Free Essay

Cartagena Protocol

In: Business and Management

Submitted By liva212002
Words 9898
Pages 40
Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 181

CARTAGENA
PROTOCOL
ON
BIOSAFETY
TO THE
CONVENTION
ON
BIOLOGICAL
DIVERSITY

TEXT AND ANNEXES

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 182

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

CARTAGENA
PROTOCOL
ON
BIOSAFETY
TO THE
CONVENTION
ON
BIOLOGICAL
DIVERSITY

TEXT AND ANNEXES

Montreal, 2000

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 184

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Introduction

Montreal, 2000
Copyright © 2000, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity
ISBN: 92-807-1924-6
This publication may be reproduced for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holders, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. The Secretariat of the Convention would appreciate receiving a copy of any publications that uses this publication as a source.
For bibliographic and reference purpose this publication should be referred to as:
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2000). Cartagena Protocol on
Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity: text and annexes. Montreal:
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
This booklet contains the text of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the
Convention on Biological Diversity, which starts on page 2.
Published by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity
For further information, please contact:
The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity
World Trade Centre
393 St. Jacques, Suite 300
Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 1N9
Canada
Phone : 1 (514) 288 2220
Fax:
1 (514) 288 6588 e-mail: secretariat@biodiv.org
Website: http://www.biodiv.org

Printed on recycled paper

The Convention on Biological Diversity was finalized in Nairobi in May 1992 and opened for signature at the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June1992. It entered into force on 29 December 1993. Today, the Convention is the main international instrument for addressing biodiversity issues. It provides a comprehensive and holistic approach to the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of natural resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits deriving from the use of genetic resources.
Biosafety is one of the issues addressed by the Convention. This concept refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology. At the same time, modern biotechnology is recognized as having a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, particularly in meeting critical needs for food, agriculture and health care. The Convention clearly recognizes these twin aspects of modern biotechnology. On the one hand, it provides for the access to and transfer of technologies, including biotechnology, that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity (for example, in Article 16, paragragh 1, and Article 19, paragraphs 1 and 2). On the other hand, Articles 8(g) and 19, paragraph 3, seek to ensure the development of appropriate procedures to enhance the safety of biotechnology in the context of the Convention’s overall goal of reducing all potential threats to biological diversity, taking also into account the risks to human health. Article 8(g) deals with measures that Parties should take at national level, while Article 19, paragraph 3, sets the stage for the development of an international legally binding instrument to address the issue of biosafety.
At its second meeting, held in November 1995, the Conference of the Parties to the
Convention established an Open-ended Ad Hoc Working Group on Biosafety to develop a draft protocol on biosafety, focusing specifically on transboundary movement of any living modified organism resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effect on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. After several years of negotiations, the Protocol, known as the Cartagena
Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, was finalized and adopted in Montreal on 29 January 2000 at an extraordinary meeting of the
Conference of the Parties.
The conclusion of the Biosafety Protocol has been hailed as a significant step forward in that it provides an international regulatory framework to reconcile the respective needs of trade and environmental protection with respect to a rapidly growing global industry, the biotechnology industry. The Protocol thus creates an enabling environment for the environmentally sound application of biotechnology, making it possible to derive maximum benefit from the potential that biotechnology has to offer, while minimizing the possible risks to the environment and to human health.

1

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 2

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON BIOSAFETY TO THE
CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
The Parties to this Protocol,
Being Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”,
Recalling Article 19, paragraphs 3 and 4, and Articles 8 (g) and 17 of the

Convention,
Recalling also decision II/5 of 17 November 1995 of the Conference of the
Parties to the Convention to develop a Protocol on biosafety, specifically focusing on transboundary movement of any living modified organism resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effect on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, setting out for consideration, in particular, appropriate procedures for advance informed agreement, Reaffirming the precautionary approach contained in Principle 15 of the Rio

Declaration on Environment and Development,
Aware of the rapid expansion of modern biotechnology and the growing

public concern over its potential adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health,
Recognizing that modern biotechnology has great potential for human wellbeing if developed and used with adequate safety measures for the environment and human health,
Recognizing also the crucial importance to humankind of centres of origin

and centres of genetic diversity,
Taking into account the limited capabilities of many countries, particularly developing countries, to cope with the nature and scale of known and potential risks associated with living modified organisms,
Recognizing that trade and environment agreements should be mutually supportive with a view to achieving sustainable development,
Emphasizing that this Protocol shall not be interpreted as implying a change in the rights and obligations of a Party under any existing international agreements, Understanding that the above recital is not intended to subordinate this
Protocol to other international agreements,

Have agreed as follows:

2

Article

1
OBJECTIVE
In accordance with the precautionary approach contained in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the objective of this
Protocol is to contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, and specifically focusing on transboundary movements.

Article

2
GENERAL PROVISIONS
1. Each Party shall take necessary and appropriate legal, administrative and other measures to implement its obligations under this Protocol.
2. The Parties shall ensure that the development, handling, transport, use, transfer and release of any living modified organisms are undertaken in a manner that prevents or reduces the risks to biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health.
3. Nothing in this Protocol shall affect in any way the sovereignty of States over their territorial sea established in accordance with international law, and the sovereign rights and the jurisdiction which States have in their exclusive economic zones and their continental shelves in accordance with international law, and the exercise by ships and aircraft of all States of navigational rights and freedoms as provided for in international law and as reflected in relevant international instruments.
4. Nothing in this Protocol shall be interpreted as restricting the right of a
Party to take action that is more protective of the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity than that called for in this Protocol, provided that such action is consistent with the objective and the provisions of this Protocol and is in accordance with that Party’s other obligations under international law.
5. The Parties are encouraged to take into account, as appropriate, available expertise, instruments and work undertaken in international forums with competence in the area of risks to human health.

3

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 4

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Article

3
USE OF TERMS
For the purposes of this Protocol:
(a) “Conference of the Parties” means the Conference of the Parties to the Convention;
(b) “Contained use” means any operation, undertaken within a facility, installation or other physical structure, which involves living modified organisms that are controlled by specific measures that effectively limit their contact with, and their impact on, the external environment;
(c) “Export” means intentional transboundary movement from one Party to another Party;
(d) “Exporter” means any legal or natural person, under the jurisdiction of the Party of export, who arranges for a living modified organism to be exported;
(e) “Import” means intentional transboundary movement into one Party from another Party;
(f) “Importer” means any legal or natural person, under the jurisdiction of the Party of import, who arranges for a living modified organism to be imported;
(g) “Living modified organism” means any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology;
(h) “Living organism” means any biological entity capable of transferring or replicating genetic material, including sterile organisms, viruses and viroids;
(i) “Modern biotechnology” means the application of:
a. In vitro nucleic acid techniques, including recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and direct injection of nucleic acid into cells or organelles, or
b. Fusion of cells beyond the taxonomic family, that overcome natural physiological reproductive or recombination barriers and that are not techniques used in traditional breeding and selection;
(j) “Regional economic integration organization” means an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region, to which its member
States have transferred competence in respect of matters governed by

this Protocol and which has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to it;
(k) “Transboundary movement” means the movement of a living modified organism from one Party to another Party, save that for the purposes of Articles
17 and 24 transboundary movement extends to movement between Parties and non-Parties. Article

4
SCOPE
This Protocol shall apply to the transboundary movement, transit, handling and use of all living modified organisms that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health.

Article

5
PHARMACEUTICALS
Notwithstanding Article 4 and without prejudice to any right of a Party to subject all living modified organisms to risk assessment prior to the making of decisions on import, this Protocol shall not apply to the transboundary movement of living modified organisms which are pharmaceuticals for humans that are addressed by other relevant international agreements or organisations.

