Premium Essay

Brand Positioning Through the Consumers’ Lens

In: Business and Management

Submitted By fabfive
Words 12483
Pages 50
Titel der Dissertation

„Brand Positioning Through the Consumers’ Lens“

Verfasserin / Verfasser

Mag. rer. soc. oec. Christoph Fuchs

Angestrebter akademischer Grad

Ph. D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Wien, im April 2008

Studienkennzahl lt. Studienblatt: Dissertationsgebiet lt. Studienblatt: Betreuer / Betreuerin:

A 094 146 Management Univ.-Prof. Dr. Adamantios Diamantopoulos


I would like to thank Univ. Prof. Adamantios Diamantopoulos, Ph. D., for the supervision of this dissertation and for being my mentor over the last four years. I would also like to thank o. Univ. Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Udo Wagner, Associate Professor Kevin E. Voss, Ph. D., Professor William E. Baker, Ph. D., and o. Univ. Prof. Bodo B. Schlegelmilch, Ph. D., D. Litt, for their excellent comments on the issue of positioning effectiveness measurement. Furthermore, I am indebted to Dr. Daniel Hoppe, ao. Univ. Prof. Dr. Elfriede Penz, and Professor Rajan Varadarajan, Ph. D., for valuable comments on the qualitative study conducted in Chapter 3. Moreover, I would like to thank Florian Mailänder and Mag. Fritz Alexander from Research International Ltd. for their agreement to collaborate on the scale development project (Chapter 5) and for their valuable input from the practitioners’ side.



Brand positioning is a core concept in marketing. Despite the importance of the concept, however, there is limited research in the field of positioning clarifying to what extent various brand positioning alternatives affect consumer perceptions and how positioning effectiveness can be best measured. The present dissertation consists of three complementary empirical studies aimed at shedding light on the latter issues. The first study explores the impact of distinct types of brand positioning strategies on consumer categorization…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Brand Positioning

...Customers on Global Airways have the ability to book a flight and never interact with another person until they actually get to the gate. Once they see a person face to face, it’s a two second encounter with a gate agent. The flight crews and the services/amenities onboard the aircraft is what and who consumers spend the most time with. The focus should be on a better onboard experience where the passengers spend the most time. The first improvement would be to create an environment where the people feel as if they are guest and simply not cattle. Passengers want a nice cozy environment with room to move around and the seats are too close to each other onboard an aircraft. For example: I was recently a passenger heading to West Palm Beach and I needed to complete a homework assignment. After the aircraft reach 10,000 feet, I connected to the wifi and placed my laptop on the traytable. I had very little room to touch the keyboard because the passenger reclined his seat back. I thought to myself if the seats had a larger pitch then I could have more space to work on the paper. The additional legroom and space would be a plus for the customer and it would create a better flying experience. Global Airways can not make money if the seats are not full but passengers still need more comfort. So, how can the task be accomplished to create more legroom and still not have the airline miss out on revenue? The airline can create more space by eliminating a closet, a bulk......

Words: 1031 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Brand Positioning Strategy Using Search Engine Marketing

...Dou et al./Brand Positioning Strategy RESEARCH ARTICLE BRAND POSITIONING STRATEGY USING SEARCH ENGINE MARKETING1 By: Wenyu Dou Department of Marketing City University of Hong Kong Tat Chee Avenue Kowloon HONG KONG SAR Kai H. Lim Department of Information Systems City University of Hong Kong Tat Chee Avenue Kowloon HONG KONG SAR Chenting Su Department of Marketing City University of Hong Kong Tat Chee Avenue Kowloon HONG KONG SAR Nan Zhou Department of Marketing City University of Hong Kong Tat Chee Avenue Kowloon HONG KONG SAR Nan Cui Department of Marketing Wuhan University Wuhan CHINA Abstract Whether and how firms can employ relative rankings in search engine results pages (SERPs) to differentiate their brands from competitors in cyberspace remains a critical, puzzling issue in e-commerce research. By synthesizing relevant literature from cognitive psychology, marketing, and e-commerce, this study identifies key contextual factors that are conducive for creating brand positioning online via SERPs. In two experiments, the authors establish that when Internet users’ implicit beliefs (i.e., schema) about the meaning of the display order of search engine results are activated or heightened through feature priming, they will have better recall of an unknown brand that is displayed before the well-known brands in SERPs. Further, those with low Internet search skills tend......

