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Business Management Short Notes

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E 16 – Business Management

“A pattern or plan that integrates an Organization’s major goals policies & action sequences into a coherent whole” (Quim) Mintzberg distinguish b/w a strategy as 5 P’s:‐ Plan: Forward looking / Purposive deliberate Ploy: Plan Designed to deceive/confuse Pattern: Consistencies of behavior whether intended or not Position: In the market; relative to the Competition Perspective: Values attitudes Cultures of Managers

Dimensions of Strategy
‐ Analysis Choice Implementation

‐ Environment in which the Organization exists & cope with ‐ PESTEL ‐ 5 forces ‐ Life Cycle Model ‐ KsFs / CsFs model ‐ Competition Analysis

‐What strategic decisions should be made by the organization ‐Missions ‐Objectives ‐Stakeholders ‐where to compete? ‐how to compete? ‐Means & methods Content is about the decision the organization makes with its context

All 3 interact with one another

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E 16 – Business Management

Strategy Process
Central to Strategy is positioning 3 Processes of Strategy are: Analysis Choice Implementation In the Real world all the stages are not sequential and are not easily distinguished from one another. Three types of strategic management methods:‐ 1. Rational/Structured Approach or model 2. Incrementalism 3. Emergent Strategy

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E 16 – Business Management Rational / Traditional or the Structured Approach to Strategy:‐

Visions & Mission Strategic Intent Goals & objectives

Internal Analysis or Appraisal strength & weaknesses Leveraging Resources Functional Analysis Value Chain Analysis Benchmarking

Is our existing position a good one, is External Analysis or Appraisal It under threat, can it be improved. opportunities & threats

Positioning analysis or Audit degree of Strategic Fit or match

PESTEL 5 forces Life cycle analysis Ks/Fs.

Strategic choice
Stages/Dimensions Where to How to compete? compete? Options Ansoff’s Porter/s generic product strategy mix Market matrix & Evaluation and the positioning & Vector creation of value chain Choice Strategic monitoring, review and control

Means and methods The mix of ownership and control with the test of strategy: Feasibility (F) Suitability (S) Acceptability (A)

Strategy implementation Structure culture + functional strategies management of change

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E 16 – Business Management
Strategic Analysis:‐ Mission, Objectives, Power Opportunity and threats Strength and weakness, For a strong sense of mission there has to be a fit between:‐ Purpose: Why the Business Exists Values : What Business Believes In Behavior: Standards Policies and Actions Strategy: Competitive Positioning. The Other Models:‐ EMERGENT STRATEGY:‐ Mintzberg believed and describes the rational planning approach as a top down approach. He believes it to be unrealistic and too systematic for it to be real and thus presented the idea that strategies evolve over time (emerge). e.g., Honda’s entry into the USA. Freewheeling opportunities is an example of it where there is little apparent coherence or forethought in the strategy. HIGH RISK APPROACH ‐ INCREMENTALISM:‐ Small scale adjustments to current policies and strategy as this are a less risky approach. A very logical concept which falls in between emergent and rational approach Suite to smaller, entrepreneurial type of business. – Purpose – environment ‐‐ resources & Capabilities

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E 16 – Business Management
As we do not have or possibly cannot evaluate all possible options, therefore we create a loose tight structure with amendments and additions with the changes in environment. Also termed as Repositioning Describe by Lindblom as ‘’Small scale extensions to past practices.’’ All the models described have their respective pro’s and con’s (advantages and disadvantages) Note:‐ From exam point of view you should be able to distinguish, describe and explain all three with examples. External Analysis


5 Forces

Market life cycle

Market competition

Market Ksfs/Csfs

Industry life cycle

Industry competition

Industry Ksfs/Csfs

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E 16 – Business Management PESTEL Corporate Strategy:‐
P ‐ Political: ideology, stability, policies etc. E ‐ Economical: Economy (market: macro) Size, Growth, Inflation, Unemployment, Entrants, Industry Competitors, monetary and fiscal policies.

