. * Definitions – Definitions are precise meanings of a word or phrase. Definitions can be argued other e.g. the definition of rape. * Causal explanations – Cause and effect (Smoking causes cancer). * A common cause – A correlation between two things is caused by a third factor. A correlation between two things may be caused by chance . * Direction of causation – Does A cause B or does B cause A. Some things have multi-causal explanations – explanations which show that there are more than one causes causing an effect. 
An analogy is a comparison between two things which are seen to be similar . 
Criteria to evaluate an argument by analogy 1.Number of instances 2.Number of similarities 3.Strength of conclusion 4.Relevance 5.Number of differences Extreme analogies should be avoided as they can weaken an argument [edit] Deductive and Inductive reasoning In a deductive the conclusion is deductively valid. If the conclusion is not guaranteed to follow from the reasons then the argument is invalid and the......

Words: 1367 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Causal Reasoning in Financial Reporting and Voluntary Disclosure

...Causal reasoning in financial reporting and voluntary disclosure This paper examines causal reasoning, applying the theories to financial reporting. Causal reasoning involves diagnosis (determining the cause of an effect) and prediction (vice versa). These are important and commonplace amongst analysts, investors and management regarding company earnings and share prices. However, there is very little recent research employing causal reasoning theories to this field. Attribution theory describes how causes are attributed to past events. This may be dispositional (attributed to a person) or situational. In a single instance of an outcome, correspondent inference theory suggests diagnosis is based on choice, expectations and intent. Expected, freely chosen behaviour is considered to be dispositional, whereas unexpected, forced behaviour is attributed to situation. Attributing intent is simplest when considering behaviour with only one positive effect. When an outcome occurs numerous times, covariation theory describes possible cause attribution. This involves looking at cases where the suspected cause is present/absent and matching them to instances where the outcome is present/absent, utilising information on consensus (how others behave), distinctiveness (how the individual behaves in different circumstances) and consistency (how the individual has behaved in similar circumstances). Consistency should be high to make a good attribution judgement. When consensus and......

Words: 506 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Causal Analysis

...Kassandra Yanez Causal Analysis English 121 “The oppression suffered by Chicanas is different from that suffered by most women in this country. Because Chicanas are part of an oppressed nationality, they are subjected to the racism practiced against La Raza”(Mirtha Vidal 1971). In American society all women are oppressed. The most oppressed women in the U.S. are women of color. Among them are Chicana women, there are certain expectations of what is acceptable for women through a patriarchal and sexist society which gives men power and privilege over women. These expectations are shown through the concepts of La mujer Buena and La mujer Mala. This is even greater oppression than that faced by other women. Chicana’s oppression begins in their own home, and continues to haunt Chicana women outside their home. The concept of la mujer buena (the good woman) and la mujer mala (the bad woman) is the root of Chicana expectations that feeds into the patriarchal and sexist society women have to face. La mujer buena is expected to be silent, a virgin, and a care taker. La mujer mala is the total opposite; she is an activist, a “whore”, and is educated. When a woman falls out of the expectations of la mujer buena she is put into the category of la mujer mala simply because she wants her voice heard and isn’t just going to sit there while women are being oppressed. In Elizabeth Martinez’ 500 years of Chicana Women’s History she states, “despite the hard life faced by the working......

Words: 1172 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Essay Guide

...Essay Guide for A2 Psychology What types of questions will there be? In AS Psychology you learned how to write short 8/10/12 mark answers, in which the AO1 and AO2 marks were divided equally. In A2, the essays are 24 marks each and you get 8 marks for AO1 and 16 marks for AO2/3/Issues, Debates and Approaches (IDA). So, you need to make a lot more evaluative points in A2! Here are some 24 mark questions from past papers: Topic: Relationships Discuss the influence of childhood experiences on adult relationships. (8 marks + 16 marks) Topic: Eating Behaviour Discuss explanations of one eating disorder. (8 marks + 16 marks) The questions can also be ‘parted’ like these: Topic: Eating Behaviour Discuss the role of one or more factors that influence attitudes to food. (4 marks + 8 marks) Outline and evaluate the role of neural mechanisms in controlling eating. (4 marks + 8 marks) Topic: Aggression Outline the role of genetic factors in aggressive behaviour. (4 marks) Outline and evaluate one social psychological theory of aggression. (4 marks + 16 marks) So it’s important to know when and how much AO1 and AO2/3/IDA to write. Also, don’t skip revising any parts of topics as they might come up in the parted questions. Different types of evaluation. AO2: This is where you provide evidence to support an AO1 idea e.g. about a theory, model or study. AO3: In AS you did this as part of AO2. AO3 is where you comment on the strengths...