Words: 14710 - Pages: 59

Free Essay

Through the Lens: a Different Perspective

...Through the Lens: A Different Perspective Standing, breathing lightly, inhaling the springtime aroma around me, I poise myself to get the perfect vantage point and hesitantly push down the glistening silver button on my camera thinking, “Is this how I want this moment to be remembered?” Through the eyes of many, a camera is just a tool that you point at an object to take a picture; to a photographer, it is so much more. According to, the definition of photography is, “The process of producing images on a sensitized surface by the action of light.” However, there is one point that this simple definition fails to state, and that is photography is used to capture a single moment in time, in one frame. A single picture can tell a multitude of stories, and can hold countless memories. Whether done as a profession, a hobby, or a creative outlet, the art of photography can appeal to everyone in the world. Known as a “camera obscura,” the first elements of photography were shown in 384 BC when Mo-Ti, a Chinese philosopher, created the device (Camera Obscura History). The physics behind his invention was that when a lighted area was separated from a dark area with only a pinhole opening between them, it created an inverted image of the lighted area. This technology was further improved by inserting a lens to create a clearer picture (History of Photography). Since then, the art of photography has continued to evolve. Many photographers still rely on natural......

Words: 2698 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Consumer Attitude Towards Brand Extensions

...Consumer Attitude Towards Brand Extensions: An Integrative Model and Research Propositions Sandor Czellar1 University of Geneva 1 University of Geneva, Section HEC, 40, boulevard du Pont-d’Arve, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. 00 41 22 705 8114 (tel), 00 41 22 705 8104 (fax), (email). 1 Consumer Attitude Towards Brand Extensions: An Integrative Model and Research Propositions The paper proposes an integrative model of the antecedents and consequences of brand extension attitude based on the dominant cognitive paradigm. The four key processes of the model are: (1) the perception of fit, (2) the formation of primary attitudes towards the extension, (3) the link between extension attitude and marketplace behaviour and (4) the reciprocal effect of brand extension attitude on parent brand/extension category attitude. Moderator and control variables of these processes are identified and classified into three groups: (1) consumer characteristics, (2) marketer-controlled factors and (3) external factors. This integrative model leads to the identification of missing links and variables in past research, resulting in a propositional inventory for future studies. The paper ends with a reflection on the long-term perspectives of scientific inquiry on brand extensions. Keywords: Brand extensions, Consumer Attitudes, Brand Associations, Brand Affect, Cognitive Psychology 2 Introduction Brand extension is the "use of established brand names to......

Words: 11112 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

Brand Positioning

...Brand Positioning, Vision, and Loyalty Brand Identity and Marketing Communication: BUS 4033 Unit 1 Assignment 1 Heather Dowell I found that consumer loyalties are high in bath tissues, and toiletries such as toothpaste contact solutions, toothbrushes, and cleaners such as laundry detergents etc. The common brands among all the consumers in my survey were Bounty, Tide, ECO, Listerine, Crest, Clorox Bleach, and Charmin. I believe this is because of a comfort. When they explained their loyalties it was mostly because of “well my mom always used it” or “well its always worked for me before.” I did have an interesting common answer. It was worded differently among the different consumers but essentially the same response for the cleaners, with there being so many different chemicals out there when they found one that worked they stuck with it because they felt uncomfortable using or trying so many different chemicals in their home. But there hasn’t been an organic cleaner that has convinced them it will actually work well enough for them to purchase and try. Consumer attitudes and behavior patterns affect marketing strategies in every way. This is a prime example. For organic cleaning supplies we need to market them stronger to push people like this who want to try something else but are to set in their comfort zone to actually want to try them. Set up sample tables down the cleaning aisle at stores and what not. Just to get them to try a little bit to......