Article

6
TRANSIT AND CONTAINED USE
1. Notwithstanding Article 4 and without prejudice to any right of a Party of transit to regulate the transport of living modified organisms through its territory and make available to the Biosafety Clearing-House, any decision of that Party, subject to Article 2, paragraph 3, regarding the transit through its territory of a specific living modified organism, the provisions of this Protocol with respect to the advance informed agreement procedure shall not apply to living modified organisms in transit.
2. Notwithstanding Article 4 and without prejudice to any right of a Party to subject all living modified organisms to risk assessment prior to decisions on

4

5

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 6

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

import and to set standards for contained use within its jurisdiction, the provisions of this Protocol with respect to the advance informed agreement procedure shall not apply to the transboundary movement of living modified organisms destined for contained use undertaken in accordance with the standards of the Party of import.

Article

7
APPLICATION OF THE ADVANCE INFORMED
AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

Article

9
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF RECEIPT
OF NOTIFICATION
1. The Party of import shall acknowledge receipt of the notification, in writing, to the notifier within ninety days of its receipt.
2. The acknowledgement shall state:
(a) The date of receipt of the notification;
(b) Whether the notification, prima facie, contains the information referred to in Article 8;

1. Subject to Articles 5 and 6, the advance informed agreement procedure in
Articles 8 to 10 and 12 shall apply prior to the first intentional transboundary movement of living modified organisms for intentional introduction into the environment of the Party of import.

(c) Whether to proceed according to the domestic regulatory framework of the Party of import or according to the procedure specified in Article 10.

2. “Intentional introduction into the environment” in paragraph 1 above, does not refer to living modified organisms intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing.

4. A failure by the Party of import to acknowledge receipt of a notification shall not imply its consent to an intentional transboundary movement.

3. Article 11 shall apply prior to the first transboundary movement of living modified organisms intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing.
4. The advance informed agreement procedure shall not apply to the intentional transboundary movement of living modified organisms identified in a decision of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol as being not likely to have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health.

Article

8
NOTIFICATION
1. The Party of export shall notify, or require the exporter to ensure notification to, in writing, the competent national authority of the Party of import prior to the intentional transboundary movement of a living modified organism that falls within the scope of Article 7, paragraph 1. The notification shall contain, at a minimum, the information specified in Annex I.
2. The Party of export shall ensure that there is a legal requirement for the accuracy of information provided by the exporter.

6

3. The domestic regulatory framework referred to in paragraph 2 (c) above, shall be consistent with this Protocol.

Article

10
DECISION PROCEDURE
1. Decisions taken by the Party of import shall be in accordance with
Article 15.
2. The Party of import shall, within the period of time referred to in Article 9, inform the notifier, in writing, whether the intentional transboundary movement may proceed:
(a) Only after the Party of import has given its written consent; or
(b) After no less than ninety days without a subsequent written consent.
3. Within two hundred and seventy days of the date of receipt of notification, the Party of import shall communicate, in writing, to the notifier and to the
Biosafety Clearing-House the decision referred to in paragraph 2 (a) above:
(a) Approving the import, with or without conditions, including how the decision will apply to subsequent imports of the same living modified organism; (b) Prohibiting the import;
(c) Requesting additional relevant information in accordance with its domestic regulatory framework or Annex I; in calculating the time within

7

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 8

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

which the Party of import is to respond, the number of days it has to wait for additional relevant information shall not be taken into account; or

3. Any Party may request additional information from the authority identified in paragraph (b) of Annex II.

(d) Informing the notifier that the period specified in this paragraph is extended by a defined period of time.

4. A Party may take a decision on the import of living modified organisms intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, under its domestic regulatory framework that is consistent with the objective of this Protocol.

4. Except in a case in which consent is unconditional, a decision under paragraph 3 above, shall set out the reasons on which it is based.
5. A failure by the Party of import to communicate its decision within two hundred and seventy days of the date of receipt of the notification shall not imply its consent to an intentional transboundary movement.
6. Lack of scientific certainty due to insufficient relevant scientific information and knowledge regarding the extent of the potential adverse effects of a living modified organism on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in the Party of import, taking also into account risks to human health, shall not prevent that Party from taking a decision, as appropriate, with regard to the import of the living modified organism in question as referred to in paragraph 3 above, in order to avoid or minimize such potential adverse effects.
7. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties shall, at its first meeting, decide upon appropriate procedures and mechanisms to facilitate decision-making by Parties of import.

Article

11
PROCEDURE FOR LIVING MODIFIED ORGANISMS
INTENDED FOR DIRECT USE AS FOOD OR FEED,
OR FOR PROCESSING
1. A Party that makes a final decision regarding domestic use, including placing on the market, of a living modified organism that may be subject to transboundary movement for direct use as food or feed, or for processing shall, within fifteen days of making that decision, inform the Parties through the
Biosafety Clearing-House. This information shall contain, at a minimum, the information specified in Annex II. The Party shall provide a copy of the information, in writing, to the national focal point of each Party that informs the Secretariat in advance that it does not have access to the Biosafety ClearingHouse. This provision shall not apply to decisions regarding field trials.

5. Each Party shall make available to the Biosafety Clearing-House copies of any national laws, regulations and guidelines applicable to the import of living modified organisms intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, if available. 6. A developing country Party or a Party with an economy in transition may, in the absence of the domestic regulatory framework referred to in paragraph 4 above, and in exercise of its domestic jurisdiction, declare through the
Biosafety Clearing-House that its decision prior to the first import of a living modified organism intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, on which information has been provided under paragraph 1 above, will be taken according to the following:
(a) A risk assessment undertaken in accordance with Annex III; and
(b) A decision made within a predictable timeframe, not exceeding two hundred and seventy days.
7. Failure by a Party to communicate its decision according to paragraph 6 above, shall not imply its consent or refusal to the import of a living modified organism intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, unless otherwise specified by the Party.
8. Lack of scientific certainty due to insufficient relevant scientific information and knowledge regarding the extent of the potential adverse effects of a living modified organism on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in the Party of import, taking also into account risks to human health, shall not prevent that Party from taking a decision, as appropriate, with regard to the import of that living modified organism intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, in order to avoid or minimize such potential adverse effects.
9. A Party may indicate its needs for financial and technical assistance and capacity-building with respect to living modified organisms intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing. Parties shall cooperate to meet these needs in accordance with Articles 22 and 28.

2. The Party making a decision under paragraph 1 above, shall ensure that there is a legal requirement for the accuracy of information provided by the applicant.

8

9

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 10

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Article

12
REVIEW OF DECISIONS
1. A Party of import may, at any time, in light of new scientific information on potential adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account the risks to human health, review and change a decision regarding an intentional transboundary movement. In such case, the
Party shall, within thirty days, inform any notifier that has previously notified movements of the living modified organism referred to in such decision, as well as the Biosafety Clearing-House, and shall set out the reasons for its decision.
2. A Party of export or a notifier may request the Party of import to review a decision it has made in respect of it under Article 10 where the Party of export or the notifier considers that:
(a) A change in circumstances has occurred that may influence the outcome of the risk assessment upon which the decision was based; or
(b) Additional relevant scientific or technical information has become available. 3. The Party of import shall respond in writing to such a request within ninety days and set out the reasons for its decision.
4. The Party of import may, at its discretion, require a risk assessment for subsequent imports.

