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Appendix a: Matrix of Theoretical Models

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Appendix A: Matrix of Theoretical Models
HCS/587
November 20, 2013
Karissa Steward

Managers need to understand employees and what motivates them; this can prove to be a challenge because they are composed of a diverse group of people. Process theories of motivation can assist them in how to predict and influence behaviors. In this paper will cover three of the five process theories which are Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, Adams’ Equity Theory, and Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory.
Theoretical Model: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
Description of Theoretical Model: This theory states that a person will choose to act or behave a certain way depending on if he or she perceives the reward as good or bad for that particular behavior. This theory explains that every individual has a different set of goals and can be motivated if there is a positive correlation between efforts and performance. This model is based on three beliefs valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. Valence is how an individual perceives or values the reward that is offered as good or bad. For example, some may value job promotion as a positive reward because of their need for achievement, although others may have a negative view of the advancement because it will require more time commitment. Expectancy believes that one’s hard work will result in a specific outcome. Instrumentality is the belief that if a person meets performance expectation he or she will receive a reward. Managers can use the expectancy theory to help them understand an employee’s behavior. If the employees lack motivation, the manager needs to discover what their employees’ value, what resources or training their staff may be in need of. Most important managers must be sure that the promises for rewards are fulfilled (Borkowksi, 2005).
Type of health care change situation where model best applies: This theory would be idealistic for managers that are looking for ways to motivate employees because it emphasizes expectations, perception, and the value of appropriate payoffs. Majority of individuals are taught to believe that there should be a strong correlation between performance and incentives. Supervisors must be aware that this theory does have its limitation as a reward system. In the hospital setting there are many parameters to achieving a certain reward, these parameters include position, responsibility, and education. In order, for a manager to apply this theory appropriately he or she must make sure the staff can achieve the intended performance level and reward the employees once an exceptional performance has been met. Administrators must ensure that the reward system is fair and just and must continually monitor the employee’s motivational level. The most important part of this theory is the belief if employees perform well then there will be a valid outcome. Some important questions nursing supervisor should ask themselves when applying this theory are is the nursing staff efforts being recognized in performance appraisals? To what extent does the staff believe that a good performance appraisal will lead to a reward? What is the appeal of the potential reward to the nursing staff? For this theory to work properly managers need to make sure that the payoffs are deserved and wanted by workers (Borkowksi, 2005).
Theoretical Model: Adam’s Equity Theory
Description of Theoretical Model: Adams’ Equity theory is based on inputs and outputs. This theory states that individuals may evaluate his or her input and outcomes by comparing them to those of others. Inputs can be defined as what a person can contribute to an exchange such as skill, hard work, and education. Outputs can be defined as the result of an exchange such as a promotion, salary, and recognition. According to this theory if an employee perceives treatment to be fair the manager can expect to see positive outcomes and high levels of motivations from his or her employees. This model proposes that if input and output become out of balance not only will some employees become less motivated while others may seek to bring balance by seeking more compensation/recognition, or seeking employment elsewhere or even becoming disgruntled (Borkowksi, 2005). The thought behind this is theory is to maintain an equally reasonable balance between production and contributions. This model explains that if an imbalance is noted supervisors must try to seek equilibrium concerning the employee inputs given and the outputs received (“Adams’ Equity Theory”, (n.d.). Managers should also be aware of how inequities may be perceived by employees in the work environment. If workers believe that they are not being treated fairly, it may become difficult to motivate them (Borkowksi, 2005).
Type of health care change situation where model best applies: This model would best apply in a hospital setting if the organization is looking to improve effort-reward imbalance and reduce nurse burnout. Nurses work in a very stressful environment because of the constant requirement to manage and help people during a stressful time in their lives. Much of the nurses’ motivation and reward comes from the act/feelings they get from helping others. When nurses are repeatedly confronted with difficult or demanding patients lacking in showing appreciation of the efforts made to assist them, this can cause a disequilibrium causing nurses to put more into the relationships with their patients than they receive back in return, causing exhaustion and burnout to set in. As a response to this feeling of inequity, nurses may respond to their patients in a depersonalized manner. Managers can help to restore the balance between nurses’ efforts and rewards by providing emotional and instrumental support and by giving adequate feedback (this will help to increase the nurses’ self-esteem reward). Hospital administrators can also consider establishing nurse to patient staffing ratio to limit the amount of patient a nurse can care for. Such interventions may help to restore the effort and rewards balance while reducing burnout among nurses (Bakker, Killmer, Johannes & Schaufeli, 2000).
