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Business Management Method

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MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM

(((

RESEARCH PROJECT

(BMBR5103)

FACTORS AFFECTING TO THE

JOB STRESS OF EMPLOYEES IN HSBC BANK (Vietnam) Ltd.

[pic]

Ho Chi Minh City, January 2015

ADVISOR’S ASSESSMENT

Advisor’s signature

Nguyen The Khai, DBA

TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLE 3
ABSTRACT 4
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 5
I. INTRODUCTION OF HSBC bank 5 1.1 Over view of the company 5 1.2 Products and brand name 6 1.3 Business Objectives 6 1.4 HSBC bank to commitments to its employees 7 1.5 Human resource manager system 8
II. RESEARCH INTRODUCTION 9 2.1 Problem statement 9 2.2 Main construct 9 2.3 Research objective 9 2.4 Research questions 10
CHARPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 11
I. JOB STRESS 11
II. TYPES OF JOB STRESS 13
CHARPTER III: RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES 16
I. RESEARCH MODEL 16
II. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 17 2.1. Work Interference With Family and Family interference with work. 17 2.2 Job –Family Role Strain Scale……………………………………………......19 2.3 Work to family Conflict Scale 21

CHARPTER IV: RESEARCH METHODS 24
I. RESEARCH DESIGN 24
II. RESEARCH METHODS 24 2.1 Data collection method 24 2.2 Measures 24 2.2.1 Work interference With Family and Family interference with work…….25 2.2.2 Job- Family Role Strain Scales 28 2.2.3 Work to family conflict 29 2.2.4 Control over areas of work and familu 31
III. DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORT 33 3.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents 34 3.2 Reliability Analysis 36 3.3 Descriptive Analysis 38 3.4 Correlation of all Variables Statistics 39 3.5 Hypothesis Testing 40
CHARPTER V: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 45
I. DISCUSSION 45 1.1 Recommendations for Work interference with family and family interference with work. 45 1.2 Recommendations for Job- Family role strain scales 45 1.3 Recommendations for Work and family conflict 45 1.4 Recommendations for Control over areas of work and family 46
II. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH 46
III. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 47
IV. CONCLUSIONS 48
REFERENCE 49
APPENDIX

LIST OF TABLE

Table 4.1 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank - Work interference With Family and Family interference with work …………………………………. 36
Table 4.2 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank – Job and Family Role Strain Scales 36
Table 4.3 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank – Work- Family conflict 36
Table 4.4 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank - Person – Control over areas for work and family 37
Table 4.5 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank – Job Stress 37
Table 4.6 Reliability Statistic of Cronbach’s Alpha 37
Table 4.7 Descriptive Statistics of Work interference with family interference with work 38
Table 4.8 Descriptive Statistics of Job and family role Strain scales 38
Table 4.9 Descriptive Statistics of Work – Family conflict 38
Table 4.10 Descriptive Statistics of Control over areas for work and family 39
Table 4.11 Descriptive Statistics of Job Stress 39
Table 4.12 The Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient 40
Table 4.13 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 1 41
Table 4.14 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 2 42
Table 4.15 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 3 43
Table 4.16 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 4 43
Table 4.17 Hypothesis Statistic 44

ABSTRACT

The nature of work of bankers and family life may most often expose them to high level of stress which has the potential of affecting their productive capacity. This study therefore sought to find out the stress and coping strategies of bankers in HSBC Viet Nam. This study adopted a mixed method to investigate the nature of stress and the coping strategies adopted by Bankers in the HSBC. Data for the study were collected from the field using interview schedules and questionnaires. Findings from the study show the existence of high level of stress among the Bankers. The sources of stress among the bankers range from the upbringing of their children, their families to the nature of their work. In terms of coping strategies of stress, it was revealed that the respondents indulge in religious activities, exercises, share with friends, use medicinal therapies, counseling and social gathering. The need for appropriate mechanisms to be put in place by the managements of the banks to address the counseling needs of employees is indicated by the findings. Also, organization of seminars for employees to help broaden their minds on stress coping strategies as well as to keep them abreast with the changing trend of issues is very essential to help reduce their stress levels.
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
I would like to introduce a research about “ Job Stress: Factors affecting it in HSBC Viet Nam Ltd.”.

INTRODUCTION OF HSBC BANK VIET NAM Ltd.

1. Over view of the company
The bank opened its first office in Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) in 1870. In August 1995, HSBC opened a full-service branch in Ho Chi Minh City. HSBC also opened its second branch in Hanoi and established a representative office in Can Tho City in 2005.
On 1 January 2009, HSBC became the first foreign bank to incorporate in Vietnam. The new entity, HSBC Bank (Vietnam) Ltd. is 100 per cent owned by The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited. HSBC Bank (Vietnam) Ltd. is also the first wholly foreign-owned bank to operate both branches and transaction offices in Vietnam. HSBC is currently one of the largest foreign banks in Vietnam.
With more than 140 years of experience in Vietnam, HSBC provides a comprehensive range of banking services including Retail Banking and Wealth Management, Commercial Banking, Global Banking, Global Markets, Global Payments and Cash Management, Global Trade and Receivables Finance and Securities Services.
|Company’s Logo: |[pic] |

Awards

• Best Foreign Bank in Vietnam 2006-2012, 2014 by FinanceAsia • Best Domestic Cash Management Bank 2010 – 2014 by Euromoney Poll • Best Sub-Custodian Bank in Vietnam 2008 – 2014 by Global Finance • Best Domestic Custodian Bank in Vietnam 2012 - 2014 by the Asset Triple A • Best for Overall Market Share in Vietnam 2010 – 2013 in the Euromoney Foreign Exchange Survey • Best Sub-custodian Bank in Vietnam 2006, 2009, 2012 by the Asset Triple A • Best Bank in Vietnam 2008 – 2011 by the Asset Triple A • Best Corporate Internet Bank in Vietnam 2011 by the Global Finance • Best Overall Private Bank in Vietnam 2011 by Euromoney • Best Foreign Cash Management Bank in Vietnam 2011 by The Asset Triple A • Best Foreign Transaction Bank in Vietnam 2011 by The Asset Triple A • Best Trade Finance Bank in Vietnam 2008, 2009, 2011 by the Asset Triple A • Top Rated #1 in Leading Clients category in Global Custodian magazine’s Annual Survey of Agent Banks in Emerging Markets, 2011, 2013 • Certificate of Merit to Pham Hong Hai, Managing Director, Head of Global Banking and Markets, HSBC Vietnam for excellence for his contribution to the Banking industry of Vietnam for the period 2011 - 2013 by Trade Union of State Bank of Vietnam • Certificate of Excellent Labour Collective 2011 by Governor of the State Bank of Vietnam • Golden Dragon Awards 2010 – 2011 by the Vietnam Economic Times and Ministry of Planning and Investment • HSBC Service Provider in ATM and Savings category in High Quality Vietnam Product Awards 2011 by the Sai Gon Tiep Thi Magazine (2009 & 2011)

Contact details

Headquarters
The Metropolitan, 235 Dong Khoi St, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Tel [84] (8) 3829 2288
Fax [84] (8) 3823 0530

Range of services:

- Retail Banking and Wealth Management HSBC provides a full range of personal financial services in Vietnam. These include current accounts, savings accounts, international ATM debit cards which can access a wide ATM network of about 131 HSBC ATMs in Vietnam and over 9,200 PLUS ATMs nationwide, term deposit accounts in Vietnam dong (VND) and foreign currencies (USD, EUR, GBP, AUD), structured deposit, FX plus, overdrafts, payment services, credit cards, home mortgage loans, home equity loans, personal instalment loans. HSBC also provides a wide range of insurance products, such as life insurance, personal safety insurance, home insurance, car insurance, medical care insurance and travel insurance. We offer a full Premier proposition, a unique internationally connected suite of banking products and services catering for high net worth customers and focused on wealth management where HSBC is positioned as a leading provider of wealth management. Our services are available 24/7 through our internet banking, automated telephone banking (ATB) and a customer hotline.