Article

13
SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE
1. A Party of import may, provided that adequate measures are applied to ensure the safe intentional transboundary movement of living modified organisms in accordance with the objective of this Protocol, specify in advance to the Biosafety Clearing-House:
(a) Cases in which intentional transboundary movement to it may take place at the same time as the movement is notified to the Party of import; and
(b) Imports of living modified organisms to it to be exempted from the advance informed agreement procedure.
Notifications under subparagraph (a) above, may apply to subsequent similar movements to the same Party.

10

2. The information relating to an intentional transboundary movement that is to be provided in the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 (a) above, shall be the information specified in Annex I.

Article

14
BILATERAL, REGIONAL AND MULTILATERAL
AGREEMENTS AND ARRANGEMENTS
1. Parties may enter into bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and arrangements regarding intentional transboundary movements of living modified organisms, consistent with the objective of this Protocol and provided that such agreements and arrangements do not result in a lower level of protection than that provided for by the Protocol.
2. The Parties shall inform each other, through the Biosafety Clearing-House, of any such bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and arrangements that they have entered into before or after the date of entry into force of this
Protocol.
3. The provisions of this Protocol shall not affect intentional transboundary movements that take place pursuant to such agreements and arrangements as between the parties to those agreements or arrangements.
4. Any Party may determine that its domestic regulations shall apply with respect to specific imports to it and shall notify the Biosafety Clearing-House of its decision.

Article

15
RISK ASSESSMENT
1. Risk assessments undertaken pursuant to this Protocol shall be carried out in a scientifically sound manner, in accordance with Annex III and taking into account recognized risk assessment techniques. Such risk assessments shall be based, at a minimum, on information provided in accordance with Article 8 and other available scientific evidence in order to identify and evaluate the possible adverse effects of living modified organisms on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health.

11

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 12

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

2. The Party of import shall ensure that risk assessments are carried out for decisions taken under Article 10. It may require the exporter to carry out the risk assessment.
3. The cost of risk assessment shall be borne by the notifier if the Party of import so requires.

Article

16
RISK MANAGEMENT
1. The Parties shall, taking into account Article 8 (g) of the Convention, establish and maintain appropriate mechanisms, measures and strategies to regulate, manage and control risks identified in the risk assessment provisions of this Protocol associated with the use, handling and transboundary movement of living modified organisms.
2. Measures based on risk assessment shall be imposed to the extent necessary to prevent adverse effects of the living modified organism on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, within the territory of the Party of import.
3. Each Party shall take appropriate measures to prevent unintentional transboundary movements of living modified organisms, including such measures as requiring a risk assessment to be carried out prior to the first release of a living modified organism.
4. Without prejudice to paragraph 2 above, each Party shall endeavour to ensure that any living modified organism, whether imported or locally developed, has undergone an appropriate period of observation that is commensurate with its life-cycle or generation time before it is put to its intended use.
5. Parties shall cooperate with a view to:
(a) Identifying living modified organisms or specific traits of living modified organisms that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health; and
(b) Taking appropriate measures regarding the treatment of such living modified organisms or specific traits.

12

Article

17
UNINTENTIONAL TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENTS
AND EMERGENCY MEASURES
1. Each Party shall take appropriate measures to notify affected or potentially affected States, the Biosafety Clearing-House and, where appropriate, relevant international organizations, when it knows of an occurrence under its jurisdiction resulting in a release that leads, or may lead, to an unintentional transboundary movement of a living modified organism that is likely to have significant adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health in such States. The notification shall be provided as soon as the Party knows of the above situation.
2. Each Party shall, no later than the date of entry into force of this Protocol for it, make available to the Biosafety Clearing-House the relevant details setting out its point of contact for the purposes of receiving notifications under this Article.
3. Any notification arising from paragraph 1 above, should include:
(a) Available relevant information on the estimated quantities and relevant characteristics and/or traits of the living modified organism;
(b) Information on the circumstances and estimated date of the release, and on the use of the living modified organism in the originating Party;
(c) Any available information about the possible adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, as well as available information about possible risk management measures;
(d) Any other relevant information; and
(e) A point of contact for further information.
4. In order to minimize any significant adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, each Party, under whose jurisdiction the release of the living modified organism referred to in paragraph 1 above, occurs, shall immediately consult the affected or potentially affected States to enable them to determine appropriate responses and initiate necessary action, including emergency measures. 13

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 14

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Article

Article

18
HANDLING, TRANSPORT, PACKAGING
AND IDENTIFICATION

19
COMPETENT NATIONAL AUTHORITIES
AND NATIONAL FOCAL POINTS

1. In order to avoid adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, each Party shall take necessary measures to require that living modified organisms that are subject to intentional transboundary movement within the scope of this
Protocol are handled, packaged and transported under conditions of safety, taking into consideration relevant international rules and standards.

1. Each Party shall designate one national focal point to be responsible on its behalf for liaison with the Secretariat. Each Party shall also designate one or more competent national authorities, which shall be responsible for performing the administrative functions required by this Protocol and which shall be authorized to act on its behalf with respect to those functions. A Party may designate a single entity to fulfil the functions of both focal point and competent national authority.

2. Each Party shall take measures to require that documentation accompanying: (a) Living modified organisms that are intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, clearly identifies that they “may contain” living modified organisms and are not intended for intentional introduction into the environment, as well as a contact point for further information. The
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall take a decision on the detailed requirements for this purpose, including specification of their identity and any unique identification, no later than two years after the date of entry into force of this Protocol;
(b) Living modified organisms that are destined for contained use clearly identifies them as living modified organisms; and specifies any requirements for the safe handling, storage, transport and use, the contact point for further information, including the name and address of the individual and institution to whom the living modified organisms are consigned; and
(c) Living modified organisms that are intended for intentional introduction into the environment of the Party of import and any other living modified organisms within the scope of the Protocol, clearly identifies them as living modified organisms; specifies the identity and relevant traits and/or characteristics, any requirements for the safe handling, storage, transport and use, the contact point for further information and, as appropriate, the name and address of the importer and exporter; and contains a declaration that the movement is in conformity with the requirements of this Protocol applicable to the exporter.
3. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this
Protocol shall consider the need for and modalities of developing standards with regard to identification, handling, packaging and transport practices, in consultation with other relevant international bodies.

14

2. Each Party shall, no later than the date of entry into force of this Protocol for it, notify the Secretariat of the names and addresses of its focal point and its competent national authority or authorities. Where a Party designates more than one competent national authority, it shall convey to the Secretariat, with its notification thereof, relevant information on the respective responsibilities of those authorities. Where applicable, such information shall, at a minimum, specify which competent authority is responsible for which type of living modified organism. Each Party shall forthwith notify the Secretariat of any changes in the designation of its national focal point or in the name and address or responsibilities of its competent national authority or authorities.
3. The Secretariat shall forthwith inform the Parties of the notifications it receives under paragraph 2 above, and shall also make such information available through the Biosafety Clearing-House.

Article

20
INFORMATION SHARING AND THE
BIOSAFETY CLEARING-HOUSE
1. A Biosafety Clearing-House is hereby established as part of the clearinghouse mechanism under Article 18, paragraph 3, of the Convention, in order to:
(a) Facilitate the exchange of scientific, technical, environmental and legal information on, and experience with, living modified organisms; and
(b) Assist Parties to implement the Protocol, taking into account the special needs of developing country Parties, in particular the least developed and small island developing States among them, and countries with economies in transition as well as countries that are centres of origin and centres of genetic diversity.