Theoretical Model: Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory
Description of Theoretical Model: This study shows that a relationship exists between how difficult and specific goal is in relation to a person performance. The theory states that if a person is given a challenging yet specific goal he or she will outperform those who were given an easy or vague goal. For example, asking someone to “bet your last score” is more effective than telling someone to “do your best.” Hard goals are more motivating than easy goals; it is much more of a payoff when someone realizes they have accomplished something that they have to work for. Managers must be aware of the employees’ abilities and skills for this theory to be in order for this theory to be effective. This model consists of three phases: setting the goal, obtaining goal commitment, and providing support elements. Setting the goal should be specific and challenging yet attainable. To ensure that goal setting is successful, the manager will need to make sure that staff members accept and stay committed to the goals, offering rewards will ensure that this will happen. Rewards should be increased for more difficult tasks. If employees believe that they will be well compensated for achieving a challenging goal, this will boost their motivation and enthusiasm to get it the task completed which will reinforce acceptance of future goals (Borkowksi, 2005).
Type of health care change situation where model best applies: In a health care organization this model can be used to help with inadequate preceptor feedback and to increase graduate nurse retention. “New nurse graduates turnover rates of roughly 30% in the first year of practice and as much as 57% in the second year. At a cost of $82,000 or more per nurse” (Twibell, St. Pierre, Johnson, Barton, Davis, Kid, & Rook, 2013). New graduates nurses want to perform at his or hers best for their patients and they will need help and support in learning how to create healing relationships with their patients, managing their time, prioritizing patients’ demands and recognizing circumstances that may require additional resources to provide safe and effective care. Nursing administrators can support the integration of new nurses by providing the new graduates with training, direction, and feedback to guarantee safe practices. The preceptor along with the new nurse can use Locke's Goal-Setting Theory to defined clear goals and provide accurate feedback. Some goal setting options that preceptors can establish with the new nurses are reviewing medications commonly used, reviewing the most common diagnose, slowly increasing the workload and acuity of patients, and by giving and receiving constant feedback. These goals can assist the new graduates in their roles by fostering a sense of security and achievement in their work. This goal setting steps will help decrease new graduate nurse turnover, increase preceptor satisfaction, and reduce overall turnover costs (Bullock, Paris, Terhaar, 2011).
Workplace development can bring changes such as new policies, new systems, causing roles and responsibilities needing to be adapted and revised. These changes will call for managers and employees to learn a new set of behaviors or to establish patterns of behavior, which may be needed to adapt successfully and transform to organizational change. Applying these motivation models managers can create an environment in which employees, feel secure, valued and are more productive.

References
Adams’ Equity Theory. (n.d.). Mindtools.com. Retrieved November 15 , 2013, from Google.
Baaker, A. B., Killmer, C. H., Siegrist, J., & Schaufeli, W. B. (1999, August 25). Effort-reward imbalance and burnout among nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(4), 884-891. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from Google.
Borkowski, N. (2005). Organizational behavior in health care. Sudbury, MA. Jones and Bartlett. Retrieved from http://ecampus.phoenix.edu
Bullock, L. M., Paris, L. G., & Terhaar, M. (2011, December). Designing an Outcome-Focused Model for Orienting New Graduate Nurses. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 27(6), 252-258. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from nursingcenter.com.
Twibell, R., St. Pierre, J., Johnson, D., Barton, D., Davis, C., Kid, M., & Rook, G. (2012, July 6). Why New Nurses Don't Stay and What the Evidence Says We Can Do About It. Medscape. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from Google.