Words: 3260 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Causal and Effectual Thinking in the Consulting Industry

...Causal and Effectual Thinking in the Consulting Industry Francisco Saavedra Technology Ventures CAUSAL AND EFFECTUAL THINKING IN THE CONSULTING INDUSTRY" 2 Abstract This paper proposes activities to include effectual thinking concepts into the formal consulting process. The paper presents the current project selling and definition process as a pure casual / predictive process, where the goal is usually given by the client / customer and means need to be defined by the project team. Later, several activities are proposed, with the objective of influence this process with effectual thinking concepts. CAUSAL AND EFFECTUAL THINKING IN THE CONSULTING INDUSTRY" 3 CONTEXT Currently, the question to solve for every enterprise is to develop or to drown. Those who don´t innovate and fail to watch and listen to the signs provided by the market and allies and competition alike face an uncertain future. Now, the question was: How can I reduce this uncertainty? To answer that question we will consider 2 different but not exclusive approaches: Causation and Effectuation. Causal reasoning begins with a pre- determined goal and a given set of means, and seeks to identify the optimal — fastest, cheapest, most efficient, etc. — alternative to achieve that goal This is the world of exhaustive business plans, microscopic ROI calculations, and portfolio diversification. Effectual reasoning, on the other hand, does not begin with a specific goal. Instead, it begins with a given set of means......

Words: 1760 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Causal Analysis Essay

...Causal Analysis Essay Brigette Sears Engl 101 XBox 360 and other electronics and social media are raising our children. Todays children spend so much time playing video games, surfing the net and ‘playing’ on social media, they lack many of the normal developmental aspects that are needed for appropriate entry into society. On the contrary, children that are spending more time on video games are becoming anti-social in the best case, and in the worst case, violent. I believe that it is important to actively raise children with parental love and Gods moral compass. Children today spend a large amount of time on the internet, social media, and game playing. This is a distinct difference from what has happened a generation ago. “Young people now devote an average of seven hours and 38 minutes to daily media use, or about 53 hours a week -- more than a full-time job -- according to Kaiser Family Foundation”. (Rubin) In previous generations, without internet, children would go out and play with one another. Riding bikes, playing hide and seek or just being outside was the norm when the previous generation was young. Bonnie Miller Rubin states in her LA Times article that children are spending more time inside. They are playing video games and not going outside at all. It is a major problem with the kids of all ages. It is usually video games with younger children. She also says that the problem persists with older children as well. Older kids are using their...

Words: 1319 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Domestic Violence Causal Essay

...UraniaChristine Franklin ENG 106 April 30, 2014 Instructor: Sandi Greene Why Do You Hit Me? Domestic violence is an example of oppressive conduct in any relationship that is utilized by one person to gain or keep up force and control over their intimate partner. This type of violence does not always start or even become physical; it can also be emotional, verbal, sexual and psychological. All these types of abuse can stem from things that may have happened to someone in their childhood, their teenage years and even in their adulthood. These acts can be seen as acts out of fear, cowardice, and some may even attempt to say love. These are all ways that someone can try to explain their actions and why they may harm those they say they love. No one really knows what causes people to be volatile towards their lover, there are so many excuses that men and women use to defend domestic violence. Domestic violence can definitely affect the way someone looks at life, it can affect children during childhood and when they grow up, it also can cause someone to lose their life. One of the many forms of domestic violence and the biggest one is physical abuse. Physical domestic violence can be anything from scratching, punching, biting, strangling or kicking. It doesn’t stop there, because the use of weapons can play an even bigger role in the volatile acts. These actions mostly take place amongst a man and woman and the man is usually the aggressor, but is not......

Words: 1711 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Foreign Direct Investment and Growth in Cyprus: a Causal Relationship

...FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND GROWTH IN CYPRUS: A CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP N0373193 This research project is submitted in part-fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Arts (Honours) Economics, Finance and Banking Nottingham Business School Nottingham Trent University Summer 2014 Chosen Target Peer-Refereed Academic Journal: Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, December 2011, vol. 16, no. 3 (http://www.arraydev.com/commerce/jibc/) Declaration: I declare that I have personally prepared this article and that it has not, in whole or in part, been submitted as an assessment for any other module, degree or qualification. The work described here is my own, carried out personally unless otherwise stated. All sources of information, including quotations, are acknowledged by means of appropriate referencing. I declare that this project has been conducted in accordance with Nottingham Trent University’s Regulations on Academic Irregularities, including those pertaining to research ethics and Data Protection legislation. Contents: PAGE Abstract 3 Abbreviations 4 List of Tables 5 List of Figures 5 1. Introduction ...

