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Biker

In: Social Issues

Submitted By corailsun
Words 1667
Pages 7
Etude de l’article subculture of consumption
Introduction
Cet article a été rédigé suite aux travaux et résultats de recherches menées par John W.Schouten et James H.McAlexander sur le thème de la sous culture de consommation.
Cette étude a pour but d'exploquer en profondeur la façon dont se crée une sous culture autour d'une marque, le contexte dans lequel elle se forme et s'établit, et comment le marketing peut tirer profit de cette sous culture.
L'article a trois objectifs :
1. Présenter une analyse ethnographique d'une sous culture de consommation
2. Prescrire, mettre en place une mythologie d'analyse des sous culture
3. Défendre la notion de sous culture car elle est très utile pour comprendre pourquoi des objets permettent à certaines personnes de se définir dans nos culture
L'article est divisé en deux parties : description du projet et discussions sur les résultats de recherche

Cadre conceptuel
Les auteurs ont voulue s'attaquer à un problème conceptuel qui est celui du "consumer behaviour" = comportement du consommateur.
Ils ont donc décidé d'analyser une sous culture de consommation afin d'essayer d'établir des profils de groupes.
Pourquoi avoir choisit Harley Davidson ? Parce que c'est une tribu distinctive, homogène, durable, pérenne qui se définit par elle même non seulement par son activité mais aussi par l'appartenance à la marque de produit.

Méthodologie de recherche
Ils ont mené une étude de 3 ans sur le terrain. Ils ont donc acheté des Harley et ont intégré la tribu des Harleyistes.
Au début, ils ont subit une phase d'acculturation. Puis après, ils ont participé à des rallies au sein d'une HOG (Harley Owner Group)

Pendant ces 3 ans, ils ont pu explorer les différentes caractéristiques de cette sous culture et en définir les principaux traits :

• Le système de valeurs
• Leurs impacts sur la vie et l'identité des membres de la sous culture
• Leur articulation avec les services marketing

Pendant ces 3 années, ils ont pu prendre note des observations réalisées, de leur ressenti, de leur expérience en tant que membres d'un club de Harley.
Résultats
• Concernant la structure : il existe plusieurs niveaux de bikers => hard core (les outlaws et les membres investis dans les clubs) soft core (nouveaux arrivants et prospects) peripheral (les nons affiliés)
Il existent plusieurs sous groupe au sein de la sous culture. Mais peu importe la philosophie des sous groupes, dans chaque groupe, il y a une structure hiérarchique bien définie en fonction de l'ancienneté, de l'authenticité, de la connaissance des Harley et de l'engagement des membres.
Cette hiérarchie s'exprime de différentes manières : la position dans la formation lors des voyages, à travers le salut aux autres motards qui est fonction de leur rang hiérarchique.
Au niveau du marketing, ces différences sont reprises dans les pub, comme celle marquant la différence entre les bikers et les autres motards : "dans le monde, il y a deux sortes d'hommes, ceux ont leur propre Harley et ceux qui voudrait avoir la leur.
• Ethos : c'est tout la philosophie des bikers, leurs systèmes de valeurs, leur culture,...
"live to ride, ride to live", voilà comment le marketing utilisé la philosophie de vie des bikers dans ses publicités.
Les groupes ont des philosophie différentes et font références soit à leur religions, leurs origines ethniques, socioéconomique, ou leurs propres cultures ou valeurs.
Plusieurs choses contribuent à la spiritualité de l'expérience bikers : * Le côté nature * Le bruit et les sensations * Le risque, l'adrénaline * L'appartenance à un groupe
Il y a aussi tout les rituels, les coutumes et habitudes : on ne peut pas toucher une Harley sans la permission de son propriétaire, il faut toujours que la moto soit propre,...
Les bikers costumisent et personnifient leurs motos avec des accessoires. Ils se costumisent aussi avec les tatouage, l'achat de vêtements, ...
Dans cette partie, les auteurs parlent aussi de la fraternité bikers ou tout le monde se respecte.
Plusieurs valeurs sont présentés dans la sous culture :

Le personnal freedom : les bikers identifie la moto comme un symbole de liberté à la différence des voitures qui sont pour eux de vraies cages.
2 systèmes de symboles sont en jeu dans le personnal freedom : le spread winged eagle, c'est le symbole des USA et de la libération, on peut le retrouvé sur les tatouage, les motos, les casques, ... Des bikers. Et il y a le Harley as horse metaphor qui lui fait le lien avec la culture western de l'Amérique avec tout l'imaginaire qu'il y derrière : par exemple certains bikers portent des chapeaux ou des bottes de cow boy.
C'est donc bien un symbole de libération, mais libération de quoi ? Du conformisme, de son statut social ... Bien que cela reste paradoxal étant donné que le bikers va devoir intégrer une nouvelle structure social avec ses propres règles et valeurs.

Patriotism and american heritage : les bikers sont pour l'Amérique, ils défilent pour la fête nationale, n'aiment pas les motos japonaises et supportent les militaires au combat.
Machismo : les harleys sont réputées pour être les motos les plus lourdes, les plus bruyantes et sont représentative des bikers => gros bras, botte en métal,... Il ressemble à des guerriers.
Les femmes sont souvent des subordonnée et considérées comme une décoration de la motos. Cependant certains groupes sont égalitaires, et certaines femmes créé leur propre HOG.