15

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 16

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

2. The Biosafety Clearing-House shall serve as a means through which information is made available for the purposes of paragraph 1 above. It shall provide access to information made available by the Parties relevant to the implementation of the Protocol. It shall also provide access, where possible, to other international biosafety information exchange mechanisms.
3. Without prejudice to the protection of confidential information, each Party shall make available to the Biosafety Clearing-House any information required to be made available to the Biosafety Clearing-House under this Protocol, and:
(a) Any existing laws, regulations and guidelines for implementation of the
Protocol, as well as information required by the Parties for the advance informed agreement procedure;
(b) Any bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and arrangements;
(c) Summaries of its risk assessments or environmental reviews of living modified organisms generated by its regulatory process, and carried out in accordance with Article 15, including, where appropriate, relevant information regarding products thereof, namely, processed materials that are of living modified organism origin, containing detectable novel combinations of replicable genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology;
(d) Its final decisions regarding the importation or release of living modified organisms; and
(e) Reports submitted by it pursuant to Article 33, including those on implementation of the advance informed agreement procedure.
4. The modalities of the operation of the Biosafety Clearing-House, including reports on its activities, shall be considered and decided upon by the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol at its first meeting, and kept under review thereafter.

Article

21
CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION

reasons on request, as well as an opportunity for consultation and for an internal review of the decision prior to disclosure.
3. Each Party shall protect confidential information received under this
Protocol, including any confidential information received in the context of the advance informed agreement procedure of the Protocol. Each Party shall ensure that it has procedures to protect such information and shall protect the confidentiality of such information in a manner no less favourable than its treatment of confidential information in connection with domestically produced living modified organisms.
4. The Party of import shall not use such information for a commercial purpose, except with the written consent of the notifier.
5. If a notifier withdraws or has withdrawn a notification, the Party of import shall respect the confidentiality of commercial and industrial information, including research and development information as well as information on which the Party and the notifier disagree as to its confidentiality.
6. Without prejudice to paragraph 5 above, the following information shall not be considered confidential:
(a) The name and address of the notifier;
(b) A general description of the living modified organism or organisms;
(c) A summary of the risk assessment of the effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health; and
(d) Any methods and plans for emergency response.

Article

22
CAPACITY-BUILDING

1. The Party of import shall permit the notifier to identify information submitted under the procedures of this Protocol or required by the Party of import as part of the advance informed agreement procedure of the Protocol that is to be treated as confidential. Justification shall be given in such cases upon request.

1. The Parties shall cooperate in the development and/or strengthening of human resources and institutional capacities in biosafety, including biotechnology to the extent that it is required for biosafety, for the purpose of the effective implementation of this Protocol, in developing country Parties, in particular the least developed and small island developing States among them, and in Parties with economies in transition, including through existing global, regional, subregional and national institutions and organizations and, as appropriate, through facilitating private sector involvement.

2. The Party of import shall consult the notifier if it decides that information identified by the notifier as confidential does not qualify for such treatment and shall, prior to any disclosure, inform the notifier of its decision, providing

2. For the purposes of implementing paragraph 1 above, in relation to cooperation, the needs of developing country Parties, in particular the least developed and small island developing States among them, for financial

16

17

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 18

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

resources and access to and transfer of technology and know-how in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, shall be taken fully into account for capacity-building in biosafety. Cooperation in capacitybuilding shall, subject to the different situation, capabilities and requirements of each Party, include scientific and technical training in the proper and safe management of biotechnology, and in the use of risk assessment and risk management for biosafety, and the enhancement of technological and institutional capacities in biosafety. The needs of Parties with economies in transition shall also be taken fully into account for such capacity-building in biosafety. Article

23
PUBLIC AWARENESS AND PARTICIPATION
1. The Parties shall:
(a) Promote and facilitate public awareness, education and participation concerning the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms in relation to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health. In doing so, the Parties shall cooperate, as appropriate, with other States and international bodies;
(b) Endeavour to ensure that public awareness and education encompass access to information on living modified organisms identified in accordance with this Protocol that may be imported.
2. The Parties shall, in accordance with their respective laws and regulations, consult the public in the decision-making process regarding living modified organisms and shall make the results of such decisions available to the public, while respecting confidential information in accordance with Article 21.
3. Each Party shall endeavour to inform its public about the means of public access to the Biosafety Clearing-House.

Article

24
NON-PARTIES

2. The Parties shall encourage non-Parties to adhere to this Protocol and to contribute appropriate information to the Biosafety Clearing-House on living modified organisms released in, or moved into or out of, areas within their national jurisdictions.

Article

25
ILLEGAL TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENTS
1. Each Party shall adopt appropriate domestic measures aimed at preventing and, if appropriate, penalizing transboundary movements of living modified organisms carried out in contravention of its domestic measures to implement this Protocol. Such movements shall be deemed illegal transboundary movements. 2. In the case of an illegal transboundary movement, the affected Party may request the Party of origin to dispose, at its own expense, of the living modified organism in question by repatriation or destruction, as appropriate.
3. Each Party shall make available to the Biosafety Clearing-House information concerning cases of illegal transboundary movements pertaining to it.

Article

26
SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
1. The Parties, in reaching a decision on import under this Protocol or under its domestic measures implementing the Protocol, may take into account, consistent with their international obligations, socio-economic considerations arising from the impact of living modified organisms on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, especially with regard to the value of biological diversity to indigenous and local communities.
2. The Parties are encouraged to cooperate on research and information exchange on any socio-economic impacts of living modified organisms, especially on indigenous and local communities.

1. Transboundary movements of living modified organisms between Parties and non-Parties shall be consistent with the objective of this Protocol. The
Parties may enter into bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and arrangements with non-Parties regarding such transboundary movements.

18

19

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 20

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Article

27
LIABILITY AND REDRESS
The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this
Protocol shall, at its first meeting, adopt a process with respect to the appropriate elaboration of international rules and procedures in the field of liability and redress for damage resulting from transboundary movements of living modified organisms, analysing and taking due account of the ongoing processes in international law on these matters, and shall endeavour to complete this process within four years.

Article

28
FINANCIAL MECHANISM AND RESOURCES
1. In considering financial resources for the implementation of this Protocol, the Parties shall take into account the provisions of Article 20 of the
Convention.
2. The financial mechanism established in Article 21 of the Convention shall, through the institutional structure entrusted with its operation, be the financial mechanism for this Protocol.
3. Regarding the capacity-building referred to in Article 22 of this Protocol, the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this
Protocol, in providing guidance with respect to the financial mechanism referred to in paragraph 2 above, for consideration by the Conference of the
Parties, shall take into account the need for financial resources by developing country Parties, in particular the least developed and the small island developing States among them.
4. In the context of paragraph 1 above, the Parties shall also take into account the needs of the developing country Parties, in particular the least developed and the small island developing States among them, and of the Parties with economies in transition, in their efforts to identify and implement their capacitybuilding requirements for the purposes of the implementation of this Protocol.
5. The guidance to the financial mechanism of the Convention in relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties, including those agreed before the adoption of this Protocol, shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the provisions of this Article.
6. The developed country Parties may also provide, and the developing country Parties and the Parties with economies in transition avail themselves of,

20

financial and technological resources for the implementation of the provisions of this Protocol through bilateral, regional and multilateral channels.