- Commercial Banking HSBC has a dedicated team of experienced Relationship Managers who can handle the banking needs of both local and international corporate customers. Our products and services include account services, payments and cash management, internet banking, short term loans, international trade finance, medium and long term loans, syndicated loans and corporate bond issuance, foreign exchange and interest rate hedging products, bond facilities (tender, performance and advance payment bonds) and corporate credit cards.
- Global Banking Global Banking offers services to major government, corporate and institutional clients worldwide by fostering long-term relationships based on the Group's unmatched global knowledge and local expertise. Global Banking includes corporate banking, investment banking, project and export finance, and payments and cash management. Clients are served by sector-based client service teams that combine Relationship Managers and product specialists to develop financial solutions to meet individual client needs. Investment banking focuses on the origination and execution of corporate finance and mergers and acquisitions assignments, divestitures, financial restructurings and associated financing solutions.
- Payment and Cash Manageme HSBC's Global Payments and Cash Management services are designed to help our customers operate efficiently, profitably and with comprehensive support. We offer account services, transaction and balance, liquidity and delivery management services, covering all cash management and payment needs. The cash-based nature of Vietnam's financial market requires banks to have extensive and innovative capabilities to handle cash payment and collection for corporate customers. We have established electronic links and agreements with major local banks and Vietnam Post Corporation in Vietnam to utilise their branch networks for the collection and distribution of cash funds throughout the country for our customers. Worldwide Internet Banking with HSBCnet HSBC Group's global internet banking system, HSBCnet provides online access to a suite of global markets, research, cash management, securities, trade and commercial banking services.
- Global Markets HSBC is one of the biggest dealing rooms with dedicated professionals for risk management advisory, fixed income trading, foreign exchange trading and debt advisory for bonds. We are one of the largest market maker in USD/VND interbank foreign exchange market and one of the biggest fixed income trading houses in the country. HSBC has been the pioneer of providing derivative solutions to corporate and financial institution customers. We are proud to be the first bank in Vietnam to conduct a cross currency swap involving the local currency (VND), the first ever VND derivative deal done in Vietnam, laying the foundation for further development of the local currency derivative markets. We also concluded the first ever interbank VND interest rate swap transaction and the first interbank USD/VND cross currency swap. We were also the first bank to offer credit-linked investment products linked to Vietnam sovereign risk and other sovereign risks outside Vietnam. At present, HSBC is the major player in providing foreign exchange options, precious metal derivatives, interest rate swaps, and credit derivatives as well as structured deposits. Bond issuance and syndicated loan advisory services are also active fields in which HSBC is involved in Vietnam.
- Global Trade and Receivables Finance As one of the largest trade and receivables financing organisations in the world, we have local trade experts available to support our customers wherever they do their business. HSBC Global Trade and Receivables Finance in Vietnam offers full suite of trade solutions ranging from traditional documentation services to highly sophisticated tailor-made solutions to enterprises of all sizes: Documentary Credits (DCs), Documentary Collections, Trade Finance, Structured Trade Finance Solutions, Supplier Finance Solutions. Particularly our E-solutions for trade are designed to help customers manage their global trade transaction online in real time anywhere and anytime: - HSBCnet-ITS (Internet Trade Services): the global electronic banking platform, allowing customers to initiate trade transactions (import DC application, import bill instruction and export DC transfer) and access real-time trade account information and facilities at anytime and from anywhere. - Instant@dvice: HSBC is the only bank in Vietnam to provide customers with this uniquely convenient means to receive a copy of import and export transactions by email immediately after approval. - Document Tracker: HSBC is the only bank in Vietnam to offer this service which enables customers to quickly track and trace trade documents internationally (sent via DHL) 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, free of charge. - HSBC e-PO Trader: Provides a web-based platform to manage electronic documents and compliance checking for transactions around open account trade. The e-PO Trader system enables buyers to automate their payment decision process and provides suppliers with the ability to create and submit electronic documents with visible payment status.
- Securities Services HSBC was the first foreign bank licensed to provide custody services in Vietnam in 2000 and is currently the leading custodian bank for foreign institutional investors and domestic institutional investors in Vietnam in terms of assets under custody, transaction volumes and number of staff. Our custody business provides sub-custody and securities clearing services to global custodians, broker dealers, investment banks, investment funds, insurance companies and other foreign institutional investors. These services include safe custody (equities and fixed income instruments), settlement (receipt and delivery), corporate action processing, income collection, portfolio and cash reporting, proxy voting, foreign exchange services and other value-added services. In 2006, HSBC launched fund administration services in Vietnam for local funds and has a leading market share in this segment, servicing both member and public funds. Our fund administration services include fund valuation and accounting, compliance monitoring, and transfer agency services. In 2011, HSBC launched its Corporate Trust and Loan Agency business in Vietnam with the introduction of Escrow services, as a precursor to the progressive launch of other services in its global portfolio.
2. Products and brand name
| |HSBC opened its first office in Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) in 1870.|
| |In August 1995, HSBC opened a full-service branch in Ho Chi Minh City.|
| |HSBC also opened its second branch in Hanoi and established a |
| |representative office in Can Tho City in 2005. |
| | |
| |On 1 January 2009, HSBC started operating its locally incorporated |
| |entity and became the first foreign bank to incorporate in Vietnam. |
| |The new entity, HSBC Bank (Vietnam) Ltd. is 100 per cent owned by The |
| |Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited. HSBC Bank (Vietnam)|
| |Ltd. is also the first wholly foreign-owned bank to operate both |
| |branches and transaction offices in Vietnam. The Bank's network now |
| |includes one transaction center, one branch and five transactions |
| |offices in Ho Chi Minh City; one branch, three transaction offices, |
| |and one deposit office in Ha Noi, one branch in Binh Duong, one branch|
| |in Can Tho, one branch in Da Nang, one branch in Dong Nai and two |
| |representative offices in Hai Phong and Vung Tau. |
| |HSBC is currently one of the largest foreign banks in Vietnam in terms|
| |of investment capital, network, product range, staff and customer |
| |base. |
| |With 140 years of experience in Vietnam, HSBC provides a comprehensive|
| |range of banking services including Retail Banking and Wealth |
| |Management, Commercial Banking, Global Banking, Global Markets, Global|
| |Payments and Cash Management, Global Trade and Receivables Finance and|
| |Securities Services. HSBC's history in Vietnam and knowledge of its |
| |culture reflects its commitment to delivering excellence in customer |
| |service, every time. |

3. Business Objectives
Vision: To be the leading international Bank in Viet Nam.
Objective: Vietnam – poised for growth Asia – engine for growth Strategy Hong Kong China India Malaysia Indonesia Vietnam Well positioned for market growth • Concentrate on cards and personal loans • Mid and upper SME commercial banking • Corporate, international and sophisticated local corporates • Pioneer and participate in development of Vietnam capital market Strategic partnerships • Techcombank: 5th largest bank, agreement for 15% stake with intention to reach 20% • Bao Viet: largest insurer, 10% stake with pre-emptive rights to reach 25% • Offer distribution and scope for collaboration in businesses such as cards, bancassurance and asset management 30
Mission: “Throughout our history, we have been where the growth is, connecting customers to opportunities. We enable businesses to thrive and economies to prosper, helping people fulfill their hopes and dreams and realize their ambitions. This is our role and purpose.”
Value:
Our values describe how we interact with each other, with customers, regulators and the wider community. Our business principles set the standard by which we set our strategy and make commercial decisions. Together our values and business principles form our character and define who we are as an organisation and what makes us distinctive. They describe the enduring nature of how we do business. Each employee is expected to bring these values and business principles to life through their day-to-day actions and to make a commitment to put these values at the heart of how they behave.
In addition, all employees are expected to act with courageous integrity in all they do. This means having the courage to make decisions based on doing the right thing but without ever compromising the ethical standards and integrity on which the company was built. HSBC's values and business principles are underpinned by this guiding principle.
4. HSBC bank to commitments to its employees
The Human Resource Department monitors human resource and health & safety standards in the group in accordance with Vietnam Labor Law and customers’ code of conducts (COC) and, primarily, the Fundamental Social Principles contained in the International Labor Organization (ILO). Human resource management is our important management criteria they can to satisfy all interest parties. • Long-term contract & fair compensation, • Supporting employee engagement & Marriage, • Jobs for remote provinces and poor regions, • Appropriate job for each personality,
HSBC bank warranties that: • Forced labor, • Non- Compulsoriness, • Non– Discrimination, • Non - Child labor, • Freedom of association and the collective bargaining right, • Health and safety at work, • Working hours, • Remuneration.
In addition, the company encourages the personal and professional growth of its employees in the spirit of its dual economic and social objective. It aims at ensuring that everyone has a safe working environment and an equal access to professional training so that each employee can maintain and develop his or her skills.
5. Human resource manager system