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1% match (Internet from 19-Dec-2007) http://www.diplomarbeit.de Appendix A: Matrix of Theoretical Models Erica Creighton HCS/587 November 20, 2013 Karissa Steward Managers need to understand employees and what motivates them; this can prove to be a challenge because they are composed of a diverse group of people. Process theories of motivation can assist them in how to predict and influence behaviors. In this paper will cover three of the five process theories which are Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, Adams’ Equity Theory, and Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory. Theoretical Model: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Description of Theoretical Model: This theory states that a person will choose to act or behave a certain way depending on if he or she perceives the reward as good or bad for that particular behavior. This theory explains that every individual has a different set of goals and can be motivated if there is a positive correlation between efforts and performance. This model is based on three beliefs valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. Valence is how an individual perceives or values the reward that is offered as good or bad. For example, some may value job promotion as a positive reward because of their need for achievement, although others may have a negative view of the advancement because it will require more time commitment. Expectancy believes that one’s hard work will result in a specific outcome. Instrumentality is the belief that if a person meets performance expectation he or she will receive a reward. Managers can use the expectancy theory to help them understand an employee’s behavior. If the employees lack motivation, the manager needs to discover what their employees’ value, what resources or training their staff may be in need of. Most important managers must be sure that the promises for rewards are fulfilled (Borkowksi, 2005). Type of health care change situation where model best applies: This theory would be idealistic for managers that are looking for ways to motivate employees because it emphasizes expectations, perception, and the value of appropriate payoffs. Majority of individuals are taught to believe that there should be a strong correlation between performance and incentives. Supervisors must be aware that this theory does have its limitation as a reward system. In the hospital setting there are many parameters to achieving a certain reward, these parameters include position, responsibility, and education. In order, for a manager to apply this theory appropriately he or she must make sure the staff can achieve the intended performance level and reward the employees once an exceptional performance has been met. Administrators must ensure that the reward system is fair and just and must continually monitor the employee’s motivational level. The most important part of this theory is the belief if employees perform well then there will be a valid outcome. Some important questions nursing supervisor should ask themselves when applying this theory are is the nursing staff efforts being recognized in performance appraisals? To what extent does the staff believe that a good performance appraisal will lead to a reward? What is the appeal of the potential reward to the nursing staff? For this theory to work properly managers need to make sure that the payoffs are deserved and wanted by workers (Borkowksi, 2005). Theoretical Model: Adam’s Equity Theory Description of Theoretical Model: Adams’ Equity theory is based on inputs and outputs. This theory states that individuals may evaluate his or her input and outcomes by comparing them to those of others. Inputs can be defined as what a person can contribute to an exchange such as skill, hard work, and education. Outputs can be defined as the result of an exchange such as a promotion, salary, and recognition. According to this theory if an employee perceives treatment to be fair the manager can expect to see positive outcomes and high levels of motivations from his or her employees. This model proposes that if input and output become out of balance not only will some employees become less motivated while others may seek to bring balance by seeking more compensation/recognition, or seeking employment elsewhere or even becoming disgruntled (Borkowksi, 2005). The thought behind this is theory is to maintain an equally reasonable balance between production and contributions. This model explains that if an imbalance is noted supervisors must try to seek equilibrium concerning the employee inputs given and the outputs received (“Adams’ Equity Theory”, (n.d.). Managers should also be aware of how inequities may be perceived by employees in the work environment. If workers believe that they are not being treated fairly, it may become difficult to motivate them (Borkowksi, 2005). Type of health care change situation where model best applies: This model would best apply in a hospital setting if the organization is looking to improve effort-reward imbalance and reduce nurse burnout. Nurses work in a very stressful environment because of the constant requirement to manage and help people during a stressful time in their lives. Much of the nurses’ motivation and reward comes from the act/feelings they get from helping others. When nurses are repeatedly