Words: 12309 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Causal Essay

...Christian Arenas ENG-106 October 30, 2014 Professor Bump Facebook: Social Media Phenomenon Before, we used to have to call or go to a friend’s house to see if they were home or to see what were they doing but now that tedious little task has been erased thanks to Facebook. What is Facebook? Well, to those who may not know, Facebook is an online social networking service in which people are able to connect with people from any part of the world ranging from friends, family, etc. Since its creation in 2004 by Harvard student, Mark Zuckerburg, this social networking phenomenon has become the most popular ways to communicate online with people. Now, is Facebook actually popular? Well, according to Protalinski, “Last quarter, Facebook passed 1.19 billion monthly active users, 874 million mobile users, and 728 million daily users” (Protalinski, 2014). With so many people logging onto the social network and continuing to get new users, Facebook has become and extremely popular phenomenon to the public. If you ask someone if they have a Facebook, then more than likely they will have one. On the other hand, they might not have one but most likely they will know what Facebook is. Some would assume that Facebook is intended for the youth but that is not the case. According to Banks, “From grandparents to teenagers, Facebook — the largest of the social networks — attracts users of all ages” (Banks, 2011). The social network does not have any limits when it comes to age,......

Words: 1601 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Phil Essay

...PHIL 1F90: Spring 2011. Second Essay Question ONE (to be answered as a straight-forward philosophical essay): Silenus, the satyr, is, or perhaps pretends to be, a determinist. After all, everything about the satyr, both his nature and nurture, come directly from his creator, Hench. And certainly, at the beginning of the story, Hench accepts full responsibility for the satyr’s actions. But he eventually changes his mind. How can the satyr, all of a sudden, become morally responsible for his actions? What exactly changed in Hench’s thinking? Michael Gorr is a compatibilist. Does his position make better sense than either the determinist or the libertarian? Explain. Question TWO (to be answered as a philosophical essay but with your auto-biography as illustation): “There is little wonder that Silenus, the satyr, is a determinist because everything about him, that is, both his nature as well as his nurture, were outside his control. He had absolutely no say in the matter. But, when I think about it, this is equally true of me as well. How do I, as a human being, differ from the satyr (except for the half-goat, half-man part)? After all, I am nothing more than the causal result of my nature in combination with my nurture and therefore, just like the satyr, I too am not responsible for who I am, what I do, or even what I think. If everything about me is caused and outside my control, then I cannot really be free or morally responsible. I could not have done...

Words: 699 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Essay

...Essays Essays Part II. 2, 2.] Part II. 2, 2.] Essays The Project Gutenberg EBook of Essays, by Ralph Waldo Emerson This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Essays Author: Ralph Waldo Emerson Editor: Edna H. L. Turpin Release Date: September 4, 2005 [EBook #16643] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ESSAYS *** 1 Essays Produced by Curtis A. Weyant , Sankar Viswanathan and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net ESSAYS BY RALPH WALDO EMERSON Merrill's English Texts SELECTED AND EDITED, WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES, BY EDNA H.L. TURPIN, AUTHOR OF "STORIES FROM AMERICAN HISTORY," "CLASSIC FABLES," "FAMOUS PAINTERS," ETC. NEW YORK CHARLES E. MERRILL CO. 1907 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION LIFE OF EMERSON CRITICAL OPINIONS CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF PRINCIPAL WORKS THE AMERICAN SCHOLAR COMPENSATION SELF RELIANCE FRIENDSHIP HEROISM MANNERS GIFTS NATURE SHAKESPEARE; OR, THE POET PRUDENCE CIRCLES NOTES PUBLISHERS' NOTE Merrill's English Texts 2 Essays 3 This series of books will include in complete editions those masterpieces of English Literature that are best adapted for the use of schools and colleges. The editors of the several volumes......