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Figure 1: Human resource manager system - Organizational Chart

RESEARCH INTRODUCTION

1. Problem statement
Job stress is one of the popular phrases we see and hear with increasing frequency. Unfortunately, though it is used so often, and in so many different contexts that it is difficult to pin down an agreed meaning. Hans selye, the pioneer of study on stress initiated focusing on this vital issue of great concern. Stress has been a topic of interest to the researchers since the Second World War (Newton 1995). Only recently, job stress has received increased significance among researchers, especially in the social sciences. Organizations are finally waking up to the fact that a lot of human potentials are being drained away due to job stress. Most of the employees say they are under extreme stress at work environment.
Job stress is one big problem in this global world. Most of the employees often or very often feel stress due to work. The human resource managers in some organizations have mentioned stress to be great impediment in the effective performance of employees.
Job stress has become an increasingly common negative outcome of today’s dynamic life. Masses experience stress due to overload, overwork, job insecurity and increasing pace of life. (American Psychological Association, 1997). In recent times, many research studies have measured and determined the effects of job stress on health and well being of banker in the banks settings and elsewhere. Job stress detracts nurses from qualitative working lives, enhances psychiatric morbidity and contributes towards physical illness, such as musculoskeletal problems and depression. (ILO, 2001). International council of nurses (ICN) has reported that if we want to develop an optimum environment for the production of stress, a lot of stressors, we would include, would be obviously recognized by female banker as events in the bank settings which they confront on routine basis. The stressors are long hours, unpleasant noises, sights, undue quiet, sudden shift from intense to mundane tasks, time pressure, no second chance, and enclosed environment etc. (NIOSH, 2001).
Cooper believes that stress results from a misfit between individuals and their environment (Cooper et al 1994).Stress is dynamic state whereby the masses are faced with an opportunity, obstacle, constraints or demand regarding what one desires and the implication of which is considered to be uncertain, negative, terrifying and important. (Robbins, 2001). Behr and Newman define job stress as” a situation arising from the reaction of people towards their tasks and results in changes that compel individuals to cope and adjust and disrupt their normal performance”. (Pfeffer, 1992). When a person is confronted with a situation which poses a threat, and perceives that she or he does not have the capability or resources to handle the stressors, the imbalance that results at that point in time is termed as stress. (Luthan, 2005).An Individual’s adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s wellbeing individual’s physiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical or physiological demands on the individual and create uncertainty and lack of personal control when important outcomes are at stake. (Samson, Richard, 2003).Stress is the excitement, feeling of anxiety, or physical tension that occurs when the demands place on an individual are thought to exceed his ability of how to adjust. (Hellriegel, John 2004).“Stress is a negative reaction towards events that are thought as to tax or exceed individual coping ability”. (Hockenbury, 2003). An accommodative reaction or response by individual which is a consequence of any action, situation or event that places special demands on a person. (Ivancevich, Olekalns, 2008) It is now an established fact that the profession of banker is full of stress and challenging. Female banker staff faces crying and dying patients on daily basis. The tasks performed by them are almost mundane and unrewarding. If measured by normal standards, banker’s job is disgusting and distasteful, degrading and frightening. (Hingley, 1984). The ILO has commissioned a manual on the job stress and its prevention among female banker staff. The job of female banker is daunting and daring. Everyday multiple and conflicting demands are imposed on bankers by their supervisor, managers, administrative staff and others. Such situation usually leads to work burden and role conflict. (ILO,2001).
2. Main construct
To base on internal factors, Human Resource (HR) Department found that recently some employees have intention to leave the HSBC bank Viet Nam after being a long time in service.
3. Research objective
This study mainly seeks to achieve the following objectives: 1. To investigate the reason why the employee having Job Stress with the HSBC bank. 2. To identify the factors that may impact on Job Stress . 3. To suggest some solutions based on research findings to increase the Job Stress .
4. Research questions
Based on the discussion above, and to accomplish the objective of this study, these research questions have been formulated: 1. How is the impact Work Interference With Family and Family interference with work on Job Stress ? 2. How is the impact Job –Family Role Strain Scale on Job Stress ? 3. How is the impact Work to family Conflict Scale on Job Stress ? 4. How is the impact Control Over Areas of Work and Family on Job St CHARPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW

JOB STRESS

Several crises have engulfed societies in the world at this time and age along with most employees having a hard time to cope with the stress in the work place (World Health Organization (WHO), 2005). Most time of employees are often spent in the office than in their homes. These employees become more exhausted after those long hours of work (WHO, 2005). However, stress is considered a normal part of any organization; regardless of positions and salary level in the company.
When people experience work-related stress, they often feel tensed and distressed. Due to globalization and changes in the nature of work, people in developing countries have to deal with increasing work-related stress (WHO, 2005). World Health Organization (2005) states that most people in industrialized countries have devised stress coping and management strategies and are becoming more aware of the effects of work-related stress. However, in developing countries, this may not be the case.
The inability of organizations to commit resources towards protecting their workers from work-related stress underwrites the high level of stress among workers in most developing countries (Houtman & Jettinghoff, 2007). In addition, most developing countries do not have policies in relation to psychosocial risks and work- related stress. The absence these policies provide a fertile ground for organizations and companies not to commit resources towards putting in place effective control strategies to deal with these issues (WHO, 2003). The situation is made worse by the lack of occupational health services coverage. WHO (2003) estimates that globally only 5-10% of the workers in developing countries and 20-50% of the workers in industrialized countries (with a few exceptions) have access to adequate occupational health services. Work-related psychosocial issues are rarely dealt by these even where they are available.
In Viet Nam, several nationwide surveys have indicated that, about 58% of the workforces in organizations suffer from stress related problems (The Weekly Mirror, 2006). According to Sackey and Sanda (2009), pressures at work, coupled with demands of family have increased the occupational stressors of employees of financial institutions in Viet Nam and thereby increasing their chances of developing psychological ailments. This means that stress can be a killer of many organizations in Viet Nam of which Banks in the HSBC bank is no exception. However, it must be pointed that whilst in the developed countries occupational stress has long become a serious health issue both in terms of the individual‘s mental and physical wellbeing and of the financial consequences to employers and governments, it does not appear to evoke equal attention in developing countries such as Viet Nam.
Despite the fact that there are apparent indications of stress in bankers in Viet Nam, these indications are not well defined by evidence. In fact, no work on the subject as it relates to Banks in the HSBC bank has been sighted. The issue is that, there may be stress in bankers but just how much of it? Which stressors are the most common and what stress management or reduction strategies are commonly adopted by victims? In order to effectively fight any problem an awareness of its causes, outcomes and possible solutions is very important. It is against this background that this research sought to examine the stress and coping strategies among bank employees in the HSBC bank.