S: Social: Demographics, Family patterns, culture and values etc T: Technological: Sophistication, substitute product E: Environmental: Ecological environment and the damages to it. L: Legal: Statute, legal environment and fit its applicability.

5 Forces: ‐ (for business strategy) (Industry Attractiveness Framework)
Porter terms it as competitive strategy: All about how to deal with competition in an industry Assesses the industry attractiveness Identifies key success factors (Ksfs) Identifies the position of the business in the industry Forecast how the position/industry is likely to change

1. Threats of New Entrants:
Critical factors:‐ Industry attractiveness (profitability growth etc) Barriers to entry (capital, technology, legal, etc) 2. Threats of Substitutes:‐ Arising from outside the industry but perform the same function and increase competition. Power of Supplier and Customers:‐ The more they have power the less attractive the industry. Dependable on: Relative size of the firms to that of the industry Relative importance of the industry

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E 16 – Business Management Availability and price performance of substitutes Switching costs

Industry competitors: ‐ (extent of competitive rivalry)
• • • • • No. of competitors. Relative market share. Strategies persuade. Growth of industry and stages in life cycle. Fixed to variable cost ratio which on impacts on pricing.

Competitor analysis:
Hamel and Prahalad use the success of Japanese businesses to understand competition assumptions, actions, intentions, and capabilities. Western firms misread strategic intent and underestimate their resourcefulness and thus Lost their positions with in industries.

Identify the current strategy
No crises‐ continuity of strategy overtime.

Identify strategic intent Their objectives and priorities Identify their assumptions
How do they see themselves?

Analyze their capabilities
No just their resources but their resourcefulness in using limited resources.

Internal analysis:
• • • Understanding the resources and skills of the business and how are they being used. Simplest framework is the functional analysis. The need for ‘’benchmarking’’ measuring business performance, making systematic comparison.

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E 16 – Business Management Functional Analysis
• • • R & D & Engineering Operational Marketing and sales Financial HRM IT

Value Chain Analysis
Value is defined in terms of what customers are prepared to pay for the products and services.

Aim: create value greater than the cost of doing so.

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E 16 – Business Management


Strength M A CONVERSION T C H Opportunities I N G



• • • • • • Assess the capability of the organization to reach it chosen objectives. To highlight critical strategic issues facing the firm. Identify the firm’s competitive advantage. As part of review and control process, assess the current strategies and highlight the need for remedial action. Strength shows the leverage (method of applying resources) of the coy. Weakness shows the Company’s vulnerability.

Meeting the industry standards and norms but not valuable as a source of innovation Steps of benchmarking:‐ • • • • • What are we going to benchmark? Who are we going to benchmark against? How will we get the information? How will we analysis the information? How will we use the information?

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E 16 – Business Management

Types of benchmarking:‐
Internal benchmarking: as in the case of Xerox. Functional benchmarking: internal function compared with the best external practitioners of those functions. Competitive: information gathered about direct competition. Strategic benchmarking: type of competitive benchmarking aimed at strategic action and organizational change.

Identification of stakeholder expectations and power for the management to priorities them and deal with them appropriately. 2 Step Process:‐ 1. How interested they are to impress their expectations on the organizations choice of strategies. 2. To what extent they have power to impose their wants.

Mendelow proposed a matrix to help analyze them:
LEVEL OF INTEREST Low Power High Alternative model provided by Scholes in 1998 of direction, educate/communicate, intervention and participation.
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Low High Box A Box B • Minimal effort • Keep informed • Direction • Educate/communicate Box C Box D • Keep satisfied • Key‐players intervention • participation


E 16 – Business Management

Organizational culture:
• • • Miles and snow identifies 4 types of strategic culture affecting firms’ attitude to their business and markets. (a) Defenders: (b) Prospectors: • narrow product market domains • Continual search for market opportunities • little innovational concern • Create change and uncertainty • formalized decision making • Decentralize and results valued. • preference for tired and tested means (c) Analyzers: (d) Reactors: • Followers in the market • Muddle through • Balance risk and profit • No strategic orientation • Use core product to fund innovative product Set of values, guiding beliefs, understanding and ways of thinking, shared by its members. Unwritten feeling part of the organization. Like that of Ben and Jerry.

