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A. PENGERTIAN
Kelenjar endokrin atau kelenjar buntu adalah kelenjar yang mengirim hasil sekresinya langsung ke dalam darah yang beredar dalam jaringan dan menyekresi zat kimia yang disebut hormon. Hormon adalah zat yang dilepaskan ke dalam aliran darah dari suatu kelenjar atau organ yang mempengaruhi kegiatan di dalam sel.
Adapun fungsi kelenjar endokrin adalah sebagai berikut :
1. Menghasilkan hormon yang dialirkan kedalam darah yang yang diperlukan oleh jaringan tubuh tertentu.
2. Mengontrol aktivitas kelenjar tubuh
3. Merangsang aktivitas kelenjar tubuh
4. Merangsang pertumbuhan jaringan
5. Mengatur metabolisme, oksidasi, meningkatkan absorbsi glukosa pada usus halus
6. Memengaruhi metabolisme lemak, protein, hidrat arang, vitamin, mineral, dan air.
B. Kelenjar Endokrin dan Hormon Yang Dihasilkan
a. Kelenjar hipofisis ( lobus anterior ) :
- hormon pertumbuhan ( somatotropin )
- thyroid-stimulatin hormon ( TSH )
- adrenokortikotropin ( ACTH )
- follicle-stimulating hormon ( FSH )
- luteinizing hormon ( LH )
- prolaktin b Kelenjar hipofisis ( lobus posterior ):
- antidiuretik ( vasopresin )
- oksitosin
c. Kelenjar tiroid :
- tiroksin
- kalsitonin
d. kelenjar paratiroid :
- parathormon
e. kelenjar adrenal :
- korteks : mineralokortikoid, glukokortikoid, dan hormon seks
- medula : epinefrin, dan norepinefrin
f. kelenjar pankreas :
- insulin
- glukagon
- somatostatin
g. ovarium :
- estrogen
- pogesteron
h. testis :
- testoteron
C. Kelenjar Hipofisis
Hipofisa merupakan sebuah kelenjar sebesar kacang polong, yang terletak di dalam struktur bertulang (sela tursika) di dasar otak. Hipofisis mengendalikan fungsi dari sebagian besar kelenjar endokrin lainnya, sehingga disebut kelenjar pemimpin, atau master of gland. kelenjar hipofisis terdiri dari dua lobus, yaitu lobus anterior dan lobus posterior.
1. Fungsi hipofisis anterior ( adenohipofise ) menghasilkan sjumlah hormon yang bekerja sebagai zat pengendali produksi dari semua organendokrin yang lain.
· Hormon pertumbuhan (somatotropin ) : mengendalikan pertumbuhan tubuh (tulang, otot, dan organ-organ lain).
· Hormon TSH : mengendalikan pertumbuhan dan aktivitas sekretorik kelejar tiroid.
· Hormon ACTH : mengendalikan kelenjar suprarenal dalam menghasilkan kortisol yang berasal dari kortex suprarenal.
· Hormon FSH : pada ovarium berguna untuk merangsang perkembangan folikel dan sekresi esterogen. Pada testis, homon ini berguna untuk merangasang pertumbhan tubulus seminiferus, dan spermatogenesis.
· Hormon LH : pada ovarium, untuk ovulasi, pembentukan korpus luteum, menebalkan dinding rahim dan sekresi progesteron. Dan pada testis, untuk sekresi testoteron
· Hormon Prolaktin : untuk sekresi mamae dan mempertahankan korpus luteum selama hamil.
2. Fungsi hipofisis posterior
· Anti-diuretik hormon (ADH): mengatur jumlah air yang melalui ginjal, reabsorbsi air, dan mengendalikan tekanan darah pada arteriole
· Hormon oksitosin : mengatur kontraksi uterus sewaktu melahirkan bayi dan pengeluaran air sususewaktu menyusui.
D. Kelenjar Tiroid
Tiroid merupakan kelenjar kecil, dengan diameter sekitar 5 cm dan terletak di leher, tepat dibawah jakun. Dalam keadaan normal, kelenjar tiroid tidak terlihat dan hampir tidak teraba, tetapi bila membesar, dokter dapat merabanya dengan mudah dan suatu benjolan bisa tampak dibawah atau di samping jakun. Kelenjar tiroid menghasilkan hormon tiroid, yang mengendalikan kecepatan metabolisme tubuh.