TYPES OF JOB STRESS

Two models have been frequently used to describe the process by which aspects of a job and its environment lead to worker stress and strain. One model focuses on the fit between thes stressors, such as demands and requirements of the job, and an employee’s coping resources, such as his or her skills abilities, and needs/ preferences ( Ganster& Schaubroeck, 1991). Job Stressors are defined as those aspects of a job that produce excessive and undesirable constraints or demands on the individual ( Scheck, Kinicki, & Dacy, 1995). A positive or negative appraisal of a stressor affects the outcomes to the emplyee differently ( Scheck et al., 1995)

The second model is known as the job demand control perspective ( Karasek, 1979). This model suggests that when the psychological demand of a job are high and control over the job is low, health status and well-being are lowered. However, when both demand and control are high, an individual will experience an increased motivation to perform. A major hypothesis of this model is that high job demands produce a state of physical arousal in a worker that would normally be channeled into coping responses such as altering the schedule of work or changing procedures. If a worker is not allowed sufficient control to implement stress reducing changes, the physical and mental impacts of job demand are increased. To a degree, this model predicts that some job conditions may buffer the negative effects of other job dimensions of emplyees.

CHARPTER III: RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES

RESEARCH MODEL

From theories and previous research results, we propose the relationship between independent constructs (Work Interference With Family and Family interference with work ,Job –Family Role Strain Scale, Work to family Conflict Scale ,Control Over Areas of Work and Family and dependent construct (Job Stress ) as per Hypothesized Research Model as below:

|[pic] |

Figure 2: Hypothesized Research Model

In the following section, we articulate how Job Stress is impacted by Work Interference With Family and Family interference with work ,Job –Family Role Strain Scale, Work to family Conflict Scale ,Control Over Areas of Work and Family.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
2.1. Work Interference With Family and Family interference with work.
Hypothesis 1: Work Interference With Family and Family interference with work is positive related to Job stress.
Balancing the demand of work and family roles has become a daily task for many employed adults ( Williams & Alliger, 1994). On one hand, occupying multiole roles provides individuals with important psychological benefits, such as status, ego gratification, and increased self-esteem. On the order hand. There are potential costs associated with such role accumulation, including role strain, psychological distress, and somatic complaints ( Frone, Russell, & Coope, 1992). In general, the subjective quality of the experiences an individual has on both work and family roles is a critical determinant of psychological well-being ( Frone et al., 1992). For example. Work experienced as demanding or not rewarding may increase the chances of work- family strain, whereas work that is more rewarding may increase the chances of work strain. In addition, work and family experiences may have reciprocal effects so that perception and behavior in one role are affected to some degree by experiences in the other ( Williams & Alliger,1994).
Work- family conflict has been defined as a form of interrole conflict in which the role pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible and the demands of participation in one role make participation the other role more difficult (Aryee, Luk& Stone, 1998; Bacharach, Bamberger, & Conley, 1991; Frone et., 1992; Kossek & Ozeki, 1998; Thomas & Ganster, 1995). Generally, as people experience more conflict between these major roles, their level of job and life satisfaction falls. For example, increased burnout may be a direct consequence of work- home conflict (Carlson & Perrwe, 1999). Work- Family conflict has been shown to effect not only the psychological well- being of emloyees, but also their work- related attitudes such as organizational commitment and their work- related behaviors such as absenteeism, tardiness, and turning number of organizations in industrialized countries have introduced organizational family- responsive policies or benefits. The overriding objective of the these policies it to assitst employed parents in managing their family responsibilities while also maintaining employment ( Aryee et al., 1998). However, workplace programs and organizational policies designed to help employees better integrate work and family roles do not seem to have much effect on work family conflict ( Kossek & Ozeki, 1998).
The relationship among roles can be complicated. Some studies suggest that the relatioship between work demands and family responsibilities is best described as correlational rather then causal, with minimal spillover from one domain to the other ( Frone, Russell, & Cooper, 1994). In addition, Lambert (1990) has suggested that studies of work- family conflict should take into account differences in the tendency of employees to compensate for difficuties or disappointments in the one area of life, such as work, by increasing their involvement in other areas, such as family. It is not surprising that studies have found varying degrees of strength in the relationship between work- family conflicts should be measured separately for men and women, as gender differences in customary household or domestic responsibilities may result in different relstionships of role conflict with other varibles ( Wiersma & Van den Berg, 1991). For example, Williams and Alliger (1994) found that spillovers of distress and fatigue from work to family and from family to work were stronger for women than for men.
The original measure used eight items to describe the extent to which an employee’s work demands interfere with family responsibilities ( four items) and the extent to which family demands interfere with work responsibilities ( four items). Two addition items were added to each of these subscales by Carlson and Perrewe (1999). The two subscales have also been combined into a composite measure of work and family interference ( Carlson & Perrewe, 1999).