Article

29
CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES SERVING AS THE
MEETING OF THE PARTIES TO THIS PROTOCOL
1. The Conference of the Parties shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Protocol may participate as observers in the proceedings of any meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol. When the
Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, decisions under this Protocol shall be taken only by those that are Parties to it.
3. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, any member of the bureau of the Conference of the Parties representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this
Protocol, shall be substituted by a member to be elected by and from among the
Parties to this Protocol.
4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this
Protocol shall keep under regular review the implementation of this Protocol and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote its effective implementation. It shall perform the functions assigned to it by this
Protocol and shall:
(a) Make recommendations on any matters necessary for the implementation of this Protocol;
(b) Establish such subsidiary bodies as are deemed necessary for the implementation of this Protocol;
(c) Seek and utilize, where appropriate, the services and cooperation of, and information provided by, competent international organizations and intergovernmental and non-governmental bodies;
(d) Establish the form and the intervals for transmitting the information to be submitted in accordance with Article 33 of this Protocol and consider such information as well as reports submitted by any subsidiary body;
(e) Consider and adopt, as required, amendments to this Protocol and its annexes, as well as any additional annexes to this Protocol, that are deemed necessary for the implementation of this Protocol; and

21

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 22

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

(f) Exercise such other functions as may be required for the implementation of this Protocol.
5. The rules of procedure of the Conference of the Parties and financial rules of the Convention shall be applied, mutatis mutandis, under this Protocol, except as may be otherwise decided by consensus by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
6. The first meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall be convened by the Secretariat in conjunction with the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties that is scheduled after the date of the entry into force of this Protocol. Subsequent ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this
Protocol shall be held in conjunction with ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
7. Extraordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the
Secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
8. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic
Energy Agency, as well as any State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented as observers at meetings of the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or nongovernmental, that is qualified in matters covered by this Protocol and that has informed the Secretariat of its wish to be represented at a meeting of the
Conference of the Parties serving as a meeting of the Parties to this Protocol as an observer, may be so admitted, unless at least one third of the Parties present object. Except as otherwise provided in this Article, the admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure, as referred to in paragraph 5 above.

Article

30
SUBSIDIARY BODIES
1. Any subsidiary body established by or under the Convention may, upon a decision by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, serve the Protocol, in which case the meeting of the Parties shall specify which functions that body shall exercise.
2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Protocol may participate as observers in the proceedings of any meeting of any such subsidiary bodies. When a subsidiary body of the Convention serves as a subsidiary body to this Protocol, decisions under the Protocol shall be taken only by the Parties to the Protocol.
3. When a subsidiary body of the Convention exercises its functions with regard to matters concerning this Protocol, any member of the bureau of that subsidiary body representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a
Party to the Protocol, shall be substituted by a member to be elected by and from among the Parties to the Protocol.

Article

31
SECRETARIAT
1. The Secretariat established by Article 24 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat to this Protocol.
2. Article 24, paragraph 1, of the Convention on the functions of the
Secretariat shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to this Protocol.
3. To the extent that they are distinct, the costs of the secretariat services for this Protocol shall be met by the Parties hereto. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall, at its first meeting, decide on the necessary budgetary arrangements to this end.

Article

32
RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CONVENTION
Except as otherwise provided in this Protocol, the provisions of the Convention relating to its protocols shall apply to this Protocol.

22

23

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 24

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Article

33
MONITORING AND REPORTING
Each Party shall monitor the implementation of its obligations under this
Protocol, and shall, at intervals to be determined by the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, report to the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol on measures that it has taken to implement the Protocol.

Article

34
COMPLIANCE
The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this
Protocol shall, at its first meeting, consider and approve cooperative procedures and institutional mechanisms to promote compliance with the provisions of this
Protocol and to address cases of non-compliance. These procedures and mechanisms shall include provisions to offer advice or assistance, where appropriate. They shall be separate from, and without prejudice to, the dispute settlement procedures and mechanisms established by Article 27 of the
Convention.

Article

35
ASSESSMENT AND REVIEW
The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this
Protocol shall undertake, five years after the entry into force of this Protocol and at least every five years thereafter, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the
Protocol, including an assessment of its procedures and annexes.

Article

36
SIGNATURE

Article

37
ENTRY INTO FORCE
1. This Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by States or regional economic integration organizations that are
Parties to the Convention.
2. This Protocol shall enter into force for a State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Protocol or accedes thereto after its entry into force pursuant to paragraph 1 above, on the ninetieth day after the date on which that State or regional economic integration organization deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, or on the date on which the Convention enters into force for that
State or regional economic integration organization, whichever shall be the later.
3. For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2 above, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of such organization.

Article

38
RESERVATIONS
No reservations may be made to this Protocol.

Article

39
WITHDRAWAL
1. At any time after two years from the date on which this Protocol has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Protocol by giving written notification to the Depositary.
2. Any such withdrawal shall take place upon expiry of one year after the date of its receipt by the Depositary, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of the withdrawal.

This Protocol shall be open for signature at the United Nations Office at
Nairobi by States and regional economic integration organizations from 15 to
26 May 2000, and at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 5 June
2000 to 4 June 2001.

24

25

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 26

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Article

40
AUTHENTIC TEXTS
The original of this Protocol, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English,
French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Protocol.
DONE at Montreal on this twenty-ninth day of January, two thousand.

obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
(j) Quantity or volume of the living modified organism to be transferred.
(k) A previous and existing risk assessment report consistent with
Annex III.
(l) Suggested methods for the safe handling, storage, transport and use, including packaging, labelling, documentation, disposal and contingency procedures, where appropriate.
(m) Regulatory status of the living modified organism within the State of export (for example, whether it is prohibited in the State of export, whether there are other restrictions, or whether it has been approved for general release) and, if the living modified organism is banned in the State of export, the reason or reasons for the ban.
(n) Result and purpose of any notification by the exporter to other States regarding the living modified organism to be transferred.
(o) A declaration that the above-mentioned information is factually correct.

Annex I

INFORMATION REQUIRED IN NOTIFICATIONS
UNDER ARTICLES 8, 10 AND 13
(a) Name, address and contact details of the exporter.
(b) Name, address and contact details of the importer.
(c) Name and identity of the living modified organism, as well as the domestic classification, if any, of the biosafety level of the living modified organism in the State of export.
(d) Intended date or dates of the transboundary movement, if known.
(e) Taxonomic status, common name, point of collection or acquisition, and characteristics of recipient organism or parental organisms related to biosafety. Annex II

INFORMATION REQUIRED CONCERNING LIVING
MODIFIED ORGANISMS INTENDED FOR DIRECT
USE AS FOOD OR FEED, OR FOR PROCESSING
UNDER ARTICLE 11
(a) The name and contact details of the applicant for a decision for domestic use.
(b) The name and contact details of the authority responsible for the decision. (c) Name and identity of the living modified organism.

(f) Centres of origin and centres of genetic diversity, if known, of the recipient organism and/or the parental organisms and a description of the habitats where the organisms may persist or proliferate.

(d) Description of the gene modification, the technique used, and the resulting characteristics of the living modified organism.

(g) Taxonomic status, common name, point of collection or acquisition, and characteristics of the donor organism or organisms related to biosafety.

(f) Taxonomic status, common name, point of collection or acquisition, and characteristics of recipient organism or parental organisms related to biosafety. (h) Description of the nucleic acid or the modification introduced, the technique used, and the resulting characteristics of the living modified organism. (i) Intended use of the living modified organism or products thereof, namely, processed materials that are of living modified organism origin, containing detectable novel combinations of replicable genetic material

26

(e) Any unique identification of the living modified organism.

(g) Centres of origin and centres of genetic diversity, if known, of the recipient organism and/or the parental organisms and a description of the habitats where the organisms may persist or proliferate.
(h) Taxonomic status, common name, point of collection or acquisition, and characteristics of the donor organism or organisms related to biosafety.