Words: 293 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Does the Consumer Define the Brand or the Brand Define the Consumer?

...things to understand about a brand is that its value is highly individualized. A customer might grow tired of a brand, or more enamored [sic], independent of how other customers are responding to it. (Rust R.T et all, 2004).In this essay, there will be an analysis of how the consumer affects a brand and how the brands try their best in order to get consumers to buy their products and how that defines the consumers themselves. However, firstly what is a brand? It appears that ‘each expert comes up with his or her own definition of brand or nuances of definition’ (Mishra P, 2012). One view is that ‘a brand name is nothing more or less than sum of all the mental connections people have around it’ (Jacoby J et all, 1997) but the general definition is a unique design, sign, symbol, word or a combination of these, employed in creating an image that identifies a product that differentiates it from its competitors (Business Dictionary). Consumers define brands but brands also define consumers. When people see certain brands, they associate it with specific statuses or lifestyles. A study showed that when shown a video of a person and asked for their first impressions. Their judgements of qualities such as friendliness and assertiveness differed depending on whether the video depicted the person with expensive material possessions or not. People use materials/ brands to express who they are and construct a sense of who they would like to be (Dittmar H, 2004). Brands have become an......

Words: 1067 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Brand Positioning and Values

...3.0 BRAND POSITIONING AND VALUES 3.1 Bagman Brand Elements Brand elements are devices, which can be trademarked, that identify and differentiate the brand. Most strong brands employ multiple brand elements. Marketers choose brand elements to build as much brand equity as possible. (Kotler & Keller, 2012) The real challenge is to understand whether or not the consumers think and feel if they only know about these brand elements. For example, a brand name might reflect the whole company and its business, from the eyes of the consumers. Brand elements play an important role in brand-building, where it might influence the minds of consumers who doesn’t need or use product information in making purchase decisions. A brand should be easy to recall but at the same time descriptive and persuasive in order for consumers to repeat purchases and be confident that they are familiar with the brand. In Bagman’s case, we have identified a few brand elements that are used, which are the Brand Name, Logo, Tagline and Designs. 3.1.1 Brand Name A Brand name is the part of the brand that can be spoken, including letters and words. Usually, what is understood is that brand names simplifies shopping, guarantees a certain level of quality and allow the brand’s self-expression. The importance of a brand name are usually that it deliver the message of the brand clearly, confirming the brand’s credibility and connects to the brand’s targeted prospects emotionally, motivates the......

Words: 1020 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Brand Positioning

...Market positioning is about identity: who your brand or company is in the marketplace vis-à-vis the competition and in the eyes of the customer. Once you see who you are, you can determine who you want to be. Traditionally, the people responsible for positioning brands have concentrated on points of difference – the benefits that set each brand apart from the competition. Such points of differentiation are, in many cases, what consumers remember about a brand. But points of differentiation alone are not enough to sustain a brand against competitors. Effective brand positioning requires not only careful consideration of a brand’s points of difference, but also of what we call its points of parity with other products. Points of parity are the associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands. Consumer might not consider a bank truly a “bank” unless it offers checking and saving plans, safe-deposit boxes, home loans etc. the approach you sue to meet these minimum requirements for planning the game will depend on where your product is in its life cycle. In contrast, strong, favorable, unique associations that distinguish a brand from others in the same frame of reference are fundamental to successful brand positioning. There are two questions to ask about your brand’s point of difference: are they desirable to customers and can you deliver them? First of all, desirability – to qualify as desirable, a point of difference must...