Hypothesis 2: Job –Family Role Strain Scale - Based Pay is positive related to Job Stress.
2.2 Job –Family Role Strain Scale.
This measure, developed by Bohen and Viveros- Long ( 1981), describes the frequency with which respondents experience stress and strain related to combining work parenting. The measure assesses multiple aspects of role strain including ambiguity about norms, lack of congruity between personality and social roles, insufficiency of resources for role fulfillment, low rewards for role comformity, conflict between norms, and role overload.
Hypothesis 3: Work to family Conflict Scale is positive related to Job Stress
2.3 Work to family Conflict Scale .
This measure, developed by Stephens and Sommner(1996), assesses work- family conflict. The measure uses 14 iterm to describe conflict that originate in the workplace and may affect the family. The measure attempts to described these conflicts using three dimensions. There are time- based conflict resulting from the competition for an individual’s time from multiple roles; strain- based conflict resulting from conditions where stressors in one domain induce physical or psychological strain in the individual, hambering role fulfillment in one or both domains; and behavior- based conflict that occurs when patterns of behavior appropriate to each domain are incompatible.
Hypothesis 4: Control Over Areas of Work and Family is positive related to Job Stress.
This measure, developed by Thomas and Ganster (1995), describes an employee’s perception of control over aspects of work and family responsibilities and demands that have been shown to contribute to work family conflict. The measure uses 14 items to assess the extent to which employee perceive they have control over such work and home areas as work scheduling and taking time off to attend to a sick parent
CHARPTER IV: RESEARCH METHODS
I. RESEARCH DESIGN ➢ Type of research: causal research (the aim of this research is to determine the cause and effect relationship between variables). ➢ Type of design: questionnaire. ➢ Unit of analysis: individual (an employee).
II. RESEARCH METHODS
2.1 Data collection method
In this study, data was collected using a structured questionnaire which consisted of 55 items. The permission from head of department was set before distributing the questionnaires. The questions are written in English. The questionnaire was distributed to the employee and the researcher explains to the participant their roles in evaluating their job satisfaction to the question in the questionnaires.
The theoretical framework of this study will be tested by collecting data from 300 HSBC bank employees in the Head Office and in the bank.
We prepared 300 questionnaires for each independent variable, dependent variable.
We delivered independent surveys to all participants. We give them five days for answering all the questionnaires, and then we collect it in one week.
The final result, we collected back 270 questionnaires.
2.2 Measures
To ensure the research is conducted effectively, the detail of the procedures of obtaining information is needed in conducting the study in order to solve the problem. The sampling survey method was primarily used to obtain the information need for the purpose of the study. The questionnaire was divided to study the characteristics of the important variables in identifying the relationship between
Work interference With Family and Family interference with work ,Job –Family Role Strain Scale, Work to family Conflict Scale ,Control Over Areas of Work and Family. among employees.
2.2.1 Work interference With Family and Family interference with work.
Description
The original measure used eight items to describe the extent to which an employee’s work demands interfere with family responsibilities ( four items) and the extent to which family demands interfere with work responsibilities ( four items). Two addition items were added to each of these subscales by Carlson and Perrewe (1999). The two subscales have also been combined into a composite measure of work and family interference ( Carlson & Perrewe, 1999).
Reliability
Coefficient alpha value for the measure of work interference with family ranged from .71 to . 81. For the measure of family interference with work, alpha values ranged from .74 to .84 ( Aryee, Fields, & Luk, 1999; Gutek et sl., 1991; Judge, Boudreau, & Bretz, 1994; Williams& Alliger, 1994). Coefficient alpha values for the composite measure of work and family interference ranged from .66 to .89 ( Adams, King, 1996; Carlson & Perrewe, 1999; Frone, Russell, & Cooper, 1996; Gutek et al., 1991)
Validity
Work interference with family correlated positively with family interference with work, hours spent in paid work, number of children at home, jon conflict, family conflict, flextime, working a compressed work week, child care needs, and working at home. Work interference with family correlated negatively with job satisfaction, life satisfaction, family satisfaction, age of an employee’s youngest child, control over hours worked, and tangible support from other family members ( Aryee et al., 1999; Frone et al., 1996; Gutek et al., 1991; Judge et al., 1994).
Family interference with work correlated positively with number of children at home work interference with family, hours spent in family work family involement, job conflict, flextime, working a compressed work week, child care needs, working at home, and family conflict. Family interference with work correlated negatively with job satisfaction, life satisfaction, age of the youngest child, hours spent in paid work, and control over hours worked ( Adams er al., 1996; Aryee et al., 1999; Frone et al., 1996; Gutek et al.,1991; Judge et al., 1994).
Factor analyses conducted by Gutek et al. (1991) and Frone et al. (1996) showed that work interfernce with work. Judge et al,( 1994) examined confirmatory factor models that indicated that work-family conflict, family- work conflict, job satisfaction, and job stress were empirically distinct, job satisfaction, and job stress were empirically distinct. Structual equation models evaluated by Aryee et al (1999) and Frone et al. (1992) also showed that work- family and work conflict covary, but were empirically distinct.
Source
Original eight items: Gutek, B. A., Searle, S.,& Klepa L. (1991). Rational versus gender role explanations for work- family conflict. Journal of Applied Psychogy, 76(4), 560-568. Items were taken from Table 1, p.563. Copy right 1991 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.
Additional two items: Carlson, D.S.,& Perrewe, P.L.( 1999). The role of social support in stressor- strain relationship: An examination of work- family conflict. Journal of Management, 25(4), 513-533. Items were taken from the appendix, pp 523-524. Copyright 1999. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science.
Items
Responses are obtained using a 5-point Likert-type scale where 1 = strongly agree, and 5= strongly disagree.
Work interference with family items 1. After work, I come home too tired to do some of the things I’d like to do. 2. On the job I have so much work to do that it takes away from my personal interests. 3. My family/ friends dislike how often I am preoccupied with my work while I am at home. 4. My work takes up time that I’d like to spend with family/friends
Family interference with family items: 1. I’m often too tired at work because of things I have to do at home. 2. My personal demands are so great that its takes away fro my work. 3. My superiors and peers dislike how often I am preoccupied with my personal life while at work. 4. My personal items added to the measures by Carlson and Perrewe (1999) are the following.
Additional work interference with family items: 1. My job or career interferes with my responsibilities at home, such as yard work, cooking, cleaning, repairs, shopping, paying the bills, or child care. 2. My job or careee keeps me from spending the amount of time I would like to spend with my family.
Additional family interference with work items. 1. My home life interference with responsibilties my responsibilities at work, such as getting to work on time, accomplishing daily tasks, or working overtime. 2. My home life keeps me from spending the amount of time I would like to spend on job or career- related activies.
2.2.2 Job –Family Role Strain Scale.
Description
This measure, developed by Bohen and Viveros- Long ( 1981), describes the frequency with which respondents experience stress and strain related to combining work parenting. The measure assesses multiple aspects of role strain including ambiguity about norms, lack of congruity between personality and social roles, insufficiency of resources for role fulfillment, low rewards for role comformity, conflict between norms, and role overload.
Reliability
Coefficient alpha values ranged from. 88 to 91(Duxbury & Higgins, 1991; Higgins, Duxbury, & Irving, 1992; Thomas& Ganster, 1995).
Validity
Duxbury and Higgins ( 1991) showed that work- family role strain was empirically distint from work conflict, family conflict, work and family involvement, and work and family expectations. Work-family role strain correlated positively with work involvement, work expectations, depression, control at work, family expectation, and perceptions of family supportive policies at work. Work- family role strain correlated negatively with quality of work life, quality of family life, job satisfaction( Duxbury & Higgins, 1991; Higgins et al.,1992; Thomas & Ganster, 1995).

Source
Bohen, H., & Viveros- Long. A, ( 1981). Balancing jobs and family life. Philadelphia. Temple University Press. Items were taken from Appendix H, pp. 247, 278. Reprinted with permission.
Items
Responses are obtained using a 5-point Likert-type scale where 1 = always, 2 = most of the time , 3 = some of time , 4 = rarely , and 5= never. 1. My job keep me away from my family too much 2. I feel I have more to do than I can handle comfortably 3. I have a good balance between my job and my family time 4. I wish I had more time to do things for my family 5. I feel physically drained when I get home from work 6. I feel emotionally drained when I get home from work 7. I feel I have ti rush to get everything done each day 8. My time off from work does not match other family members schedules well 9. I feel I don’t have enough time for myself 10. I worry that other people at work think my family interferes with my job 11. I feel more respected than I would if I didn’t have a job. 12. I worry whether I should work less and spend more time with my children 13. I am a better parent because I am not with my children all day 14. I find enough time for the children 15. I worry about how my kids are when I am working 16. I have as mnuch patience with my children as I would like 17. I am confortable with the arrangements for my children while I am working 18. Making arrangements for my children while I work involves a lot of effort 19. I worry that other people feel I should spend more time with my children. 3. Work to family Conflict Scale
Description
This measure, developed by Stephens and Sommner(1996), assesses work- family conflict. The measure uses 14 iterm to describe conflict that originate in the workplace and may affect the family. The measure attempts to described these conflicts using three dimensions. There are time- based conflict resulting from the competition for an individual’s time from multiple roles; strain- based conflict resulting from conditions where stressors in one domain induce physical or psychological strain in the individual, hambering role fulfillment in one or both domains; and behavior- based conflict that occurs when patterns of behavior appropriate to each domain are incompatible.
Reliability
The behavior- based dimension had a coefficient alpha of .80. The time based dimension had a coefficient alpha of .74. The strain- based dimension had a coefficient alpha of .77( Stephens & Sommer, 1996).
Validity
Stephens anf Sommer (1996) examined the items with exploratory factor analysis and found three latent factors. Eight items covering both time- based and strain- based work home conflict loaded on one factor , and remaining six items loaded on two factors. One of these factor contained the positively worded items describing strain due to behavior based conflict, and the other contained the negatively worded items can creat dimension factor ( Stephens & Sommer,1996). Confirmatory factor analysis in a separate sample found three factors. One factor contained the behavior- related items, the second factor contained four time- based items, and the third factor contained four strain-based items.
Source
Stephens, G.K.,& Sommer, S.M (1996) . The measurement of work to family conflict. Educational and Psychological Measurement,56 (3), 475-486. Copyright 1996 by Sage Publications, Inc. Items were taken from Table 5, p.484. Reprinted by permission of Sage Publication, Inc.
Items
Responses are obtained using a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = strongly disagree, and 7 - strongly agree.
Time- based conflict items: 1. My work keep me from my family more than that I would like 2. My work takes up time that I feel I should spend with my family 3. The time I must devote to my job does not keep from participating equally in household responsibilies and activities 4. I generally seem to have enough time fulfill my potential both in my career and a spouse and parent.
Strain- based conflict items: 5. I often feel the strain of attemptingto balance my responsibilities at work and home 6. Because my work is so demanding. I am often irritable at home 7. The demands of my spouse and children that I would like 8. The tension of balancing my responsibilities at home and work often causes me to feel emotionally drained.