confronted with difficult or demanding patients lacking in showing appreciation of the efforts made to assist them, this can cause a disequilibrium causing nurses to put more into the relationships with their patients than they receive back in return, causing exhaustion and burnout to set in. As a response to this feeling of inequity, nurses may respond to their patients in a depersonalized manner. Managers can help to restore the balance between nurses’ efforts and rewards by providing emotional and instrumental support and by giving adequate feedback (this will help to increase the nurses’ self-esteem reward). Hospital administrators can also consider establishing nurse to patient staffing ratio to limit the amount of patient a nurse can care for. Such interventions may help to restore the effort and rewards balance while reducing burnout among nurses (Bakker, Killmer, Johannes & Schaufeli, 2000). Theoretical Model: Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory Description of Theoretical Model: This study shows that a relationship exists between how difficult and specific goal is in relation to a person performance. The theory states that if a person is given a challenging yet specific goal he or she will outperform those who were given an easy or vague goal. For example, asking someone to “bet your last score” is more effective than telling someone to “do your best.” Hard goals are more motivating than easy goals; it is much more of a payoff when someone realizes they have accomplished something that they have to work for. Managers must be aware of the employees’ abilities and skills for this theory to be in order for this theory to be effective. This model consists of three phases: setting the goal, obtaining goal commitment, and providing support elements. Setting the goal should be specific and challenging yet attainable. To ensure that goal setting is successful, the manager will need to make sure that staff members accept and stay committed to the goals, offering rewards will ensure that this will happen. Rewards should be increased for more difficult tasks. If employees believe that they will be well compensated for achieving a challenging goal, this will boost their motivation and enthusiasm to get it the task completed which will reinforce acceptance of future goals (Borkowksi, 2005). Type of health care change situation where model best applies: In a health care organization this model can be used to help with inadequate preceptor feedback and to increase graduate nurse retention. “New nurse graduates turnover rates of roughly 30% in the first year of practice and as much as 57% in the second year. At a cost of $82,000 or more per nurse” (Twibell, St. Pierre, Johnson, Barton, Davis, Kid, & Rook, 2013). New graduates nurses want to perform at his or hers best for their patients and they will need help and support in learning how to create healing relationships with their patients, managing their time, prioritizing patients’ demands and recognizing circumstances that may require additional resources to provide safe and effective care. Nursing administrators can support the integration of new nurses by providing the new graduates with training, direction, and feedback to guarantee safe practices. The preceptor along with the new nurse can use Locke's Goal-Setting Theory to defined clear goals and provide accurate feedback. Some goal setting options that preceptors can establish with the new nurses are reviewing medications commonly used, reviewing the most common diagnose, slowly increasing the workload and acuity of patients, and by giving and receiving constant feedback. These goals can assist the new graduates in their roles by fostering a sense of security and achievement in their work. This goal setting steps will help decrease new graduate nurse turnover, increase preceptor satisfaction, and reduce overall turnover costs (Bullock, Paris, Terhaar, 2011). Workplace development can bring changes such as new policies, new systems, causing roles and responsibilities needing to be adapted and revised. These changes will call for managers and employees to learn a new set of behaviors or to establish patterns of behavior, which may be needed to adapt successfully and transform to organizational change. Applying these motivation models managers can create an environment in which employees, feel secure, valued and are more productive. References Adams’ Equity Theory. (n.d.). Mindtools.com. Retrieved November 15 , 2013, from Google. Baaker, A. B., Killmer, C. H., Siegrist, J., & Schaufeli, W. B. (1999, August 25). Effort-reward imbalance and burnout among nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(4), 884-891. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from Google. Borkowski, N. (2005). Organizational behavior in health care. Sudbury, MA. Jones and Bartlett. Retrieved from http://ecampus.phoenix.edu Bullock, L. M., Paris, L. G., & Terhaar, M. (2011, December). Designing an Outcome-Focused Model for Orienting New Graduate Nurses. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 27(6), 252-258. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from nursingcenter.com. Twibell, R., St. Pierre, J., Johnson, D., Barton, D., Davis, C., Kid, M., & Rook, G. (2012, July 6). Why New Nurses Don't Stay and What the Evidence Says We Can Do About It. Medscape. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from Google.