Words: 97797 - Pages: 392

Free Essay

Compare Essay

...draft Working at a fine dining establishments Vs a pub 10 things that fine dining good quality food Fresh local ingredients Full service Greeted and seated by host or hostess Table service Ambience-usually calm and casual Service- attract individuals usually 10% of meal price- paragraph 3 Expensive- paragraph 1 Linens/ tablecloth linens Polished silverware Professional chefs- paragraph 2 More focused on décor 10 things that are focused on causal pub dining Inexpensive- paragraph 1 Use of napkins No table cloths Unpolished silverware Some are less focused on décor Cooks instead of chefs- paragraph 2 Causal dress code Less service- paragraph 3 Tips Contrast Both have different in expenses, causal dining deals with greeting the guest and seating them to there tables by host or hostess and fine dining deal with formal attire dress code. Compare Both payments are made after meals, both restaurants work long hour shifts either the front house or back house. Fine Dining Vs Causal dining comparison outline essay Introducation:  Relating it to chefs perspective as a manager  The two that will be introduced for fine dining are Gordon Ramsey vs momofuku noodle bar for casual  The 3 points that are going to be highlighted in each of the paragraph are: quality of food, fresh local ingredients. Service, and expenses of the restaurants  Thesis Paragraph 1:introduces the topic in main point formations, discusses the main points of the ideas......

Words: 287 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Causal Factors

...Professor Karen Moeller Causal Factors Tamika Camano Emotional and Behavioral disorders can result from one or any number of combinations of causal factors from the students biological, familial, cultural, or educational background and/or environment. This essay will discuss causal factors, the implications, and possible mitigation regarding EBD students. Biological factors are responsible for certain conditions that are the cause of certain emotional and behavioral disorders. Whether or not the parent was using recreational drugs while pregnant or if they have a history of mental illness can have an effect on the student with EBD. (Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Causes and Prevention) Disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), as well as mental conditions such as Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia are found to be caused by genes that are passed down from the parents to student (Causal Factors for Emotional Disorders). Family relationships play a part in whether or not a student will have EBD. If there is physical abuse and constant turmoil in the home, the student is much more likely to have EBD. (Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Causes and Prevention) The school environment also plays a role in the behavior of the student. Undesired behavior can result from inappropriate corporal punishments, bullying by peers, and lack of proper attention from teachers (Causal Factors for......

Words: 1299 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Causal Essay

...Causal Essay Western Governors University Task 3 Causal Essay Substance abuse has been thought to be a big city problem. However alcohol abuse and illegal drugs such as marijuana, methamphetamine, cocaine, have made their way into our small rural communities. Rural America has become a refuge for drug makers, dealers and abusers. Substance abuse such as drugs, alcohol, and prescription drugs are a growing problem in rural communities due to stress, peer pressure and chronic pain. Studies have reported that individuals exposed to stress are more likely to abuse alcohol and other drugs or undergo relapse (National Institute on Drug Abuse, n.d.). It is well established that the effects of stress can damage people’s mental and physical health. Not everyone deals with stress in the same way, where as some people have an inability to deal with it effectively. One of the ways that the individual may attempt to manage their stress is by using alcohol or drugs. This type of self-medication can provide temporary relief, but is ultimately self-defeating. It can mean that the individual will have more stress in their life than ever, but they will have even less of an ability to handle it. Using drugs, as a short-term solution to the stress going on in their life is dangerous and can lead to addiction. Stress can be caused by the loss of job, divorce, death of a......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The World Is Not a Rube Goldberg: the Complex Causal Chain Argument

...The world is not a Rube Goldberg: The complex causal chain argument Rube Goldberg, a cartoonist, engineer, and inventor, gave us cartoons of many machines that illustrate the complexity of cause/effect events in the real world yet are still simple. His machines and cartoons, known as Rube Goldbergs, often contain complicated steps that a machine will go through to do something very simple. An example of this is the “self-operating napkin” (Goldberg): [pic][pic] In this Rube Goldberg, one can see that as he lifts the spoon to eat (A), it pulls the cord (B) that flicks the spoon (C). The spoon tosses the bread (D) that the bird (E) goes for and so the stuff on the other side of the balance (F) falls into the bucket (G). As the bucket drops (H), it pulls the string (I) that opens the box that lets out the fire (J). The fire ignites the fire-cracker (K), which pulls the scythe (L). The scythe cuts the cord (M), which lets the napkin move according to the ticking of the clock and wipes the man’s mouth. The plethora of events and cause/effect connections in this description seem complex compared to the simple act of picking up the napkin oneself and doing it. As complex as these events seem, they are still simple compared to any real set of events in the world. In this Rube Goldberg, the causal chain is that A causes B which causes C and so on. This is a linear chain of events where A and only A causes B which only causes C and so on. Even though the explanation of what......

Words: 2448 - Pages: 10