27

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 28

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

(i) Approved uses of the living modified organism.

Methodology

(j) A risk assessment report consistent with Annex III.

7. The process of risk assessment may on the one hand give rise to a need for further information about specific subjects, which may be identified and requested during the assessment process, while on the other hand information on other subjects may not be relevant in some instances.

(k) Suggested methods for the safe handling, storage, transport and use, including packaging, labelling, documentation, disposal and contingency procedures, where appropriate.

8. To fulfil its objective, risk assessment entails, as appropriate, the following steps: Annex III

RISK ASSESSMENT
Objective

1. The objective of risk assessment, under this Protocol, is to identify and evaluate the potential adverse effects of living modified organisms on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in the likely potential receiving environment, taking also into account risks to human health.

(a) An identification of any novel genotypic and phenotypic characteristics associated with the living modified organism that may have adverse effects on biological diversity in the likely potential receiving environment, taking also into account risks to human health;
(b) An evaluation of the likelihood of these adverse effects being realized, taking into account the level and kind of exposure of the likely potential receiving environment to the living modified organism;
(c) An evaluation of the consequences should these adverse effects be realized; Use of risk assessment

2. Risk assessment is, inter alia, used by competent authorities to make informed decisions regarding living modified organisms.

(d) An estimation of the overall risk posed by the living modified organism based on the evaluation of the likelihood and consequences of the identified adverse effects being realized;

General principles

(e) A recommendation as to whether or not the risks are acceptable or manageable, including, where necessary, identification of strategies to manage these risks; and

3. Risk assessment should be carried out in a scientifically sound and transparent manner, and can take into account expert advice of, and guidelines developed by, relevant international organizations.
4. Lack of scientific knowledge or scientific consensus should not necessarily be interpreted as indicating a particular level of risk, an absence of risk, or an acceptable risk.
5. Risks associated with living modified organisms or products thereof, namely, processed materials that are of living modified organism origin, containing detectable novel combinations of replicable genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology, should be considered in the context of the risks posed by the non-modified recipients or parental organisms in the likely potential receiving environment.
6. Risk assessment should be carried out on a case-by-case basis. The required information may vary in nature and level of detail from case to case, depending on the living modified organism concerned, its intended use and the likely potential receiving environment.

(f) Where there is uncertainty regarding the level of risk, it may be addressed by requesting further information on the specific issues of concern or by implementing appropriate risk management strategies and/or monitoring the living modified organism in the receiving environment.
Points to consider

9. Depending on the case, risk assessment takes into account the relevant technical and scientific details regarding the characteristics of the following subjects: (a) Recipient organism or parental organisms. The biological characteristics of the recipient organism or parental organisms, including information on taxonomic status, common name, origin, centres of origin and centres of genetic diversity, if known, and a description of the habitat where the organisms may persist or proliferate;
(b) Donor organism or organisms. Taxonomic status and common name, source, and the relevant biological characteristics of the donor organisms;

28

29

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 30

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

(c) Vector. Characteristics of the vector, including its identity, if any, and its source or origin, and its host range;
(d) Insert or inserts and/or characteristics of modification. Genetic characteristics of the inserted nucleic acid and the function it specifies, and/or characteristics of the modification introduced;
(e) Living modified organism. Identity of the living modified organism, and the differences between the biological characteristics of the living modified organism and those of the recipient organism or parental organisms;
(f) Detection and identification of the living modified organism. Suggested detection and identification methods and their specificity, sensitivity and reliability; (g) Information relating to the intended use. Information relating to the intended use of the living modified organism, including new or changed use compared to the recipient organism or parental organisms; and
(h) Receiving environment. Information on the location, geographical, climatic and ecological characteristics, including relevant information on biological diversity and centres of origin of the likely potential receiving environment. 30

Proto/ang 11/13/2000 3:39 PM Page 32

Printed on recycled paper at ICAO, Canada
October 2000…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Internet Protocols

...How Internet Protocols Work Kyra Pettit CIT/278 April 18, 2013 Richard Sleeper How Internet Protocols Work In the 1970s Internet Protocols were developed. Before this computer networks did not have a way to communicate with other networks. Protocols allowed computers on different networks to communicate or talk to each other. This let computers to communicate and exchange packets of data with each other. This essay will explain the different protocols and the responsibility of each protocol. Transfer Control Protocol\Internet Protocols (TCP\IP) Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) was established. The TCP\IP enables packets to be routed by containing address information and control information. This protocol is the primary and heart of the Internet protocols. It makes sure all the information sent is transferred reliably and quickly. If any packet is lost the information is not re-routed back through again. It only sends what is missing out of the packet back again. File Retrieval Protocols This was an earlier Protocol for retrieving information from the Internet. This protocol had no type of graphics or no description of the file. The person putting in the info had to keep files on paper about the information are it would have been lost. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) The FTP helped move files from one computer to another. Using this user can log on to a computer, and look through the files, download or upload the files (usg). No......

Words: 554 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Routing Protocol

...Introduction 1 2.1 Industry Standard protocols vs. Proprietary protocols: 2 3.0 Technical Background 2 3.1 Types Of Routing Protocols 2 3.1.1 Static Routing 2 3.1.2 Distance Vector Protocols 3 3.1.3 Link-State Protocols 4 3.1.4 Advanced Distance Vector Protocol 5 3.1.5 Path Vector Protocols 5 4.0 Protocol Decision Criteria 5 5.0 OSPF 8 6.0 EIGRP 18 7.0 Analysis 21 8.0 Recommendation 22 9.0 References 23 9.1 URLs 23 9.1.1 OSPF 23 9.1.2 EIGRP 24 9.2 Books 24 9.2.1 OSPF 24 9.2.2 EIGRP 24 Executive Summary The network is based on the TCP/IP protocol, which permits the efficient routing of data packets based on their IP address. Cisco routers are used at various points in the network to control and forward the data. Alcatel OmniSwitch switch/routers are also used in the Site 2 facilities. At the current point a decision is being made by on whether to keep the existing Alcatel infrastructure in the Site 2 facility or migrate that equipment to similar Cisco equipment as exists in Site 1. The current Alcatel equipment is experiencing severe problems such as hardware failures, power supply failures, operating system memory leaks resulting in reboots. If the decision is made to upgrade the Alcatel switch/routers then an evaluation will need to be made on what the proper routing protocol should be running......