WritePoint Checker As [Make sure paragraph indentation is five to seven spaces or one tab stop] managers we [Use "we," "us," or "our" to mean yourself and coauthors, not general humanity (or yourself and the reader)] need to understand our employees and what motivates them, this can prove to be a challenge since [Check word choice--"Since" is more precise in referring to time (meaning "after that"); otherwise use "because"] they are comprised [The passive voice is a form of "be" (are) and a participle (comprised). Over-use of the passive voice can make paragraphs officious and tedious to read. Prefer the active voice. For example, passive voice = The paper was completed on time. Active voice = the student completed the paper on time. See Center for Writing Excellence > Tutorials & Guides > Grammar & Writing Guides > Active & passive voice] [Use "composed of"] of a diverse group of people. Process theories of motivation can assist us in how to predict and influence behaviors. In this paper I [Avoid use of the first person (I, me, my) in academic writing unless writing about a personal experience. First person use may be allowed by the instructor. ] covered three of the five process theories the theories that I will be discussing are: [Remove colon--"are" indicates a series follows, so a colon is not needed] [remove colon (if the preceding words indicate a series follows, a colon is redundant)] Vroom’s expectancy theory, Adams’ Equity theory [Do not capitalize the name of a theory unless it contains a proper noun (someone's name)] , and Locke’s goal-setting theory. Theoretical Model: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory [Do not capitalize the name of a theory unless it contains a proper noun (someone's name)] Description of Theoretical Model: This theory states that a person will choose to act or behave a certain way depending on if they [Check pronoun agreement--if "they" refers to "a person" (or a singular subject), it should be singular, too (he or she) and perhaps require adjusting the following verb] perceive the reward for that particular behavior as good or bad. Theory explains that every individual has a different set of goals and can be motivated [Passive voice ] if there exists a positive correlation between efforts and performance, that [Remove comma before "that" preceding a restrictive phrase (otherwise replace "that" with "which")] favorable performance will result in a good outcome, an important need is satisfied [Passive voice ] by the reward, and the desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort put in worthwhile. [Writing suggestion: If this sentence is as long as 50 or more words, it can be confusing with logic twists, recursions, or long lists. Cut it into shorter sentences featuring one idea. Shorter sentences are easier to comprehend] This theory is based [Passive voice ] on three beliefs valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. Valence is how an individual perceives or values the reward being [Doctoral rule (but good advice for any academic writer)--If not a noun (as in "human being"), the word "Being" is hard to imagine; it means "existing." Try to rewrite this without using "being"--with action words like "attending," "working," "living," "experiencing," simply "as"--or even removing "being" completely] offered [Passive voice ] as good or bad. For example some may value job promotion as a positive reward because of their need for achievement, while ["While" is accurate in linking simultaneous events (meaning "during"), but if that is not the case here, use "although," "whereas," "and," or "but"] others may have a negative view of the advancement because it will require more time commitment. Expectancy is the belief that one’s effort will lead to a performance or outcome. Instrumentality is the belief that if a person meets performance expectation then [consider removing "then"] they [he or she] will receive a reward. Mangers [Misspelling--unless you mean the box used to feed cattle and goats, this is spelled "managers"] can use the Expectancy Theory [Do not capitalize the name of a theory unless it contains a proper noun (someone's name)] to help them understand an employee’s behavior. If the employees lack motivation, the manger [Misspelling--unless you mean the box used to feed cattle and goats, this is spelled "manager"] needs to find out ["find out" is a "phrasal verb," two words that together mean something different from their individual meanings--looking up each word in the dictionary would not produce the meaning, which could cause misinterpretation in an international business communication. Use other words, like "discover" or simply "found"] what their employees value, what resources or training their staff might [Check word choice: Use "might" to indicate an uncertain possibility. Use "may" for a possibility almost a sure thing] be in need of. Most importantly [The extra syllable in "importantly" adds no additional meaning because the word is seldom adverbial in intention. Use the word without "ly"] managers must be sure that the promises for rewards are fulfilled [Passive voice ] (Borkowksi, 2005). Type of health care change situation where [If not referring to a place, instead of "where," use "which" or "in which"] model best applies: The kind of situation that this theory will work best if a nursing manager were looking for ways to improve work performance, increase job satisfaction, and retention rates of their [Check pronoun agreement--if "their" refers to "manager" (or a singular subject), it should be singular, too (his or her)] nursing staff. If a manager is looking for ways to motivate their [his or her] employees then [consider removing "then"] this theory would be idealistic because it emphasizes expectations, perception and [in academic writing, if this is a series, place a comma before the final conjunction (and)] [Insert a comma before this word if this is the last in a list of more than two -- or if it begins a new clause] the value of appropriate payoffs. The majority of individuals are taught [Passive voice ] to believe that there should be a strong correlation between performance and incentives. Supervisors must be aware that this theory does have its limitation as reward [Check spelling--should this word end with "ed"?