Culture is influenced by:‐
• • • • The organization founder. The organization’s history: The way it works and how they have been doing work. Leadership and management style Structure and systems affect culture and strategy.

Ansoff’s product market matrix: Existing market New Market Existing product New product

Market consolidation penetration Market development

or Product development Complete diversification

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E 16 – Business Management Market Penetration:
• • • Increase market share Improved quality productivity Increased marketing activity.

Market Development:
• • Tried and tested products to new markets. Security present products plus extra revenue from new market areas.

Product Development:
• Alternative to the present product • Builds upon present knowledge and skills. e.g., mars ice‐cream







Internal developme

External acquisition

Joint development

How to complete:
Porter’s generic strategies:
2 sources of competitive advantages Cost Based Broad Overall cost leadership Narrow Cost focus Differentiation Differentiation Differentiation focus

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E 16 – Business Management
Broadly: across the whole industry. Narrowly: focusing on part of the industry or market.(NICHE)

Characteristics of both (distinctive features):
Cost based • • • • • • • High relative market share Economies of scale Efficient plant operation Standardization Low cost location Low cost suppliers Price sensitive customers Differentiation • • • • • • • High level of services Innovation Brand image Flexibility Prestige location Low cost supplies Customers prepared to pay more

Means and Methods
Mix of ownership and control.

Organic growth:
• • • • • Relatively slow Not feasible with diversification based strategy. As there is little base to grow from. May have legal issues. Avoids most of the problems of acquisition and JV’s.

Divided into: • • • • • Horizontal integration Vertical integration Other forms of related diversification Unrelated diversification As you moved down the list the risks increase management familiarities declines and potential for synergy declines.

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E 16 – Business Management

Joint Ventures:
Often 2 competitors create a jointly owned subsidiary to exploit:‐ • A particular technology • Or market. Advantage is of reduced costs and risks through sharing but possible that one partner may benefit more than others.

• • • Low cost growth option. Selling of right by franchisers to the franchisee to use the brand name. Franchisee provides investment in the franchise and also manages it.

• • Similar to the franchising arrangement except for, that it provides a technology rather than a brand name. Both licensing and franchising are long term contracts.

• • • Externalizing value chain activities to specialist providers. Allows business to concentrate on core activities. But there is a lost of control, synergy and profit margins.

Tests of strategy:
Johnson and Schools

• • Skills & resources required by the organization. Simply have we got what it takes

• Appropriate use of resources and skills.

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E 16 – Business Management • • Something feasible does not make it suitable. Simply is this a good use of resources.

• • Interest, power and support of the stakeholders Will our stakeholders go along with the strategy?

Strategy implementation:‐
Danger of the top down strategy is that implementation seen as a lower level issue. Problems attributed to implementation failure rather than the strategy itself.

Reasons for implementation difficulties are:
• • • • • • • • Strategy formulated may not have been realistic Opposition from powerful shareholders Lack of top management backing Failure of top management to align functional with business strategies. Failure to adjust to unforeseen circumstances. Failure to resource the strategy adequately. Failure to modify the structure and culture. Failure to monitor and review implementation.

Possible solution:
Implementation should form part of formulation of strategy. Such separations inhibit learning and flexibility.

This implies:
Assessing and considering the implementation aspects at the choice stage – the “feasibility” test. Involving those at lower level. Involving those who formulated the strategy.

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E 16 – Business Management

The BCG Matrix
The company holds a portfolio of SBU’s Some generate and some use cash Profitability is connected to relative market share Market follows a pattern of growth, maturity and decline


STAR Cash neutral or cash user COW

Market Growth Low

? Heavy cash user but potentially a cash generator DOG Cash user and likely ever to be a cash generator Low

Cash generator


Relative Market Share

Strategies for them: Star:
Cash neutral or user Because of the costs of maintaining high market share in a high growth market Cow: (cash generator)
Milk But protect market share

Divest‐if any one buys it Harvest short term profits close

Question Mark:
Potential generator of cash Either invest to build market share or Divest