Hormon tiroid mempengaruhi kecepatan metabolisme tubuh melalui 2 cara
1. Merangsang hampir setiap jaringan tubuh untuk menghasilkan protein
2. Meningkatkan jumlah oksigen yang digunakan oleh sel.
Atas pengaruh hormon yang dihasilkan oleh kelenjar hipofisis lobus anterior, kelenjar tiroid dapat memproduksi hormon tiroksin. Adapun fungsi dari hormon tiroksin adalah mengatur pertukaran zat metabolisme tubuh dan mengatur pertumbuhan jasmani dan rohani.
Fungsi kelenjar tiroid sendiri adlah sebagai berikut :
· Bekerja sebagai perangsang proses oksidasi
· Mengatur penggunaan oksidasi
· Mengatur pengeluara karbon dioksida
· Metabolik dalam hati pengaturan susunan kimia dalam jaringan
· Pada anak mempengaruhi fisik dan mental
Kelenjar tiroid menghasilkan hormon-hormon sbb :
·Tri-iodo-tironin(T3) dan Tiroksin (T4), berguna untuk merangsang metabolisme zat, katabolisme protein, dan lemak. Juga meningkatkan produksi panas merangsang sekresi hormon pertumbuhan, dan mempengaruhi perkembangan sel-sel saraf dan mental pada balita dan janin. Kedua hormon ini biasa disebut dangan satu nama,yaitu hormon tiroid.
· Kalsitonin : menurunkan kadar kalsium plasma, denagn meningkatkan jumlah penumpukan kalsium pada tulang.
E. Kelenjar Paratiroid
Secara normal ada empat buah kelenjar paratiroid pada manusia, yang terletak tepat dibelakang kelenjar tiroid, dua tertanam di kutub superior kelenjar tiroid dan dua di kutub inferiornya.
PTH bekerja langsung pada tulang untuk meningkatkan resorpsi tulang dan memobilisasi Ca2+. Selain meningkatkan Ca2+ plasma dan menurunkan fosfat plasma, PTH meningkatkan ekskresi fosfat dalam urin. Efek fosfaturik ini disebabkan oleh penurunan reabsorpsi fosfat di tubulus proksimal. PTH juga meningkatkan reabsorpsi Ca2+ di tubulus distal, walaupun ekskresi Ca2+ biasanya meningkat pada hiperparatiroidisme karena terjadi peningkatan jumlah yang difiltrasi yang melebihi efek reabsorpsi. PTH juga meningkatkan pembentukan 1,25 dihidroksikolekalsiferol, metabolit vitamin D yang secara fisiologis aktif. Hormon ini meningkatkan absorpsi Ca2+ dari usus, tetapi efek ini tampaknya disebabkan hanya akibat stimulasi pembentukan 1,25 dihidroksikolekalsiferol.
Fungsi kelenjar paratiroid :
· Memelihara konsentrasi ion kalsium yang tetap dalam plasma
· Mengontrol ekskresi kalsium dan fosfat melalui ginjal
· Mempercepat absorbsi kalsium di intestin
· Kalsium berkurang, hormon para tiroid menstimulasi reabsorpsi tulang sehingga menambah kalsium dalam darah
· Menstmulasi dan mentransport kalsium dan fosfat melalui mmbran sel
Kelenjar ini menghasilkan hormon yang sring disebut parathormon, yang berfungsi meningkatkan resorpsi tulang, meningkatkan reorpsi kalsium, dan menurunkan kadar kalsium darah.
F. Kelenjar Adrenal ( anak ginjal )
Terdapat 2 buah kelenjar adrenal pada manusia, dan masing-masing kelenjar terletak diatas ginjal. Kelenjar adrenal terbagi menjadi 2 bagian, yaitu bagian medula adrenal ( bagian tengah kelenjar adrenal ) dan korteks adrenal ( bagian luar kelenjar ).
Korteks adrenal memproduksi 3 kelompok hormon steroid, yaitu glukokortikoid dengan prototipe hidrokortison, mineralokortikoid khususnya aldosteron, dan hormon-hormon seks khususnya androgen.
Glukokortikoid berfungsi untuk mempengeruhi metabolisme glukosa, peningkatan sekresi hidrokortison akan menaikan kadar glukossa darah.