Behavior- based conflict items 9. The problem- so;ving approaches I use in my job are effective in resolving problem at home 10. The things I do that make me affective at work also help me to be a better parent and spouse 11. What works for me at home seems to be effective at work as well, and vice versa 12. I am not able to act the same way at home as at work 13. I act differently in responding to interpersonal problem at work than I do at home 14. Behavior that is effective and necessary for me atwork would be counter- productive at home.
2.2.4 Control Over Areas of Work and Family
Description
This measure, developed by Thomas and Ganster (1995), describes an employee’s perception of control over aspects of work and family responsibilities and demands that have been shown to contribute to work family conflict. The measure uses 14 items to assess the extent to which employee perceive they have control over such work and home areas as work scheduling and taking time off to attend to a sick parent.
Reliability
Coeffictent alpha was .75 ( Thomas& Ganster, 1995)

Validity
Control over work and family areas correlated positively with job satisfaction and perceived support. Control correlated negatively with perceived work- family conflict and depression ( Thomas& Ganster, 1995).
Source
Thomas, L. T., Ganster, D.C ( 1995). Impact of family- supportive work varibles on work- family conflict and strain. A control perspective. Jounal of Applied Psychology, 80 (1), 6-15. Items were taken from the appendix, P.15. Copyright 1995 by American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.
Items
Responses are obtained using a 5-point Likert-type scale where 1 = very little and 5 = very much 1. How much choice do you have over the amount and quality of day care available for your child/children? 2. How much choice do you have in obtaining adult and quality of care available for a sick child? 3. How much choice do you have in obtaining adult supervison for your child/children before or after shool? 4. How much choice do you have over the amount and quality of day care available for dependent parent or other relative? 5. How much choice do you have over when you begin and end each workday or each workweek? 6. How much choice do you have in arranging part-time employment? 7. To what extent can you choose to do some of your work at home instead of your usual place of employment? 8. How much choice do you have over amount and timing of work that you must do at home in order to meet your employment demand? 9. How much choice do you have over the amount you pay for dependent care? 10. How much choice do you have over when you can take vacations or days off? 11. How much choice do you have over when you can take a few hours off? 12. To what extent are you expected to limit the number of times you make or receive personal phone calls while you work? 13. How much choice do you have in making unanticipated child care arrangements (e.g.,during snow days or unexpected job delays)? 14. In gereral, how much control do you have over the way you balance working and parenting?
III. DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORT ❖ Descriptive Statistics with 270 valid responses were achieved from 300 questionnaires distributed. ❖ From the questionnaires, a few procedures can be done such as checking the data for accuracy. Besides that the questions were being coded to enable for analysis using Statistical Packages for the Social Science (SPSS).
First, this is followed by the examination and presentation of demographic profile of respondents using Descriptive Statistic. According to Zikmund (2000), descriptive analysis refers to the transformation of the raw data into a form that will make them easy to understand and interpret.
Secondly, the Cronbach’s Alpha testing will be used as it is the most well accepted reliability test tools applied by social researcher (Sekaran, 2006). In Cronbach’s Alpha reliability analysis, the closer Cronbach’s Alpha to 1.0, it is higher than the internal consistency reliability. (Cronbach’s Alpha; Cronbach,1946). Cronbach measures: 1. Reliability less than 0.6 considered poor. 2. Reliability in the range 0.7 is considered to be acceptable. 3. Reliability more than 0.8 are considered to be good.
Third, in order to determine whether there are significant relationships among the independent variables and dependent variable, Pearson Correlation Coefficient analysis will be carry out. The scale model suggested by Davies (1971) used to describe the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable, are as shown below: 1.0.7 and above – very strong relationship, 2.0.50 to 0.69 – strong relationship, 3.0.30 to 0.49 – moderate relationship, 4.0.10 to 0.29 – low relationships and 5.0.01 to 0.09 – very low relationship
Finally, Multiple Regression Analysis is conducted to examine which among the three dimensions in independent variables is the most important in explaining the relationship between Work interference With Family and Family interference with work ,Job –Family Role Strain Scale, Work to family Conflict Scale ,Control Over Areas of Work and Family among employees.
1. Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents
The samples in terms of gender, age, academic degree, working seniority, position in Appendix 1 include. ➢ The gender distribution of respondents consists of 46% of female and 54% of male. ➢ The majority of the employees are in the age group of 25-35 years old (41%), 13% of respondents is 36-40 years old, 14% of respondents is over 45 years old, whereas 32% is under 25 years old. ➢ Employees with a Colleges Degree each group accounts for 21% and a Bachelor’s degree each group accounts for 25%, whereas only 4% has a Master’s degree. ➢ The majority of the employees has working seniority from under 5 years, 25% employees has working seniority from over 5 years to 0 years, 27% employees has working seniority from 11-20 years, and only 4% of them has working seniority in HSBC bank over 20 years. ➢ Employees with Supervisor position are 7%, Manager is 3% and Top Manager is 2% and 88% of them is staff. ➢ Respondents coming from Head Office from 50% and another half is from workshop of the bank.
The personal information statistics for the participants are summarized in the pie charts below:

|[pic] |[pic] |
|[pic] |[pic] |
|[pic] |

Figure 3: A summary of frequency analysis for qualitative variables
As can be seen, most of the participants in the survey are staff, working for HSBC bank under 5 years with a Colleges and Bachelor degree at the age from 25 to 35. The number of male and female participants is equal. They are coming from the office.
2. Reliability Analysis
The reliability test concerned with the stability and consistency measurement to access the goodness of a measure. It will answer the questions on how consistently it measures a particular concept. Based on the output of the analysis, the Cronbach’s alpha acquired indicates that all the items are positively correlated to one another and it is internally consistent. For that purpose, the Cronbach’s alpha has been used to measure reliability among variables. The results of each factor will be shown in the following tables.
Table 4.1 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank - Work interference With Family and Family interference with work .

|Reliability Statistics |
|Variable |Cronbach's Alpha |No. of Items |
|Work interference With Family and Family interference with work |.885 |10 |

Assessment: value is good to use researching

Table 4.2 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank Job –Family Role Strain Scale

|Reliability Statistics |
|Variable |Cronbach's Alpha |No. of Items |
|Job –Family Role Strain Scale |.907 |10 |

Assessment: value is good to use researching

Table 4.3 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank - Work to family Conflict Scale

|Reliability Statistics |
|Variable |Cronbach's Alpha |No. of Items |
|Work to family Conflict Scale |.837 |7 |

Assessment: value is good to use researching

Table 4.4 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank - Control Over Areas of Work and Family.

|Reliability Statistics |
|Variable |Cronbach's Alpha |No. of Items |
|Control Over Areas of Work and Family. |.865 |17 |

Assessment: value is good to use researching

Table 4.5 Reliability Test for employees of HSBC bank - Job Stress

|Reliability Statistics |
|Variable |Cronbach's Alpha |No. of Items |
|Job Stress |.874 |7 |

Assessment: value is good to use researching

Table 4.6 Reliability Statistic of Cronbach’s Alpha

|RELIABILITY STATISTICS |
|Variable’s name |Variable |Cronbach's Alpha |N of Items |Consider |
|1. Work interference With Family and Family |WF |0.885 |10 |Good |
|interference with work | | | | |
|2. Job –Family Role Strain Scale |JF |0.907 |10 |Good |
|3. Work to family Conflict Scale |WF |0.837 |7 |Good |
|4. Control Over Areas of Work and Family. |CO |0.865 |17 |Good |
|5. Job Stress |JS |0.874 |7 |Good |

According to Sekaran (2003), reliabilities with less than 0.60 are deemed poor while those in the range of 0.70 ranges, is acceptable and those above 0.80 is considered as good. Based on the output of the analysis, the Cronbach’s alpha acquired indicates that all the items are positively correlated to one another and it is internally consistent. The reliability of all the measures was comfortably above 0.80, ranging from 0.837 to 0.907. In summary, the instrument used to measure each variable in this study is reliable.
3. Descriptive Analysis
3. Descriptive information 1. Descriptive statics
Table 4.7 : Work interference With Family and Family interference with work

|Descriptive Statistics |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
|Correlations |
| |