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E 16 – Business Management

Ethics and Social Responsibility
Ethical Problems facing managers Maximization of shareholders wealth and generation of profits affects the way business is carried out. Distinctions:‐ ◊ Extortion:‐ Threats to close companies if payment not made ◊ Bribery:‐ (Bakhshish) Payments for services company is not entitled to ◊ Grease Money:‐ Cash payments to receive legally entitled services ◊ Gifts:‐ Ethically dubious Social Responsibilities: Towards Employees Society Environment Customers and Suppliers Externalities:‐ A Company’s ecological damage may effect some one else’s health This gives rise to external cost Generally paid out of general taxation Advocates social responsibility says that these costs should be paid by the countries themselves. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE “Systems by which the companies are directed and controlled” Cadbury Report Corporate governance Responsibilities Directors: Responsible for running the country

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E 16 – Business Management
Shareholders: Auditors: linked to directors via financed Reporting Systems Provide shareholder with a check on directors abilities

Other Concerned Users: Particularly employees Green bury Report:‐ ‐ Principles for determining Directors pay and detailing disclosure in Annual Report Remuneration committee to be formed to determine directors pay

Hampel Report:‐ ‐ Accounts should contain a statement of how the companies applies the corporate governance principles Accounts should explain their policies

‐ ‐

Combined Code
LSE issued the combined code derived from Cadbury, Green bury and Hampel Reports.

Provisions of the Combined Code:
The Board: meet regularly, clear division of responsibility between the CEO and chairman NED’s to make up half the board Director to have election The AGM: Separate Resolutions on each Separate issues Accountability and Audit: Going Concern and directors to explain their responsibilities Remuneration: Remuneration committee(NED,s) to set directors pay Internal Control: Directors to review the effectiveness of internal control systems at least annually. Audit Committee: Board to have an audit committee

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E 16 – Business Management
Auditors Responsibilities:‐ Statement of Responsibilities: Auditors to have a statement of Responsibilities

Human Resource Management A process of evaluating an organizations HR needs, finding people to fill those needs, getting the best work and productivity from each employee by providing the right incentives and job environment. Overall Aim: Achieve organization’s goals

Importance of HR
• • • • To increase Productivity To enhance group leasing via multi skilled team To reduce staff turnover To encourage initiative

The Process HR Planning:

1. Strategic Analysis
Of environment Organization manpower, strength and weaknesses, opportunities and threats Organization’s use of employee’s Organization’s objectives

2. Forecasting • • • Of Internal Demand and Supply External Supply Constraints

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E 16 – Business Management

Stages in HR Planning Recruitment and Selection Training Management & Development Redeployment Redundancies HR management Action Plan Supply Forecast HR Plan Demand Forecast

Reconciliation of supply and demand
Recruitment is concerned with finding applications going out in the labor market Selection (Filtering Process): Procedures to choose a successful candidate from those available by recruitment effort Application forms Interviews Testing of Candidates Bio data Assessment Centers References Negotiation

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E 16 – Business Management

Training sessions for new candidates once recruited and selected then motivation and performance follows:‐ Theory X & Y by Dongles McGregor

Theory X People dislike work so they must be coerced, controlled and directed.

Theory Y Expenditure of physical and mental effect is as natural as play and rest. People should be understood and managers to act democratically.

Motivation Theory:
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Fulfillment of personal Potential

Self actualization Esteem Needs Love/Social Needs Safety needs Physiological needs Independence, recognition, status, Respect Relationship, belongingness, affection, Security, freedom from threat food and

Food & Shelter.

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E 16 – Business Management

Mc Cleland’s three needs of Individuals

Affiliation: People need a sense of belonging, membership of a group. Power: Those who seek power seek a Leadership position to influence and control. Achievement: People have a strong desire to success and fear of failure. Money can be a motivator and a reason for job satisfaction.

Incentive Schemes:
Types:‐ Performance related Pay Bonus Schemes (ESOP’s) Profit Sharing All are to do with goal congruence and achievement of organization’s objectives.