Mineralikortikoid bekerja meningkatkan absorbsi ion natrium dalam prose pertukaran untuk mengekresikan ion kalium atau hidrogen.
Hormon seks adrenal ( androgen ) memberikan efek yang serupa dengan efek hormon seks pria.
Medula adrenal berfungsi sebagai bagian dari saraf otonom. Selain itu juga menghasilkan adrenalin da noradrenalin. Nor adrenalin menikan tekanan darah denga jalan merangsang serabut otot di dalam dinding pembuluh darah untuk berkontraksi, dan adrenalin membantu metabolisme karbohidrat dengan jalan menambah pengeluaran glukosa dari hati.
Fungsi kelenjar adrenal korteks :
· Mengatur keseimbangan air, elektrolit dan garam
· Mempengaruhi metabolisme lemak, hidrat arang, dan protein
· Mempengaruhi aktivitas jaringan limfoid
Fungsi kelenjar adrenal medula :
· Vasokontriksi pembuuh darah perifer
· Relaksasi bronkus
· Kontraksi selaput lendir dan arteriole
G. Kelenjar Pankreas
Kelenjar ini terdapat di belakang lambung didepan vertebra lumbalis I dan II. Sebagai kelenjar eksokrin akan menghasilkan enzim-enzim pencernaan ke dalam lumen duodenum. Sedangkan Sebagai endokrin terdiri dari pulau-pulau Langerhans, menghasilkan hormon. Pulau langerhans berbntuk oval dan tersebar diseluruh pankreas. Fungsi pulau langerhans sebagai unit sekresi dalam pengeluaran homeostatik nutrisi, menghambat sekresi insulin, glikogen dan polipeptida. Pada manusia, mengandung 4 macam sel, yaitu :
- sel A (atau α) : menghasilkan glukagon
- sel B (atau β) : menghasilkan insulin
- sel D (atau γ) : menghasilkan somatostatin
- sel F (sgt kecil) : menghasilkan polipeptida pankreas hormon insulin berguna untuk menurunkan gula darah, menggunakan dan menyimpan karbohidrat. Glukagon berfungsi untuk menaikan glukosa darah dengan jalan glikolisis. Sedangkan somatostatin berguna menurunkan glukosa darah dengan melepaskan hormon pertumbuhan dan glukagon.
H. Kelenjar Kelamin
Dibagi menjadi 2, yaitu kelamin pria ( testis ) dan kelamin wanita ( ovarium ). Testis terletak di skrotum dan menghasilkan hormon testosteron. Hormon ini berfungsi dalam mengatur perkembangan ciri seks sekunder, dan merangsang pertumbuhan organ kelamin pria.
Sedangkan ovarium terdapat pada samping kiri dan kanan uterus, yang menghasilkan esterogen dan progesteron. Fungsi estrogen adalah pematangan dan fungsi siklus haid yang normal. Sedangkan fungsi hormon progesteron adalah pemliharaan kehamilan.
Sistem Endokrin
Sistem endokrin adalah sistem kontrol kelenjar tanpa saluran (ductless) yang menghasilkan hormon yang tersirkulasi di tubuh melalui aliran darah untuk mempengaruhi organ-organ lain. Sistem endokrin, dalam kaitannya dengan sistem saraf, mengontrol dan memadukan fungsi tubuh. Kedua sistem ini bersama-sama bekerja untuk mempertahankan homeostasis tubuh. Bila sistem endokrin umumnya bekerja melalui hormon, maka sistem saraf bekerja melalui neurotransmiter yang dihasilkan oleh ujung-ujung saraf.
Hormon adalah zat yang dilepaskan ke dalam aliran darah dari suatu kelenjar atau organ, yang bertindak sebagai “pembawa pesan” untuk dibawa ke berbagai sel tubuh, kemudian “pesan” itu diterjemahkan menjadi suatu tindakan. Hormon dalam jumlah yang sangat kecil bisa memicu respon tubuh yang sangat luas. Hormon yang dihasilkannya itu dalam jumlah sedikit pada saat dibutuhkan dan dialirkan ke organ sasaran melalui pembuluh darah.