Words: 380 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Brand Positioning

...APPLE positioning statements for Apple “Technology shouldn’t be intimidating or frustrating. We make it simple enough so you can be engaged right away, do more and get more, with every Apple product you are use. "To make a contribution to the world by making tools for the mind that advance humankind." Apple's brand position has evolved, but today's brand is still consistent with these early promises. Apple has a branding strategy that focuses on the emotions. The starting point is how an Apple product experience makes you feel. The Apple brand personality is about lifestyle; imagination; liberty regained; innovation; passion; hopes, dreams and aspirations; and power-to-the-people through technology. The Apple brand personality is also about simplicity and the removal of complexity from people's lives; people-driven product design; and about being a really humanistic company with a heartfelt connection with its customers. Apple's core competence remains delivering exceptional customer experience through superb user interfaces. The company's product strategy is based around this, with the iPhone (with it's touch screen "gestures" that are re-used on the iPad), Mac, iCloud, iTunes, and the Apps Store all playing key roles. THE distinctive feature of each of Apple Pay and Apple Watch remains the customer experience of an elegant user interface and simplicity of use. Starting with a major re-vitalisation of the Apple brand when the iPod was launched in 2001,......

Words: 481 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Brand Positioning Strategies

...BRAND POSITIONING EVOLUTION—Positioning is the last step in the marketing strategy formulation. Marketing strategy begins with identification of market segmentation and later choosing a target for marketing activity. The term ‘position’ in a physical sense is used to refer to or specify the place or location of an object. The marketing battle is not fought for acquiring a geographical unit but to win customers or market share. Retailers or the end users are usually the targets of the marketing battles. In marketing, the soldiers are typically the sales people, and other value creating tools like advertising, sales promotions, demonstrations, product, after sales care, price, reputation etc, are the tools used to fight the marketing battles. Brands are the ultimate fighters used to fight marketing battles. Marketing battles are fought with competitors in the industry who stake claim to or chase the same customers or markets. A marketing battle is fought in the minds of prospects for their purchase preference. When a brand is sold in the mind of the customer, the marketing battle is won. In the marketing context, victory is dictated by superior value delivery. Brands that deliver better value than rivals usually win the customer’s purchase vote. ADVERTISING PERSUASION— In the early years, marketers relied upon the powers of communication tools like advertising to win customers. The belief that dominated this era was that customers could be sold anything on the basis of......

Words: 2749 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Consumer Behaviour Model of a Brand

...(3593) Wasim Akhtar (3588) Ateeq-ur-Rehman (3582) Muzammal Shahzad (3623) Consumer Behavior Model Of Consumer Behavior Model Of Table of contents | * Introduction * Marketing Stimulus * Sociocultural Environment * Psychological Field * Buying Decision Process * Purchase * Post-Purchase Evaluation Introduction Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia Sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to Asia. After water, it is the most widely consumed drink in the world. As evident by its name the blend consists of well-made premium quality Tibetan BP1s (granules). Each component of Tibet blend is carefully selected to provide a lovely looking leaf appearance that is neat, black, grainy and fairly even. Tibet blend is an excellent combination of lively taste and distinct, which produces satisfying cup of tea for the consumers who like aromatic/flavor tea. The most important feature of this brand is that the characteristics of a brewed cup remain intact even after a long time. Simply, Tibet is a new brand that provides a great value product. Marketing Stimulus: The marketing stimuli are consist of four groups of variable are Known as Four P’s (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion). * Product: Product line of TIBET tea is not lengthy like other products because it’s a new brand in market so it contain only two type of tea, brown tea and green tea. We also......

Words: 2462 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Building Brands - of the Consumers, by the Consumers, for the Consumers

...Building Brands - Of the Consumers, By the Consumers, For the Consumers In July 2006, HUL (then HLL) launched India’s first community portal exclusively belonging to a brand – The Sunsilk “Gang of Girls”. The initiative was an instant success with the number of members crossing the half million mark within six months of launching. It was HUL’s attempt to revive the Sunsilk brand. Today with a member base of 7.5 lakh users (a mere 2.5 lakh users in four and a half years), the success of Sunsilk’s brand building exercise is debatable. But, what cannot be denied is HUL’s early recognition of a marketing channel – Conversational Marketing - that is moving towards becoming the trend for marketing and brand building in 2012. The launch of Orkut in 2004 (later in India in 2006) and the rise of Facebook’s usage as everyday’s must activity, paved the way for a new kind of a marketing channel which we all know as “Social Media”. Today almost each brand has their own Facebook page which is “liked” by fans, where the brand gets promoted each time the target segment logs onto Facebook. But, not all brands have sufficiently leveraged the true value of social media. Social Media have been extensively used for advertising and sales promotion. So much so that the value of communities like Facebook to marketers has been questioned as to whether it is the right place to reach your consumer. The regular argument is the fact that Facebook advertisements have critically low......