Working Arrangements
Attitudes and Values Multi‐skilling gives rise to learning and may create interest Flexibility: ‐ Able to respond and adapt quickly to customer demands. Empowerment: Giving employees the freedom to take responsibility

Flexible Working Arrangement
Working from home. Compressed week: 40 hours worked in lesser no. of days.

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E 16 – Business Management
Job Sharing Part time/reduced hours

“Growth or realization of person’s abilities and potential through the provisions of learning and educational experiences”

Planned and systematic modification of behavior through leasing events, programs and instructions

Development Activities
Training, both on and off the job Career planning Job Rotation Other learning opportunities

Formal Training
Internal courses run by the organization’s training department External Courses (either on or off site)

Method Used on Courses
Lectures Discussions Exercises Role plays (Acting out practically in a role) Case Studies

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E 16 – Business Management Evaluating Training
Comparing the actual costs of the scheme with the benefits obtained

Methods Used are:
Trainee’s Reaction to experience Change in Job behavior following Learning Organizational change as a result of training Impact of training on the achievement of organizational goals. Appraisal is the systematic review and assessment of an employee’s performance, potential and training needs.

Appraisals can be:
Upward appraisal :‐employee’s rate their superiors Customer appraisal :‐feedback from customers 360 Appraisal:‐collecting feedback from all sources. Manager, peers and coworkers, customers etc Management is firstly educated, and then trained skills wise and the process are continually repeated to achieve development. Successful companies have kind of leadership required to influence people to strive willingly and actively for group objectives. Management is about coping with complexity whereas leadership is about coping with change. Management is exercised over resources, activities and projects.

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E 16 – Business Management Leadership is exercised over people and aims to secure willingness, enthusiasm and commitment.

Leadership Style:
Transactional Leaders: See the relationship with their followers in terms of trade. Transformational Leaders: See their role as inspiring and motivating others.

Leadership Skills:‐ Idealized Influence: identified with charisma, putting the needs of others before personal interest. Inspirational Motivation: Articulation of the challenge and arouses , team spirit Intellectual Stimulation: Leader encourages free thinking Rational problem solving Management Styles (identified by Ashridge management college):‐

Tells (Autocratic) Sells (Persuasive) convincing Consults (managers confer with Subordinates) Joins: Democratic, decisions made on the basis of consensus.

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E 16 – Business Management Groups
A collection of people who perceives themselves to be a group The group normally has: A sense of identity Loyalty to the group Purpose and leadership Sometimes there can be conflicts with groups. These conflicts can be constructive (enhancing innovation, devising solutions and encourage creativity) but can also be destructive (distracting attention, polarize views, encouraging defensive or spoiling behavior)

Responses to Conflicts:
Denial Supervision/ accommodation Dominance Compromise: bargaining and negotiating Discipline is a way to promote order and good behavior, enforcing acceptable standards of conduct.

Discipliner Actions:
Written, Specific Non discriminatory Stating the level of management involved hearing out the employee No employee dismissed for the first breach Requires management to investigate fully Allow employees to appeal

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E 16 – Business Management

Strategies for Critical Periods
At times organizations go into Decline and contract:‐

Environmental Entropy (Organizations environment may no longer be supportive). Vulnerability » Organizations may fail to prosper within its environment. » Not pursue the right strategy or the right business. Organizational Atrophy (Too bureaucratic manager complacent, and unable to adapt.

Two Types of Decline
Product Revitalization: Temporary and Genuine recession in consumer demand Endgame: Substantially Lower demand permanently

Possible Causes of Decline
Poor management Poor financial controls High cost structure Poor marketing Competitive weakness Big Projects/acquisitions go bad and high premiums paid(therefore shortage of cash)

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E 16 – Business Management Strategy Adopted were:
Turnaround: Approaches are Contraction and cost cutting Reinvestment and fund put through to enhance capability and efficiency. Rebuilding with a concentration on innovation

3 Stages approach:‐ (Levin/Schein) Unfreeze Change/Move Existing behavior Refreeze new behavior

attitude ,Behaviour

Types of Strategic Change: Incremental Speed of

Extent of Change Series of Steps Transformational Realignment

Proactive , Slow

Realign the way of operation

change Big Bang

Simultaneous initiatives on many fronts

Realign the way in which organization operates

Forced, Reactive

Often forced and reactive.