Words: 8531 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Protocols

...LAB 3.1-3.4 3.1.1 – WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF WIRELESS DEVICES WERE NOT GOVERNED BY THE WI-FI ALLIANCE AND EACH VENDOR HAD ITS OWN STANDARDS AND PROTOCOLS? A. WIRELESS DEVICES WOULD HAVE DIFFICULTY COMMUNICATING. WHAT IS OKAY WITH ONE VENDOR MAY NOT BE OKAY WITH ANOTHER VENDOR. PRICES OF DEVICES AND CONNECTIONS WOULD ALSO CHANGE. 3.1.2 – GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A MODEL THAT IS USED TO VISUALIZE SOMETHING THAT IS DIFFICULT TO OBSERVE OR PERCEIVE. A. CONNECTIONS REQUIRING ROUTER EQUIPMENT – HUBS, SWITCHES AND ROUTERS. 3.1.3 – WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT LAYERS YOU THINK WOULD BE NECESSARY FOR COMMUNICATION TO BE MAPPED TO A MODEL? A. APPLICATION LAYER, PRESENTATION LAYER, SESSION LAYER, TRANSPORT LAYER, DATA LINK LAYER AND PHYSICAL LAYER. 3.1.4 – WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF A MODEL IS TOO GENERAL? TOO GRANULAR? A. THE MODEL WOULD NOT BE FLEXIBLE IF TOO GENERAL; IF TOO GRANULAR, A LOAD IMBALANCE WOULD OCCUR. 3.1 REVIEW – 1. WHY WOULD A 3-LAYER MODEL OF COMMUNICATION THAT HAS THE LAYERS PHYSICAL, NETWORK AND APPLICATIONS BE INSUFFICIENT TO ADEQUATELY DESCRIBE NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS? A. THE 7-LAYER COMMUNICATION MODEL WAS TESTED AND SUCCESSFULLY PROVEN TO WORK. IF A LAYER IS MISSING THE MODEL WILL NOT WORK PROPERLY. 2. WHAT IS THE HISTORY OF THE OSI REFERENCE MODEL? A. TO SERVE AS THE FOUNDATION OF THE ESTABLISHED WIDELY ADOPTED SUITE OF PROTOCOLS THAT ARE USED BY INTERNATIONAL INTERNETWORKS. 3. WHAT IS THE HISTORY OF THE TCP/IP MODEL? A. BOTH DEVELOPED TOGETHER (INTERNET AND TCP/IP)...

Words: 996 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Firearm Protocols

...ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE Firearm Protocols CJ2570/ Week 4 Research October 13, 2013 Abstract Securing firearms at a crime scene is a meticulous task. Understanding firearm operations and knowing the different types of firearms can ensure safe handling of all weapon s found. The first duty of the investigator recovering a firearm or weapon is personal safety and the safety of anyone who will potentially come in contact with the item of evidence. The investigator then has to preserve the potential evidence the item may reveal. From semiautomatic pistols to shotguns and long rifles each weapon has different mechanical parts and disabled properly before handling. The forensic technician is tasked with rendering all firearms safe so they can be preserved and analyzed at the lab. Firearms are used in many crimes around the world. It is important to know the proper steps in handling firearms in any crime scene investigation. Analysis and comparison of firearms evidence depends on the type used. There are certain rules for collecting firearms, bullets and residue from a crime scene. Each one is different in characteristics from semiautomatic pistols to long rifles and shotguns. These weapons continue to evolve in manufacturing and forensic technicians must stay up to date and educated on new firearm technology. Handguns are most commonly used to commit crimes because they are smaller and can......

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

List of Protocols

...List of network protocols (OSI model) This article is about network protocols organized by OSI model. For network protocols organized by TCP/IP model, see Internet Protocol Suite. This is a list of network protocols, categorized by their nearest Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model layers. This list is not exclusive to only the OSI protocol family. Many of these protocols are originally based on the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and other models and they often do not fit neatly into OSI layers. The OSI model | 7 Application layer | 6 Presentation layer | 5 Session layer | 4 Transport layer | 3 Network layer | 2 Data link layer | * LLC sublayer * MAC sublayer | 1 Physical layer | * v * t * e | பொருளடக்கம் * 1 Layer 1 protocols (physical Layer) * 2 Layer 2 protocols (Data Link Layer) * 3 Layer +3 protocols * 4 Layer 3 protocols (Network Layer) * 5 Layer 3.5 protocols * 6 Layer 3+4 protocol suites * 7 Layer 4 protocols (Transport Layer) * 8 Layer 5 protocols (Session Layer) * 9 Other protocols * 10 Layer 7 protocols (Application Layer) * 11 Protocol description languages * 12 See also * 13 Further reading * 14 External links Layer 1 protocols (physical Layer) * Telephone network modems- V.92 * IRDA physical layer * USB physical layer * EIA RS-232, EIA-422, EIA-423, RS-449, RS-485 * Ethernet physical layer Including 10BASE-T, 10BASE2, 10BASE5, 100BASE-TX,......

Words: 1041 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Protocols

...A protocol is a set of invisible compute rules that govern how an Internet document will be transmitted onto the screen. For two computers to communicate with one another, they must be able to understand one another through the same language. In order for computers to exchange information there must be a preexisting agreement as to how the information will be structured and how the sides will send and be received. The most important that defines the common networking protocols is the OSI known as Open Systems Interconnection. Introducing the TCP and the IP are two different protocols that are often linked together. The linking of several protocols is fairly common since the functions of different protocols may be complementary so that together they carry out particular tasks that are bases of operation layers. These suits of protocols are often used with many local area networks and carries out the basic operations of the Internet. Emailing also has its own set of protocols that has a variety of both for sending and receiving mail. The most common protocol for sending mail is the SMTP that is known for as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Then for receiving emails, the protocol being most commonly used is the Post Office Protocol, POP for short. Both the SMTP and the POP is used for managing the transmission for delivery of mail across the Internet. Web pages that are constructed to a standard method are called Hypertext Markup Language known as HTMO. The HTMP......

Words: 413 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Network Protocols

...The importance of communication protocols: Unless Patton Fuller Community Hospital has an agreement between the two communicating parties information may get lost or un-communicated. This agreement is called the protocol. Communications protocols usually have a number of parts, Handshake, encoding method, compressions methods, packet / frame structure, and addressing.. This is why protocols are often defined by standards bodies, but some protocols SSL can be used widely even though they are not specifically from a standards body. A protocol must be implemented to enable effective, efficient communication by using a set of rules. Protocols are also described as hardware or software components that carry out the OSI model guidelines for transferring information on a network In short - if we don't have a protocol we won't be able to communicate between different devices. Identify the protocols in your design and provide rationale for your decision Define the overall network architecture. The design of a communications system, which includes the backbones, routers, switches, wireless access points, access methods and protocols used May refer only to the access method in a LAN, such as Ethernet or Token Ring Network architecture is the design of a communications network. It is a framework for the specification of a network's physical components and their functional organization and configuration, its operational principles and procedures, as well as data formats used in......

Words: 1950 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Protocols

...Protocols Just like wired and TCP/IP communications, wireless communications has its own set of protocols. These protocols exist to govern wireless communications for mobile phones, pagers, and other wireless devices (Protocols.com). Protocols that exist for wireless communications such as wireless session protocol, wireless transaction protocol, wireless transport layer security, and wireless datagram protocol each covering different aspects of the communications model (Protocols.com). Just like wired and TCP/IP communications, wired communication protocols exist in a wireless communications OSI model (Protocols.com). The wireless communications OSI model is divided into the following layers; application layer, session layer, transaction layer, security layer, transport layer (Protocols.com). Each layer of the wireless communications OSI model has is associated protocols. The necessity for different protocols for wireless communications comes from this “WAP Stack” which is the model for wireless data transfer (Protocols.com). Each layer of the model is governed by different protocols, and are divided as follows. * Application Layer Protocols * WAE or Wireless Application Environment * WTA or Wireless Telephony Application (Protocols.com) * Session Layer Protocols * WSP or Wireless Session Protocol (Protocols.com) * Transaction Layer Protocols * WTP or Wireless Transaction Protocol (Protocols.com) * Security Layer Protocols * WTLS or Wireless Transport Layer......