Words: 2212 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Globalization Through the Lens of the Walt Disney Company

...Globalization through the lens of The Walt Disney Company 2. Using a single case study (for example select one of these: transnational corporations – Microsoft, McDonald’s, cultural products – film, I-pods, international financial institutions and policies – World Bank, Structural Adjustment Policies) indicate what reasons might there be for supporting and rejecting the idea of globalization as ‘Westernization’, Americanization’, and/or ‘McDonaldization’? Which arguments are more persuasive and why? Name: Amy Christofferson Student #: C05694091 Course: INS201 Due: Tuesday, November 23, 2010 "Unfortunately, all this success creates the ever-greater demand for more success." Quotes Bob Iger, The Walt Disney Company’s CEO since the death of Bill Isner in 2005. He speaks of Disney’s constant growth in economic and societal terms. Iger has focused the company’s growth on the different franchises, such as the Jonas Brothers, and on acquiring Pixar Films. Other than its branching out into other age groups, the success in the box office, along with online games and products based on both, Disney also owns many other successful businesses. Among these are ABC and ESPN as well as blossoming local Disney movies, shows and products in many different countries. Iger’s executive decisions have brought much success to Disney and have further added to the global impact of Disney and failure does not seem to be anywhere in sight. Steve Jobs, a co-founder......

Words: 4482 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Brand Positioning

...Introduction: In their 1981 book, Positioning: The Battle for your Mind, Al Ries and Jack Trout describe how positioning is used as a communication tool to reach target customers in a crowded marketplace. Regular use of the term dates back to 1972 when the same authors published a series of articles in Advertising Age called "The Positioning Era." Not long thereafter, Madison Avenue advertising executives began to develop positioning slogans for their clients and positioning became a key aspect of marketing communications. Positioning: The Battle for your Mind has become a classic in the field of marketing. The following is a summary of the key points made by Ries and Trout in their book What is Positioning? Positioning is a platform for the brand it facilitates the brand to get through to the target consumers. Positioning is act of fixing the locus of the product offer in the minds of the target consumers. In positioning, the firm decides how and around what parameters, the product offer has to be placed before the target consumers. The significance of product positioning can be easily understood from David Ogilvy’s words; the results of your campaign depends less on how we write your advertising than on how your product is positioned. Most authors define positioning as the perception that a target market has of a brand relative to its competitors. This definition raises two points. First, positioning is perceptual. In other words, positioning is not......

Words: 12367 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Brand Positioning

...Essay 4 Key drivers of product positioning: Image: Key factor that boosts the ego of the user thereby adding to the ‘feel good’ factor. Value: This is the core indicator of brand positioning. Price: This is an extremely important factor while positioning a product especially in price sensitive markets such as developing and emerging markets. Features: This is one of the most imperative factors to be taken into account while positioning a brand or a product as it is directly linked to driving a product’s value, perceived or otherwise. Brands and their positioning: 1. Vertu: This is an iconic brand positioned at the top of the price chain due to its super premium image. In terms of features, it has very few and technologically lags far behind the other mass brands. What it provides to its user is a sense of having achieved a status that few others have. Obviously the price here is not as important or impactive in its performance. The brand has a limited audience but they are very loyal and faithful to the brand. Chances of switching to another brand are very low. 2. iPhone : Another iconic brand which changed the way mobile handsets were supposed to be designed . This is also like Vertu, positioned purely based on the image but where it differs from Vertu is in the area of features and technology. This is the brand which sets the standard of feature/technology. Due to its iconic nature it is not price sensitive but has a much bigger audience as it is......

Words: 606 - Pages: 3