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E 16 – Business Management

Resistance to Change:
Source of Resistance:
• • • • Attitudes or beliefs Loyalty to a group Habits or past norms Policies etc. Force field Analysis:‐ (Kurt Lwein) Driving force (for change) Can be both internal and external issues Factors to consider in resistance to change:‐ 1) The pace of Change 2) The manner of Change 3) Scope of Change Corporate Culture is difficult to change as it is glued to its paradigm. It becomes complicated and can be achieved using forecasting, Reporting, communicating and coordination. Restraining Force

Culture consists of
» beliefs, » attitudes,

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E 16 – Business Management
» practices and customs to which people are exposed during their interaction with the organization.

Marketing Information:‐ Provides basis on which to make marketing decisions and to evaluate marketing effectiveness

Simple Classification:‐
1. Internal Information Sales analysis Customer loyalty Lost Customers Complaints Sales force surveys Store loyalty cards, although are about sales promotion but may provide value information about customer behavior. 2. External Information:‐ Social and economic trends Market composition Characteristics and trends of the market

a. Secondary Data:‐
Govt. publications Journals Trade publication and Newspapers Starting point for research

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E 16 – Business Management
Since the information is cheap and readily available.

Primary Research:‐
Costly as it involves gathering new data. Experiment e.g. Use of test marketing Observation e.g. retail audits Surveys : questionnaires , telephone, personal interview To test, markets samples are taken. Random sampling in which random number tables are used and are the purest of them all but costly. Questionnaire depends on quality of questionnaire design Cheap Large Low

interview depends on competence

of interviewers. Costly Small Not so Low complex

Cost Sample size

Response Rate


nature of Questions and Answers

Test Markets:
Testing out of the marketing mix in a sample market or markets prior to a national launch

Reduces risk of launch failure Provides a basis for sales forecast Enable the marketing mix to be improved.

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E 16 – Business Management

Only possible with fmcg’s Costly since the entire marketing mix has to be reproduced over an extended time period. Difficulty in finding a representative market. Fore ware competitors of the marketing strategy.

By the way: Marketing is the management process which: Identifies Anticipates Supplies

‘’Customer requirements efficiently and profitably’’

(Institute of marketing)

“Customers do not buy products; they buy what the product will do for them”. (Levitt)

Marking Strategy Marketing Objectives Target marketing Market Segmentation Marketing Mix 4 P’s

Marketing Strategy

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E 16 – Business Management

Customer Relationship
Involves investing selectively in retaining existing customers 1. Identify the profitability of different types of customers (complex exercise) 2. Treat customers as streams of future discounted cash flows 3. Estimate how much is it worth investing in retaining the more profitable customers 4. Identify the unprofitable ones and make them more profitable by reducing the level of services offered or selling them more profitable products. 5. Increase profitability by up sell or coss sell 6. Interact and create a strong relation with the most valued customers However such strategies have their limitation for e.g. in the airline industry not focusing on back packers may loose critical mass to competition. As today’s back packers are tomorrow’s business people. Such factors are difficult to quantify.

General Marketing Objectives:
Market share and growth Sales value, volume, mix and growth Customer satisfaction and retention Appropriate marketing mix

Market Segmentation:
Division of markets into different groups of customers with distinctive needs and preferences Different variables can be used to divide up markets for e.g. geographic, demographic etc.

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E 16 – Business Management

Industrial market segmentation:
Customer size Customer profitability and industry Geographic location Ownership (Public or private) The more variables used the smaller but more similar the market becomes and more precisely it can be targeted.