Dalam hal struktur kimianya, hormon diklasifikasikan sebagai hormon yang larut dalam air atau yang larut dalam lemak. Hormon yang larut dalam air termasuk polipeptida (misal insulin, glukagon, hormon adrenokortikotropik (ACTH), gastrin) dan katekolamin (misal dopamin, norepinefrin, epinefrin). Hormon yang larut dalam lemak termasuk steroid (misal estrogen, progesteron, testosteron, glukokortikoid, aldosteron) dan tironin (misal tiroksin). Hormon yang larut dalam air bekerja melalui sistem mesenger-kedua, sementara hormon steroid dapat menembus membran sel dengan bebas.
KLASIFIKASI HORMON
• Hormon perkembangan / Growth hormone – hormon yang memegang peranan di dalam perkembangan dan pertumbuhan. Hormon ini dihasilkan oleh kelenjar gonad.
• Hormon metabolisme – proses homeostasis glukosa dalam tubuh diatur oleh bermacammacam hormon, contoh glukokortikoid, glukagon, dan katekolamin.
• Hormon tropik – dihasilkan oleh struktur khusus dalam pengaturan fungsi endokrin yakni kelenjar hipofise sebagai hormon perangsang pertumbuhan folikel (FSH) pada ovarium dan proses spermatogenesis (LH).
• Hormon pengatur metabolisme air dan mineral – kalsitonin dihasilkan oleh kelenjar tiroid untuk mengatur metabolisme kalsium dan fosfor.
Organ dari sistem endokrin :
- Hipotalamus
- Kelenjar Hipofisis
- Kelenjar Timus
- Kelenjar Tiroid
- Kelenjar Paratiroid
1. Hipotalamus
Hipotalamus sebagai bagian dari sistem endokrin mengontrol sintesa dan sekresi hormon-hormon hipofise. Hipotalamus melepaskan sejumlah hormon yang merangsang hipofisa. Beberapa diantaranya memicu pelepasan hormon hipofisa dan yang lainnya menekan pelepasan hormon hipofisa. Hipotalamus terletak di batang otak, tepatnya di dienchepalon, dekat dengan ventrikel ot ketiga (ventrikulus tertius) yang berfungsi sebagai pusat tertinggi sistem kelenjar endokrin yang menjalankan fungsinya melalui humoral (hormonal) dan saraf.
Hormon-hormon hipotalamus antara lain:
a. ACTH : Adrenocortico Releasing Hormon
b. ACIH : Adrenocortico Inhibiting Hormon
c. TRH : Tyroid Releasing Hormon
d. TIH : Tyroid Inhibiting Hormon
e. GnRH : Gonadotropin Releasing Hormon
f. GnIH : Gonadotropin Inhibiting Hormon
g. PTRH : Paratyroid Releasing Hormon
h. PTIH : Paratyroid Inhibiting Hormon
i. PRH : Prolaktin Releasing Hormon
j. PIH : Prolaktin Inhibiting Hormon
k. GRH : Growth Releasing Hormon.
l. GIH : Growth Inhibiting Hormon
m. MRH : Melanosit Releasing Hormon
n. MIH : Melanosit Inhibiting Hormon
2. Hipofisis / Hipofise (Pituitary) Hipofise terletak di sella tursika, lekukan os spenoidalis basis cranii. Berbentuk oval dengan diameter kira-kira 1 cm dan dibagi atas dua lobus Lobus anterior, merupakan bagian terbesar dari hipofise kira-kira 2/3 bagian dari hipofise. Lobus anterior ini juga disebut adenohipofise. Lobus posterior, merupakan 1/3 bagian hipofise dan terdiri dari jaringan saraf sehingga disebut juga neurohipofise. Hipofise stalk adalah struktur yang menghubungkan lobus posterior hipofise dengan hipotalamus. Struktur ini merupakan jaringan saraf.
Hipofise menghasilkan hormon tropik dan hormon nontropik. Hormon tropik akan mengontrol sintesa dan sekresi hormon kelenjar sasaran sedangkan hormon nontropik akan bekerja langsung pada organ sasaran.