Dans cette partie on voit bien que les valeurs peuvent trouver leurs expressions dans une marque, et que les consommations symboliques reflètent des ideotypes culturels ou socioéconomique.
• La transformation de soi : ici, les auteurs nous explique qu'il ne faut pas juste acheter une Harley pour être un biker. L'individu doit subir une transformation en plusieurs phases : expérimentation avec des bikers, identification et conformisme, et enfin une phase de maîtrise et internalisation des valeurs.
Les gens approchent les HD pour deux raisons : soit ils trouvent que les valeurs sont en correspondance avec les leurs, soit ils pensent que ce peut être une expérience amusante.
Les bikers, quant à eux, divise le monde en deux types de personnes : les bikers et les non bikers. Et il est très difficile d'intégrer le monde des bikers.
C'est pourquoi la société HD, dans sa stratégie marketing à prévu de mettre en place un système pour aider les nouveaux arrivants à intégrer un groupe, a faire la differences entre les differents sous groupe et à devenir un biker. (par exemple, lors de l'achat d'une Harley, ils offrent un abonnement à un magazine spécialisé, une cotisation dans un groupe pendant un an,...)

Les auteurs montrent aussi dans cette parties, que les relations créé au sein du groupe, et les acquisitions de matériaux spécifique sont deux barrières à la sortie de la sous culture Harley.
La conclusion de cette partie, c'est que les novices qui veulent entrer dans le monde des bikers doivent s'attendre à entrer dans une nouvelle structure sociale, dans laquelle ils ne seront au début qu'au bas de l'échelle. Puis après, au fur et à mesure qu'évolueront leurs engagements, ils internaliseront la philosophie et le mode de vie des bikers et obtiendront un autre statut.
• Marketing et la sous culture de consommation : pour les auteurs, il est important pour les marketers de répondre aux besoins spécifiques des membres de la sous culture.Et c'est pour cela qu'ils ont besoins de comprendre leur structure et leur philosophie.
Par exemple, chez Harley Davidson, le marketing à pris en compte le besoins des nouveaux arrivants à être accompagnés pour faire partie d'un groupe.

Et Harley en tire plusieurs bénéfices : fidélisation des clients, participation des clients à l'amélioration des produits et services, ...

Le mélange de culture américaine et de patriotisme est une vraie opportunités pour le marketing, qu'il peut utilisé dans la communication ou l'élaboration de nouveaux produits.
Et il est important pour la marque d'être présente lors de gros rassemblement ou sponsoriser ces événements car cela permet d'entretenir l'image de marque et sa notoriété.
Cependant, le marketing peut être opposé à un dilemme ...
Pour HD, la construction du mythe et sa propagation à eu lieu grâce aux premiers bikers des années 1960. Ceux ci était pour la plus part d'entre eux originaire de classe ouvrière.
Aujourd'hui Harley Davidson aide les nouveaux arrivants à s'intégrer, mais parmi eux certains ne sont pas considérés comme des bikers par les bikers. De plus HD à ciblé des client de classe plus aisés afin d'engranger plus profit en utilisant le mythe.
Cependant, ceux qui ont fait du mythe ce qu'il est est aujourd'hui, risque de s'y perdre et de ne plus se retrouver dans la marque. Mais si HD perd ses membres, cela risque de faire sombrer le mythe et de ne plus attiser la curiosité des gens.

Il faut donc faire attention à ne pas diluer ou perdre ses valeurs

Discussion
Blablabla

Conclusion
1. La sous culture est un groupe d'individus unis par des valeurs et des comportements de consommation qui leur sont propres.
2. Exploration de la structure social d'une sous culture => liée à la force d'engagement au sein de la sous culture. Ensuite on s'est concentré sur la philosophie de la sous culture. On a vu que les membres d'une sous culture pouvait être amenés à évoluer au niveau de leur identité, leurs motivations et leur engagement. Et enfin on a vu en quoi cela pouvait être une opportunités mais aussi à la fois être un risque pour les marketers.
3. Recommandations pour des recherches futurs

Une sous culture disparaît elle intégralement ? Selon Irwin, il y a plusieurs phases dans le cycle de vie d'une sous culture : articulation, expansion, corruption et déclin. Aujourd'hui, la sous culture HD est dans sa phase d'expansion. Cependant comme pour la sous culture du surf, elle ne disparaîtra jamais car il y aura toujours l'envie de découvrir qui lui permettra de résister.
Comment expliquer que des groupes et une sous culture Harley se soit développée dans d'autres pays qu'aux USA alors que la culture y est différente ? Il y a un transfert mais comment la sous culture s'adapte à la culture des autres pays
Il faudrait étudier comment les symboles de cette sous culture sont utilisés, modifiés et adoptés dans les autres pays.…...

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Bike Riding

...driving I see this happen almost every day, especially in residential neighborhoods. The bicyclist looks around quickly and proceeds through the crosswalk even if the light is red. If we could reenact a similar situation to this I believe it would be effective. I see not only the danger of a direct hit coming from a car that has a green light, but also that of a car turning right. For instance, a car may be behind the bicyclist turning right as soon as the biker decides to dash through the red light resulting in a collision. In a blindsided collision like that the biker could be seriously injured as the car would be accelerating into him. I believe by showing this kind of example to start our video it would not only capture the attention of bicyclists, but that of drivers as well. After a one to two minute reenacted example, we could display some alarming stats on the number of bicyclists hit by cars every year, and the injuries that come with such a collision. We would be drawing their attention in with the example of a biker running a red light and then by showing our audience the stats, we would make them think about how truly dangerous riding a bike incorrectly and against the law can be. After that I would familiarize our audience with the most important laws of bicycle riding. This would show them how to correctly use a bike around high traffic areas, and would help them avoid an accident like what was shown by our example. Such laws could include ones like how to use......

Words: 469 - Pages: 2