Marketing Mix:
“The decision variables that the business can use to influence its target markets” (Kotler) Price, product, place and promotion. For each ‘P’ there is a customer ‘C’. Market Challenger:‐ ◊ ◊ Immediate runners up in the market Challenge the dominance of the leader

Kotler on Marketing Strategies:‐ Market Leader:‐

◊ ◊

Normally every industry has 1 Objective is to remain dominant

Possible Strategies: They expand the total market by

Strategies:‐ ◊ ◊ Direct attack on the leader Back door strategy where opportunity is exploited, overlooked by the leader.

frequent use and protect market share by acquiring competitors Market Follower:‐ ◊ Runners up accept the market share and position of leader and start following in leaders footsteps. Avoids innovation and price wars.

Market Nicher:‐ ◊ ◊ ◊ Appropriate for smaller firms Survive by exploiting segment overlooked by the majors

Essence of the strategy is high level Of specialization.

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E 16 – Business Management
A firm may use a combination of strategies.

Anything that satisfies customer needs Product life Cycle. Sales



maturity Decline


Slow sales growth, low EOS and little competition Basic product, promotional emphasis on product awareness and trial

Rapid sales growth, competitors enter, Increased EOS Product improvements and options Promotional emphasis on brand preference

Sales level static, increased competition Promotional emphasis on brand loyalty and brand switching.

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E 16 – Business Management Decline:
Sales fall due to product obsolescence Technological change Weak competitors exit Sales and contribution insufficient to support large scale promotion.

Four Influences: 1. 2. 3. 4. differentiation. Low Price No Profit No Demand High Price Cost of the product Customer’s readiness to purchase Competition from competing and substitute products Choice of business strategy i.e. generic strategies cost based or

Product costs Prices changed by value max Which typically the competition

Consumer perception of

which typically limits the

Limit the minimum price Cost Based:‐ Competitor based Pricing Going Rate


Buyer Based Pricing Perceived value

a. Cost plus b. Break even c. Target profit

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E 16 – Business Management Price will be heavily affected by the stage of the product life Cycle Generally prices fall as the product moves through the product Life Cycle Low price Strategies only sustainable if business enjoys lowest costs.

It is about communication with customer. The Strategy would involve (1) Identifying the target audience:‐ The target audience will be heavily influenced by “What will be said, how it will be said, when it will be said, where it will be said and who will say it”. (2) Deciding on the Response Required :‐ The “Buyers Readiness State” 4 Stages:‐ Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA)

(3) Selecting and designing the message:‐ What appeal or theme to use, rational, emotional or moral (The 3 main Categories). (4) Choosing the mix:‐ Main modeling tool are advertising, Sales promotion, personal selling & public relations. However of key importance is word of mouth, which is not directly controlled by the business. (5) Measuring Response:‐ Collecting and interpreting feedback, the impact of the communication on awareness (did they see it, remember, like it, associate it with the product) and the impact on behavior (did they buy it as a result).

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E 16 – Business Management Advertising:
Any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion by an identified Sponsor. (Kotler) Media: Print, Mail shot, TV, Radio, Billboard

Sales Promotion: “Point of Sale incentives to encourage purchase” "Win” competitions “Free” gifts Save “money off”. Sale promotion has some advantages over advertising:‐ Low cost POS impact Promotion on the packet

Public Relations: “A sponsored attempt to create a favorable image of the Organization” (Kotler) Influencing media Sponsorship Lobbying Visitor Centers

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E 16 – Business Management Personal Selling: “Personal oral presentation to prospective customer” Door to door Telemarketing Sales reps

Place: Concerned with the selection of distribution channel used to deliver goods to the consumer” Distribution Channel Institution through which goods are transferred from producers to consumers

Functions Include: Transport

Types of Distributors:
Retailers Wholesalers Distributors and dealers Agents Franchises Multiple stores i.e. Supermarkets Direct Selling(mail order, telephone selling & door to door

Stock holding and storage Local Knowledge Promotional Campaigns Display (presentation of the product)

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E 16 – Business Management

Absolute Advantage:‐
In the production of a good, a country can produce more of the goods with a given amount of resources than the other country.

Comparative Advantage:
Two countries can gain from trade when each specializes in the industry in which it has the lowest possible costs. But countries avoid specialization due to:‐ Technological change and instability Diversification protects against excessive reliance on one product For example:‐ agriculture is subject to uncertainties of climate Governments may wish to develop self sufficiency. Protectionism is the discouraging of imports by govt. action.