Kemampuan hipofise dalam mempengaruhi atau mengontrol langsung aktivitas kelenjar endokrin lain menjadikan hipofise dijuluki “master of glands”.3. Kelenjar Timus (Thymus)
Thymus terletak di dalam mediastinum di belakang os stemum. Hanya dijumpai pada anak-anak di bawah 18 tahun. Setelah itu kelenjar ini mengecil dan tidak ditemukan lagi. Kelenjar ini berwarna kemerah-merahan dan terdiri atas 2 lobus. Beratnya sekitar 10 gram pada bayi yang baru lahir, namun bertambah seriring masa remaja, yaitu sekitar 30-40 gram, kemudian berkerut lagi setelah dewasa. Selama masih aktif, kelenjar ini menghasilkan sel darah putih yang disebut T-lymphocyte.
Sel ini selanjutnya akan menetap di dalam tubuh dan mempunyai memory atau ingatan terhadap benda asing yang pemah masuk tubuh dan sel tubuh yang abnormal (termasuk sel kanker). Jika zat yang sama masuk tubuh maka sel ini akan memperbanyak dan menetralkan efek zat itu terhadap tubuh. Fungsi ini merupakan suatu bagian sistem proteksi tubuh atausistem imun (cell mediated immune system) yang bersifat seluler.
4. Kelenjar Tiroid (Kelenjar Gondok)
Kelenjar tiroid merupakan kelenjar berwarna merah kecoklatan dan sangat vascular. Terletak di anterior cartilago thyroidea di bawah laring setinggi vertebra cervicalis 5 sampai vertebra thorakalis 1. Kelenjar ini terselubungi lapisan pretracheal dari fascia cervicalis. Beratnya kira-kira 18-25 gr tetapi bervariasi pada tiap individu. Kelenjar tiroid sedikit lebih berat pada wanita terutama saat menstruasi dan hamil.
Lobus kelenjar tiroid seperti kerucut. Ujung apikalnya menyimpang ke lateral ke garis oblique pada lamina cartilago thyroidea dan basisnya setinggi cartilago trachea 4-5. Kelenjar ini terdiri atas dua lobus yaitu lobus kiri kanan yang dipisahkan oleh isthmus. Masing-masing lobus kelenjar ini mempunyai ketebalan lebih kurang 2 cm, lebar 2,5 cm dan panjangnya 4 cm. Tiap-tiap lobus mempunyai lobuli yang di masing-masing lobuli terdapat folikel dan parafolikuler.
Di dalam folikel ini terdapat rongga yang berisi koloid dimana hormon-hormon disintesa.kelenjar tiroid mendapat sirkulasi darah dari arteri tiroidea superior dan arteri tiroidea inferior. Arteri tiroidea superior merupakan percabangan arteri karotis eksternal dan arteri tiroidea inferior merupakan percabangan dari arteri subklavia.Lobus kanan kelenjar tiroid mendapat suplai darah yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan lobus kiri. Dipersarafi oleh saraf adrenergik dan kolinergik. saraf adrenergik berasal dari ganglia servikalis dan kolinergik berasal dari nervus vagus.
5. Paratiroid (Kelenjar Anak Gondok)Kelenjar paratiroid berukuran kecil, kuning kecoklatan oval, biasanya terletak antara garis lobus posterior dari kelenjar tiroid dan kapsulnya. Ukurannya kira2 6x3x2 mm. Beratnya 50 mg.
Kelenjar ini berjumlah empat buah, biasanya 2 pada tiap sisi, superior dan inferior. Normalnya paratiroid posterior bergeser hanya pada kutub paratiroid posterior, tapi bisa juga turun bersama timus ke thorax atau pada bifurcation karotis.Kelenjar paratiroid superior letaknya lebih konstan daripada inferior dan biasanya terlihat di tengah garis posterior kelenjar tiroid walaupun bisa lebih tinggi. Bagian inferior sangat bervariasi pada beberapa situasi (tergantung perkembangan embriologisnya) dan bias tanpa selubung fascia tiroid, di bawah arteri tiroid, atau pada kelenjar tiroid dekat kutub inferior.
Kelenjar ini terdiri dari dua jenis sel yaitu chief cells dan oxyphill cells. Chief cells merupakan bagian terbesar dari kelenjar paratiroid, mensintesa dan mensekresi hormon paratiroid atau parathormon disingkat PTH…...

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...FINAL ASSIGNMENT |Programme Title |Edexcel BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business (QCF) | |Unit Title |Marketing Principles | |Unit Code |F/601/0556 | |Assignment No |01 | |Level |Level-5 HND | |Credit value |15 credits | |Assessor | | |Deliverer | | |Handout Date | | |Hand in Date |31/07/2014 | Assignment Title: Making Marketing Decisions You have been......