2. Hypothesis Testing
Correlation test is to show the strength of the association between the variables involved. Inter-correlations coefficients (R) were calculated by the means of Pearson’s Product Moment. According to Cohen (1988), R ranging from 0.10 to 0.29 may be regarded as indicating a low degree of correlation, R ranging from 0.30 to 0.49 may be regarded as indicating a moderate degree of correlation and R ranging from 0.50 to 1.00 may be regarded as a high degree of correlation. Pearson Correlation was used to investigate the interrelations amongst the variables.
Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses of this study. In each set of multiple regressions, the dependent variables were regressed against the independent variables. There are four multiple regression models.
Following are the summary of the multiples regression test of the independent variables and se dependent variables, with N=270.
Table 4.13 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 1
H1: WI to JS

|Model Summary |
|Model |R |R Square |Adjusted R Square |Std. Error of the Estimate |
|1 |.742a |.551 |.549 |2.96901 |
|a. Predictors: (Constant), WI |

|Coefficientsa |
|Model |Unstandardized Coefficients |Standardized |t |Sig. |
| | |Coefficients | | |
| |

➢ Table 4.13 showed that R square = 0.551 (R square > 0); Coefficient Beta is positive at 0.742 (has the same direction (+) with model 1), the variable Work interference With Family and Family interference with work (WI) showed statistical significant is at acceptable level 0.00 (Sig. < 0.05). ➢ Hypothesis 1:Work interference With Family and Family interference with work is positive related to Job Stress ➢ The result indicates that Hypothesis 1 is supported.
Table 4.14 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 2
H2: JF to JS

|Model Summary |
|Model |R |R Square |Adjusted R Square |Std. Error of the |
| | | | |Estimate |
|1 |.662a |.438 |.436 |3.32229 |
|a. Predictors: (Constant), JF |

|Coefficientsa |
|Model |Unstandardized Coefficients |Standardized |t |Sig. |
| | |Coefficients | | |
| |

➢ Table 4.14 showed that R square = 0.438 (R square > 0); Coefficient Beta is positive at 0.662 (has the same direction (+) with model 1), the variable Job –Family Role Strain Scale (JF) showed statistical significant is at acceptable level 0.00 (Sig. < 0.05).

➢ Hypothesis 2: Job –Family Role Strain Scale is positive related to Job Stress ➢ The result indicates that Hypothesis 2 is supported.

Table 4.15 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 3
H3: WF to JS
|Model Summary |
|Model |R |R Square |Adjusted R Square |Std. Error of the |
| | | | |Estimate |
|1 |.724a |.524 |.522 |3.05618 |
|a. Predictors: (Constant), WF |

|Coefficientsa |
|Model |Unstandardized Coefficients |Standardized |t |Sig. |
| | |Coefficients | | |
| |

➢ Table 4.15 showed that R square = 0.524 (R square > 0); Coefficient Beta is positive at 0.724 (has the same direction (+) with model 1), the variable Work to family Conflict Scale (WF) showed statistical significant is at acceptable level 0.00 (Sig. < 0.05).

➢ Hypothesis 3: Work to family Conflict is positive related to Job Stress

➢ The result indicates that Hypothesis 3 is supported.
Table 4.16 Multiple Regression of Hypothesis 4
H4: CO to JS
|Model Summary |
|Model |R |R Square |Adjusted R Square |Std. Error of the Estimate |
|1 |.528a |.279 |.277 |3.76179 |
|a. Predictors: (Constant), CO |

|Coefficientsa |
|Model |Unstandardized Coefficients |Standardized |t |Sig. |
| | |Coefficients | | |
| |

➢ Table 4.16 showed that R square = 0.279 (R square > 0); Coefficient Beta is positive at 0.528 (has the same direction (+) with model 1), the variable Control Over Areas of Work and Family (CO) showed statistical significant is at acceptable level 0.00 (Sig. < 0.05).

➢ Hypothesis 4: Control Over Areas of Work and Family is positive related to Job Stress

➢ The result indicates that Hypothesis 4 is supported.
Table 4.17 Hypothesis Statistic

|HYPOTHESIS STATISTICS |
|Variable’s name |Variable |R Square |Beta |Sig. |Result |
|1. Work interference With Family and Family interference |WI |0.551 |0.724 |0.000 |Supported |
|with work | | | | | |
|2. Job –Family Role Strain Scale |JF |0.438 |0.662 |0.000 |Supported |
|3. Work to family Conflict |WF |0.524 |0.724 |0.000 |Supported |
|4. Control Over Areas of Work and Family |CO |0.279 |0.528 |0.000 |Supported |

CHARPTER V: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

DISCUSSION

1. Recommendations for Work interference With Family and Family interference with work.
Work–family conflict can be diminished by establishing family-friendly policies in the workplace. Certain policies can include telework and telecommuting policies where employees have the ability to work from home, and schedule flexibility policies where employees have control over their schedules.Family-work conflict can also be diminished by establishing workplace family-friendly policies. Some of these policies include maternity, paternity, parental, and sick leaves, providing child care options either on-site child care center at the business, references to close child care centers, or supplemented child care incomes for the families placing their children in a child care center,and health care insurance.
2. Recommendations for Job –Family Role Strain Scale
Overall, time spent at work and the degree of flexibility and control over the work schedule are prominent indicators of role strain levels with large proportions of time spent at work, inflexibility and lack of control over scheduling creating the greatest degree of strain. For the working banker, role strain can be reduced by being in a position that is not as time consuming, or is flexible and offers some control in organising work and family roles in ways that result in less role conflict and overload. The results of this study suggest that job-sharing is the best option for meeting these requisites in order to alleviate role strain. The job-share option is followed by the part-time option and then the flexitime option in producing lower levels of role strain. However, for the availability of choice between these options to become a reality organisations need to implement flexible work practices that can allow bankers to be great bankers and better workers, committed to the employers who are understanding of their need
3. Recommendations for Work to family Conflict
Conflicts between paid work and family life are likely to constitute barriers for a physically active lifestyle and possibly also for healthy food habits. Improving the balance between work and family may provide a route for promoting health-related behaviours..
1.4 Recommendations Control Over Areas of Work and Family
Working time flexibility is one of the many different forms of flexibility. A key characteristic of working time flexibility is the ability to modify working hours by either the employer or the employee or both. Working time flexibility can be seen from the perspective of the employer or the perspective of the employee. ‘Employer-friendly’ forms of working time flexibility are those that allow organisations to bring human capital in line with the temporal requirements following from business, while ‘employee-friendly’ forms of working time flexibility are those ‘that provide workers with the freedom to adapt their working hours and schedule to meet their own personal and family needs’. The Europe 2020 initiative recognised that organisation of working time can help workers combine work and other commitments, and employers adjust labour input. However, in some cases increasing flexibility can also have negative effects on work–life balance and other working conditions aspects like health

SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH

The main purpose of this research is to investigate the reason why the Job Stress of employees in HSBC bank has been reducing and this content presents the discussions of the results and the findings based on the analysis conducted throughout the entire study.
He study also shows that it is difficult to generalise about the relationship between working time flexibility and working conditions improvements. There are working time arrangements (or elements of such arrangements) with a positive impact, but also others with a negative relationship. Some of the intrinsic aspects of the organisation of working time flexibility like the negotiations of the bandwidth flexibility of a time banking system, a maximum deficit of hours, avoiding extension of hours during certain periods during the day, the level of transparency, ways of increasing predictability of working hours, possibilities of asking days off in the week, tailor-made relations and informal practices produce positive effects on the work–life balance of employees (even in a context of employer-driven flexibility)

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Research Implications HSBC Bank has only come into operation at bank , so other bias factors may have implied an imprecision in the data collected, which is probably inapplicable at other bank. Such influencing factors may include occupational characteristics or the problem in positioning an organization in the regional human resource competition context. Due to several limitations, the thesis is conducted through a survey just within HSBC bank. In the future, if possible it should be expanded to other bank to obtain a more expository comparison. In addition, this research is likely to be repeated at different intervals in order to test its reliability in case different conditions occur. Finally, since satisfaction is a complication or psychology, this study’s reliability will be more reliable provided that another research engaging qualitative methods and so including leading professionals’ responses.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the above result analysis, HSBC bank can use these results to shape the employees reducing to the stress. In addition, the finding of this study also can help the organization in planning and developing the strategies to reducing the job stress of the employees.