Method used:
(a) Tariff or custom duty (b) Non‐tariff barriers • • • • Import Quota’s Minimum price and anti dumping actions Embargoes Subsidies for local producers

(c) Exchange controls and exchange rate policy.

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E 16 – Business Management

Porter suggests that some nations industries are more internationally competitive than others.

Related and Supporting industries Factor Conditions Demand Conditions Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry

Factor Conditions:‐
◊ ◊ ◊ ◊ ◊ HR Physical Resources Knowledge Capital Infrastructure

Demand Condition:‐
◊ The home market decides how firms perceive, interpret and respond to buyer needs. Sophisticated and elevating buyers set standards`

Related and Supporting Industries ◊ The existence and support of local suppliers and their development

Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry ◊ ◊ Germen managers tend to be bent towards engineering Best at products demanding careful development and complex manufacturing process.

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E 16 – Business Management

5 Stages in the Evolution of Global Business Operation
Exporting Overseas branching Overseas production The global company

5 Reasons why Companies are moving towards the global Stage
Customer Company Competition Currency Country

Standardization or Adaptation
HR Issues:
Expatriates or Local HRM 1) Recruitment and Selection 2) Training 3) Appraisal Schemes 4) Communication I. II. E mail and Satellite Linkages Major conferences

Political Risks and Blocked Funds
It is the risk that political action will affect the position and value of a company.

ICAF |Lecturer: Bilal Khalid 43


E 16 – Business Management

Actions usually taken by Govt.:‐
Import Quotas Import tariffs Legal Standards of Safety and Quality Exchange control regulation Restrict the ability of foreign companies to buy domestic companies Nationalize foreign owned companies Govt. could insist on minimum shareholding.

Ways of Dealing with host govt.
Negotiation with host govt. Insurance (UK Export Credit Guarantee Department) Production Strategies Local borrowing as it may have an effect on local institutions if foreign company’s assets taken by the govt. Management Structure, Local Ventures and profit sharing arrangements

Treasurer ship
Function concerned with the provision and use of finance it covers:‐ Provision of Capital Short term borrowing Foreign Currency management Banking Money market investments

ICAF |Lecturer: Bilal Khalid 44


E 16 – Business Management Role of treasurer
Corporate financial Objectives Financial aims and objectives Financial and treasury policies Financial and treasury Systems Liquidity Management Working Capital Management Banking relationship and arrangements Money management Funding Management Funding Policies and Procedures Sources of funds Types of Funds Currency Management Exposure Policies and Procedures Exchange dealings including Risk management tools Corporate Finance Equity Capital management Business acquisition and Sales Project finance and JV’s Other Issues Corporate Domestic and foreign tax Risk management and insurance Pension fund investment management

ICAF |Lecturer: Bilal Khalid 45


E 16 – Business Management

Centralized or Decentralized Cash Management
Centralized being controlled and directed by the head office. o Advantages Include
Lower bank Changes due to inter group borrowing and lending Large amounts available to invest therefore high interest accounts. Bulk borrowing offers lower interest charges Foreign Currency risk management improves with the use of netting off and matching. Expect knowledge in various Risk management areas Transfer price can be set centrally thus lowering the global tax burdens.

o Advantages of Decentralization
Decentralized is a mean of having a local office of treasury at the subsidiary level. Diversified source of finance and match local assets Greater Autonomy More responsive to individual operations

ICAF |Lecturer: Bilal Khalid 46


E 16 – Business Management

Profit Centre or Cost Centre
Cost centre
The managers have to keep the cost of the department with in specified targets Its like providing a service to other departments In a profit centre significant resources can be earned with the help of specialist staff and risk undertaken. For profit centre approaches following needs are considered: Competence of Staff Controls (to prevent costly errors) Complete up to date market information Attitudes to risk of treasury team and the Board Internal charges for the services of the department to other departments

ICAF |Lecturer: Bilal Khalid 47…...

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