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...ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD (Department of Business Administration) Course: Human Resource Management (5532) Level: MBA Semester: Autumn, 2010 CHECKLIST This packet comprises the following material: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Note: Text book Assignments # 1 & 2 Course outlines Assignment 6 forms (2 sets) Assignment submission schedule In this packet, if you find anything missing out of the above-mentioned material, please contact at the address given below: The Mailing Officer Mailing Section, Block # 28 Allama Iqbal Open University, Sector H/8, Islamabad. Tel: (051) 9057611, 9057612 Mohammad Majid Mahmood Bagram Course Coordinator ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD (Department of Business Administration) WARNING 1. 2. PLAGIARISM OR HIRING OF GHOST WRITER(S) FOR SOLVING THE ASSIGNMENT(S) WILL DEBAR THE STUDENT FROM AWARD OF DEGREE/CERTIFICATE, IF FOUND AT ANY STAGE. SUBMITTING ASSIGNMENTS BORROWED OR STOLEN FROM OTHER(S) AS ONE’S OWN WILL BE PENALIZED AS DEFINED IN “AIOU PLAGIARISM POLICY”. Course: Human Resource Management (5532) Level: MBA Semester: Autumn, 2010 Total Marks: 100 Pass Marks: 40 ASSIGNMENT No. 1 (Units: 1–4) Q. 1 Why HR is called the most important asset and competitive advantage of any organization in the world? (20) Your Solutions 2 Helping Material HR and Competitive Advantage In order to have an effective competitive strategy, the company must have one or more competitive advantage, factors that allow......

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...and uniform specifications. 1046.2 WEARING AND CONDITION OF UNIFORM AND EQUIPMENT Police employees wear the uniform to be identified as the law enforcement authority in society. The uniform also serves an equally important purpose to identify the wearer as a source of assistance in an emergency, crisis or other time of need. (a) Uniform and equipment shall be maintained in a serviceable condition and shall be ready at all times for immediate use. Uniforms shall be neat, clean, and appear professionally pressed. All peace officers of this department shall possess and maintain at all times, a serviceable uniform and the necessary equipment to perform uniformed field duty. Personnel shall wear only the uniform specified for their rank and assignment. The uniform is to be worn in compliance with the specifications set forth in the department's uniform specifications that are maintained separately from this policy. All supervisors will perform periodic inspections of their personnel to ensure conformance to these regulations. Civilian attire shall not be worn in combination with any distinguishable part of the uniform. Uniforms are only to be worn while on duty, while in transit to or from work, for court, or at other official department functions or events. If the uniform is worn while in transit, an outer garment shall be worn over the uniform shirt so as not to bring attention to the employee while he/she is off duty. Employees are not to purchase or drink alcoholic beverages......

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...SUNWAY COLLEGE JOHOR BAHRU DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION COURSEWORK / ASSIGNMENT (GROUP) Module Code Module Title Semester Issue Date Due Date Lecturer : BMGT 0304 : HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT : MARCH-JUNE 2015 : WEEK 2 : WEEK 6 (30th April 2015) : ANTHONY WONG INSTRUCTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. There are SEVEN (7) pages in this assignment including the cover page. The assignment must be completed in groups as per instruction. The submitted assignment must include the Assignment Cover Page. References must be acknowledged accordingly. Plagiarism/cheating will result in the assignment being marked FAIL. The assignment must be submitted in hardcopy (printed) format and presented. IMPORTANT Assignments must be submitted on their due dates. If an assignment is submitted after its due date, the following penalisation will be imposed: ● ● ● One to two days late Three to five days late More than five days late 20% deducted from the total assignment marks 40% deducted from the total assignment marks Assignment will not be marked. 1 INTRODUCTION This assignment is a partial fulfillment of requirements leading to Diploma in Hotel Management/Business Admin for students taking a subject in Human Resource Management. The assignment will be done by students in suitable group size which approved by the lecturer. PURPOSES The purposes of this assignment are to assess a student’s ability to: 1. Understand the basic concepts or theories learned in the subject matter.......