The identification of factors affecting the organizational commitment of employees will help HSBC bank have corrective actions towards bad factors; continue to implement and develop the appropriate factor. They can not only recruit good employees, but also retain talent to collaborate with the company

REFERENCE

Bretz, R. D. , Jr. , & Judge, T. A. (1994). Person-organization fit and the theory of work adjustment: Implications for satisfaction, tenure, and career success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 44, 32-54. Items were taken from Table 1, p.39. Copyright © 1994 by Academic Press. Reproduced with permission.
Breaugh, J. A. , & Colihan, J. P. (1994). Measuring facets of job ambiguity: Construct validity evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology.79 (2).191-207.
Bretz, R. D. , Jr. , & Judge, T. A. (1994). Per- son-organization fit and the theory of work adjustment: Implications for satisfaction, tenure, and career success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 44, 32-54.
CA O'Reilly, J Chatman (1986). Journal of applied psychology 71 (3), 492
CA O'Reilly, J Chatman, DF Caldwell (1991). Academy of management journal 34 (3), 487-516
Caplan, R. D. , Cobb, S. , Frence, J. R. P. , Van Harrison, R. , & Pinneau, S. R. (1980). Job demands and worker health. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute of Social Research. Items were taken from Appendix E, pp.238-239. Copyright @ 1980. Reproduced with permission.
Chuang-Liao (2010). Strategic Human Resource Management in Service Context: Taking Care Of Business By Taking Care Of Employees And Customers, Personnel Psychology.
Cohen, A. (1993). Organizational Commitment and turnover: A metanalysis. Academy of Management Journal Review, 36, 1140-1157.
Cropanzano, R. , Howes, J. C. , Grandey, A. A. , & Toth, P. (1997), The relationship of organizational politics and support to work behaviors, attitudes, and stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 159-180.
Khai Nguyen (2014), Materials in OUM MBA course, Business Research Methods.
APPENDIX

APENDIX 1:

QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear my colleagues,

My name’s Lam Hai Vi. I’m a student of International MBA program. I am undertaking a research project on employees’ Job Stress towards the HSBC bank Viet Nam. Before you begin, please take a few minutes to read the reason why I invite you to participate in and what I will do with the information you provide. You will fill out a short questionnaire that aims to investigate the job stress of employees have been reducing recently. Your answers will not be released to anyone and will remain anonymous. Your name will not be written on the questionnaire or be kept in any other records. All responses you provide for this study will remain confidential. When the results of the study are reported, you will not be identified by name or any other information that could be used to infer your identity.

I would like to express my personal gratitude to you for your great contribution.
For any inquiries, kindly contact me as below:
- Hand phone: 0918363633
- E-mail: Carolyenlam@yahoo.com

Thank you very much.

Please mark the cycle (O) on the sentences for your choice.

Responses are obtained using a 5 point Likert - type scale where 1 = disagree, 2 = slightly disagree, 3 = neither agree nor disagree, 4 = slightly agree, and 5= agree.

No. Question123451My work schedule is fair123452I think that my level of pay is fair123453I consider my workload to be quite fair123454Overall, the rewards I receive here are quite fair123455I feel that my job responsibilities are fair123456Job description are made by general manager in an unbiased manner123457My general manager makes sure that all employee concerns are heard before job decisions are made123458To make formal job decision, my general manager collects accurate and complete information123459My general manager clarifies decisions and provides additional information when requested by employees1234510All job decisions are applied consistently across all affected employees1234511Employees are allowed to challenge or appeal job decisions made by the general manage1234512When decisions are made about my job, the general manager treats me with kindness and consideration1234513When decisions are made about my job, the general manager treats me with respect and dignity1234514When decisions are made about my job, the general manager is sensitive to my personal needs1234515When decisions are made about my job, the general manager deals with me in a truthful manner1234516When decisions are made about my job, the general manager shows concern for my rights as an employee1234517Concerning decisions about my job, the general manager discusses the implications of the decisions with me1234518The general manager offers adequate justification for decisions made about my job1234519When making decisions about my job, the general manager offers explanation that make sense to me1234520My general manager explains very clearly any decision made about my job1234521Supervisors do a good job of certifying employees for skill-based pay raises1234522The skill - based pay certifications are a fair lest of employee ability perform a task1234523If an employee really knows how to perform the tasks that make skill level, the employee will be able to pass the certification test: that skill level1234524The skill - based pay plan is fair to most employees12345
Responses are obtained using a 5 point Likert - type subscale where 5 = strong disagree, 4 = disagree to some extent.3 = uncertain, 2 = agree to some extent, and 1 - strongly agree

No.Question1234525My supervisor takes the time to learn about my career goals and aspirations1234526My supervisor care s about whether or not I achieve my goals1234527My supervisor keeps me informed about different career opportunities for me in the organization1234528My supervisor makes sure I get the credit when I accomplish something substantial on the job1234529My supervisor gives me helpful feedback about my performance1234530My supervisor gives me helpful advice about improving my performance when I need it1234531My supervisor supports my attempts to acquire additional training on education to further my career1234532My supervisor provides assignments that give me the opportunity to develop and strengthen new skills1234533My supervisor assigns me special projects that increase my visibility in the organization12345
No. Question1234534I am willing to work harder than I have to in order to help this organization succeed. 1234535I feel very much loyalty to this organization1234536I would lake almost any job to keep working for this organization1234537I find that my values and the organization are very similar1234538I feel that my job responsibilities are fair1234539I am proud to be working for this organization1234540I would turn down another job for more pay in order to stay with this organization. 12345
Responses are obtained using a 5-point Likert-type scale where 1 = not true at all and 5 = definitely true 1 = not true at all, 2 = true in some case, 3 = slightly true, 4 = true and 5 = definitely true.
Instruction: Each employee is asked to complete the first questionnaire describing his or her perceptions about the organization. Then the employee is asked to complete the second questionnaire describing the type of organization he or she would prefer. Lack of fit is calculated as the sum of the differences between the corresponding items of the two questionnaires.

No. Question1234541This organization pays on the basis of individual performance1234542This organization has a profit or gain-sharing plan1234543This organization makes promotions based mostly on individual performance1234544This organization encourages competition between employees1234545This organization encourages and rewards loyalty1234546Teamwork and cooperation are valued and rewarded here1234547When the organization has a good year it pays bonuses to the employees1234548People generally have to work in groups to get their work done1234549This organization offers long-term employment security1234550This organization has a “fast-track” program1234551This organization has/follows a promote-from-within policy1234552The typical employee here works very hard to fulfill work expectations1234553There is an emphasis on helping others1234554Fairness is an important consideration in organizational activities1234555When mistakes are made it is best to be honest and “take your lumps”12345
Personal Information
Gender
( Male ( Female
Age
( Under 25 years old ( From 25 to 35 years old
( From 36 to 45 years old ( Above 45 years old
Academic degree
( Colleges Degree ( Bachelor Degree ( Master Degree ( Doctoral Degree
Working seniority
( Under 5 years ( From 5 to 10 years
( From 11 to 20 years ( Above 20 years
Working position
( Officer/ staff ( Supervisor
( Manager ( Senior Manager

THANK YOU!…...

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