Words: 278 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Protocols

...The four major protocols for circuit switching and packet switching are as follows: • X.25 • Frame Relay • ATM or Asynchronous Transfer Mode protocol • TCP/IP X.25 is probably one of the very first of packet switching protocols. It performs really well, especially considering how long it has been around. X.25 uses a virtual circuit approach, mainly using POTS or plain old telephone service lines, which are different from lines such as ISDN. The POTS lines are analog copper lines, so they can experience a lot of errors. But, once the lines have been connected, X.25 connections are really reliable. It's quite an efficient way to send packets across various data networks, with the X.25 protocol redundant error checking at each of the nodes. Frame relay is different because it doesn't require the need for analog wires or overhead wires like X.25 does. But this means that Frame Relay doesn't have the added framing and processing that X.25 has that provide guaranteed data transfers. It also doesn't have link to link reliability. So if a frame is corrupted, it is discarded, which is different than TCP as it detects and recovers any and all discarded frames. Asynchronous Transfer Mode protocol is used with either a coaxial cable, twisted pair, or fiber. ATM also takes advantage of a 53-btye cell, having 48 application bytes and 5 bytes are allocated for the ATM headers. ATM shows a lot more enhancements over Frame......

Words: 487 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Protocols

...LAYER PROTOCOLS • IP (Internet Protocol) • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) • ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) • RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) 4.7.1 The IP PROTOCOL • IP represents the heart of the Internet Protocol suite • Provides the main service of the layer: data transmission in connectionless mode – datagram IP Header Format IP Header Format (Including user data, this makes an IP packet) IP Header fields: • Version - Indicates the version of IP currently used (now 4); • IP Header Length - Indicates the datagram header length in 32-bit words (value = 5); • Type-of-service - Specifies how a particular upper-layer protocol would like the current datagram to be handled. Datagrams can be assigned various levels of importance through this field; • Total length - Specifies the length of the entire IP packet, including data and header, in bytes. • Identification - Contains an integer that identifies the current datagram (sequence number). This field is used for re-assembling the datagram fragments; • Flags - A 3-bit field for fragmentation control:  000 - last fragment;  001 - not last fragment;  010 - the fragmentation not allowed. • Fragment offset - measured in double-words (offset from main datagram); • Time-to-live - Maintains a counter that gradually decrements down to zero, at which point the datagram is discarded. This keeps packets from looping endlessly; • Protocol - Indicates which upper-layer protocol......

Words: 1379 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Internet Protocols

...INTERNET PROTOCOLS & APPLICATIONS * TCP/IP: The TCP/IP suite of protocols has become the dominant standard for internetworking. TCP/IP represents a set of public standards that specify how packets of information are exchanged between computers over one or more networks. * IPX/SPX: Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange is the protocol suite originally employed by Novell Corporation’s network operating system, NetWare. It delivers functions similar to those included in TCP/IP. Novell in its current releases supports the TCP/IP suite. A large installed base of NetWare networks continue to use IPX/SPX. * NetBEUI: NetBIOS Extended User Interface is a protocol used primarily on small Windows NT networks. NetBEUI cannot be routed or used by routers to talk to each other on a large network. NetBEUI is suitable for small peer-to-peer networks, involving a few computers directly connected to each other. It can be used in conjunction with another routable protocol such as TCP/IP. This gives the network administrator the advantages of the high performance of NetBEUI within the local network and the ability to communicate beyond the LAN over TCP/IP. * AppleTalk: AppleTalk is a protocol suite to network Macintosh computers. It is composed of a comprehensive set of protocols that span the seven layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The AppleTalk protocol was designed to run over LocalTalk, which is the Apple LAN physical topology...

Words: 1711 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Network Protocols

... Networking Protocols and Facts What is meant by protocol? A protocol is a special set of rules that governs the communications between computers on a network. They specify the interactions between the communicating entities like one computer to another. There is a protocol for every part that connects a network known as TCP/IP which means Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol. They TCP and IP are two different protocols that preform different tasks in the networking world they are built into all major operating systems. TCP allows and enables two computers or hosts to connect and exchange data streams from one to the other guaranteeing that the delivery of data and packets being delivered come in the same order they were sent out. Utilizing the Idea of TCP being like your Mail courier dropping off your mail because he has the link and means to communicate or find your destination. Internet Protocols use a packets instead of streams, also known as datagrams, and addressing scheme. Picture the IP protocol as a post office you drop off a packet of information, without being combined with TCP it cannot be delivered. The TCP part of the protocol it the mail truck or the courier like I stated in the last paragraph. The reasons why IP cannot be a standalone software is because it deals in packets which is small bits of information with now true way of keeping it order, from going missing, and even duplicating itself. A fact of the TCP/IP protocol was that it......

Words: 365 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Kyoto Protocol

...considering the fact that it is not about the industrial strategies or further space exploration but about safety and confidence in future of the human beings. Kyoto protocol, presenting definite steps in fighting the threat for the people, at the same time became an international phenomenon which showed how all spheres of human life are connected with each other in the era of global information. First of all, its main benefit justified itself in the next few days after its adoption. The authorities at last tackle the problems of globalization or at least admit the existence of such. This cooperation became of public awareness and it is quite vivid now to everyone that problems of global climate change are not someone's smart myth but a real fact that has drawn attention of the mighty of this world. Another advantage of the Kyoto protocol is that it really works. According to the official statistics nearly half of the countries that are fully or partially obligated to it have really reduced emissions of carbon dioxide by some percent. Cutting the amount of pollution in the atmosphere will certainly have a positive effect even if human activity has nothing to do with climate change. It will certainly reduce the number of diseases caught due to bad ecology. Alongside with definite advantages of the adoption of the protocol it has significant disadvantages. To start with, it created an opportunity for the countries that produce less than it is established as the limit to......

Words: 692 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Essential Protocol

...Essential Network Protocols Modern computer networking leverages many components to enable computers on one network (or opposite side of the world) to communicate with a computer on a different network (or other side of the world). Of the components that enable network communication, there are several in the TCP/IP suite of protocols that work in the background to provide reliable Internet connection and data transport every day for millions of computers worldwide. Internet protocol or IP is an essential component of modern internetwork communication. IP is a connectionless protocol that provides neither fault tolerance nor error correction. It is also not responsible for the setup or teardown of network communications. The primary job assigned to IP is logical addressing and routing as it resides at layer 3 (the Network layer) of the OSI model. While every host on the network has a hardware address (also called a MAC address), hosts can only communicate with other hosts in the same broadcast domain using MAC addressing. For internetwork communication, a logical, unique network address is required so that the devices forwarding network traffic (primarily routers), can determine the source and destination and best route to forward data packets. The ARP or Address Resolution Protocol enables devices on a single network, in a single broadcast domain, to find the hardware or MAC address of a device on the network given the IP......

Words: 1258 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Security Protocols

...problem that can cause problems for protocols such as NTLM. Disadvantages Although the scheme is easily implemented, it relies on the assumption that the connection between the client and server computers is secure and can be trusted. Specifically, if SSL/TLS is not used, then the credentials are passed as plaintext and could be intercepted. Existing browsers retain authentication information until the tab or browser is closed or the user clears the history.[3] HTTP does not provide a method for a server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This means that there is no effective way for a server to "log out" the user without closing the browser. This is a significant defect that requires browser manufacturers to support a "logout" user interface element or API available to JavaScript, further extensions to HTTP, or use of existing alternative techniques such as retrieving the page over SSL/TLS with an unguessable string in the URL. 2. NTLM In a Windows network, NTLM (NT LAN Manager) is a suite of Microsoft security protocols that provides authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users. NTLM is the successor to the authentication protocol in Microsoft LAN Manager (LANMAN), an older Microsoft product, and attempts to provide backwards compatibility with LANMAN. NTLM version two (NTLMv2), which was introduced in Windows NT 4.0 SP4 (and natively supported in Windows 2000), enhances NTLM security by hardening the protocol against many spoofing......

Words: 1600 - Pages: 7