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...new water feature. Please ensure that you address all the criteria contained within the ‘Assessment Task 1 Marking Sheet’. This assignment will be marked generally in accordance with the Marking Sheet where marks are deducted for non-conformities. Please be aware that simply mentioning the marking criteria/addressing it in a half-sentence or similar does not guarantee full marks; the thoroughness and completeness of how the marking criteria are addressed will determine how many marks for each separate criterion will be awarded; this can be either the full mark, or parts thereof. Furthermore, it is vital that you familiarise yourself with precisely what a Risk Assessment and Risk Treatment incorporate for ISO 31,000 – due to the word count limit, it is advisable to not deviate from the task given, while meeting the marking criteria. Word count limit: The body of this assignment will be in the range of 3000 to 5000 words, excluding any Appendices. You may need to simplify and define the boundaries carefully in order to achieve the word limit. A single hard copy will be submitted in class. The assignment must also be uploaded to the 49006 Turnitin folder within UTSOnline before the due date. Please make sure to submit the complete assignment including Cover Page, Table of Contents, Reference list and Appendices. Emailed assignments will not be accepted. Be aware that several students have fallen foul, in previous semesters, of the sophisticated systems in......

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...Assignment front sheet Qualification Unit number and title Pearson BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma Business Unit 1: Business Environment Learner name Assessor name Nour Hawarneh Date issued Completion date Submitted on Nov 08, 2015 Jan 18, 2016 Assignment title Your company’s environment LO2 LO3 Assessment Criteria In this assessment you will have the opportunity to present evidence that shows you are able to: 1.1 organisational purposes of businesses Identify the purposes of different types of organisation 1 1.2 Describe the extent to which an organisation meets the objectives of different stakeholders 1 1.3 LO1 Learning outcome Understand the Learning Outcom e Explain the responsibilities of an organisation and strategies employed to meet them 2.1 Explain how economic systems attempt to allocate resources effectively 2 2.2 Assess the impact of fiscal and monetary policy on business organisations and their activities Evaluate the impact of competition policy and other regulatory mechanisms on the activities of a selected organisation 2 Understand the nature of the national environment in which businesses operate Understand the behaviour for oganisations in their market environment 2.3 3.1 LO4 2 Illustrate the way in which market forces shape organisational responses using a range of examples Judge how the business and cultural environments shape the behaviour of a selected organisation 3.3 Be able to assess the significance of the......

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...|Assignment brief – QCF BTEC (L3 ONLY) | |Assignment front sheet | |Qualification |Unit number and title | |BTEC L3 Diploma/Ext. Dipl. – Business |UNIT 1 – BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT | |Learner name | Assessor name | | |MARY EC ZAFRA | |Date issued | Hand in deadline |Submitted on | |14 OCTOBER 2015 | 15 November 2015 |18NOV2015 | | | | |Assignment No. & title |Assignment 1/2 - The Businesses We See | |In this assessment you will have opportunities to provide......

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...Application Exercise (Assignment to be submitted) (90 min.) (Not exceeding five pages) |Apply the five forces analysis to your company/division and assess the attractiveness of your industry. | | |Compare the industry attractiveness five years back and today due to the shift in the forces. | | |Guidelines for the assignment | | | | | |Brief introduction of your company, its product portfolio and the markets/segments it caters to. If it | | |is in multiple industries, choose any one industry for the purpose of this assignment. (refer to 2008 | | |HBS note for definition of industry) | | | | | |Consider each threat individually. Take each factor in it and explain its role and significance in your | | |industry. Rate its effect based on the above explanation. (template if shown in class may be used for | | |structured approach but the spirit of the analysis matters more than......

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...and analysed to present their financial standing at the end of the year. Comparing the relationships of these ratios reveals that Orica decreased their liquidity, but suffered lower profitability with heavy influences from Minova’s impairment of goodwill. With high asset utilisation and stable efficiency, Orica should focus on improving their maintenance and reliability by addressing the Kooragang plant shutdown. Furthermore, Orica is financing more with debt than equity which introduces some risk to the company given their higher expenses for 2012. Finally, the investment ratios indicate that Orica could be poised for high growth with a stable return, but should first focus on maximising their plants and equipment. Sample Assignment: Part of the content removed II TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................. II Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................... III A. List of Tables ...............................................................................................................................IV 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Ratios....................................................................

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