--the participle form of "reward" is "rewarded"] system. In the hospital setting there are many parameters to achieving a certain reward, these parameters include position, responsibility and [in academic writing, if this is a series, place a comma before the final conjunction (and)] education. For a manager to apply this theory appropriately they [Place comma before this word if this is the end of the introductory phrase beginning with "For"] [he or she] must make sure the staff can achieve the intended performance levels and rewarding the employees once an exceptional performance has been met. Administrators must ensure that the reward system is fair and just and continually monitor the employee’s motivational level. The most important part of this theory is the belief of the employees that [Check word usage--If this word refers to a human being, people are never "that" or "which," they are "who"] if they perform well, then [consider removing "then"] there will be a valid outcome. Some important questions nursing supervisor should ask themselves when applying this theory are: [remove colon (if the preceding words indicate a series follows, a colon is redundant)] [Remove colon--"are" indicates a series follows, so a colon is not needed] Are the nursing staff efforts being recognized [Passive voice ] in performance appraisals? [Writing suggestion: Unless in a quote or a title, avoid rhetorical questions in academic writing. A good idea is to provide answers, not questions] To what extent does the staff believe that a good performance appraisal will lead to a reward? What is the appeal of the potential reward to the nursing staff? For this theory to work properly managers need to make sure that the payoffs are deserved [Passive voice ] and wanted by workers (Borkowksi, 2005). Theoretical Model: Equity Theory [Do not capitalize the name of a theory unless it contains a proper noun (someone's name)] Description of Theoretical Model: Adams’ Equity theory [Do not capitalize the name of a theory unless it contains a proper noun (someone's name)] is based [Passive voice ] on inputs and outputs. This theory states that a person may evaluate his or her input and outcomes by comparing them [Check pronoun agreement--if "them" refers to "person" (or a singular subject), it should be singular, too (him or her)] to those of others. Inputs can be defined [Passive voice ] as what a person can contribute to an exchange such as skill, hard work, and education. Outputs can be defined [Passive voice ] as the result of an exchange such as a promotion, salary, and recognition. [Insert comma here to set off the adjective phrase beginning with "according to" (unless it is a dependent phrase)] According to this theory if an employee perceives treatment to be fair then [consider removing "then"] the manager can expect to see positive outcomes and high levels of motivations from their [his or her] employees. This model proposes that if input and output become out of balance not only will some employees become less motivated while others may seek to bring balance by seeking more compensation/recognition, or seeking employment elsewhere or even becoming disgruntled. The thought behind this is theory is to maintain or produce a healthy balance with outputs on one side of the scale and inputs on the other, while each are [Check verb conjugation--each is] weighing in a way that seems equally reasonable. This model explains that if an imbalance is noted that managers should try to find a balance between the employee inputs that are [Writing suggestion: rewrite the sentence to remove "that are"] given [Passive voice ] , and the outputs that are received [Passive voice ] . Managers should also aware of how inequities maybe [Check spelling: "maybe" means "perhaps." The verb is "may be" `] perceived by employees in the work environment. If workers believe that they are not being treated [Passive voice ] fairly, it may become difficult to motivate them (Borkowksi, 2005). Type of health care change situation where [use "which" or "in which"] model best applies: This model would best apply in a hospital setting if the organization is looking to improve effort-reward imbalance and reduce nurse burnout. Nurses work in a very stressful environment because of the constant requirement to manage and help people during a stressful time in their lives. Much of the nurses’ motivation and reward comes from the act/feelings they get from helping others. When nurses are repeatedly confronted [Passive voice ] with difficult or demanding patients who are [Writing suggestion: rewrite the sentence to remove "who are"] not appreciative of the efforts made to assist them, this can cause a disequilibrium causing nurses to put more into the relationships with their patients than they receive back in return, causing exhaustion and burnout to set in. As a response to this feeling of inequity, nurses may respond to their patients in a depersonalized manner. Managers [A job title is not capitalized unless it is the first word in a sentence or associated with the name of a person or institution, e.g., Certified Public Accountant John Doe. If not, it is just a label, such as auto mechanic, nuclear physicist, fry cook, brain surgeon, professor, etc.] can help to restore the balance between nurses’ efforts and rewards by providing emotional and instrumental support and by giving adequate feedback (this will help to increase the nurses’ self-esteem reward). Hospital administrators can also consider establishing nurse to patient staffing ratio to limit the amount of patient a nurse can care for. Such interventions may help to restore the effort and rewards balance while reducing burnout among nurses (Bakker, Killmer, Johannes & Schaufeli, 2000). Theoretical Model: Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory [Do not capitalize the name of a theory unless it contains a proper noun (someone's name)] Description of Theoretical Model: This study shows that a relationship exists between how difficult and specific goal is in relation to a person performance. The theory states that if a person is given [Passive voice ] a challenging yet specific goal they [he or she] outperform those who were [Writing suggestion: rewrite the sentence to remove "who were"] given [Passive voice ] an easy or vague goal. For example, asking someone to “bet your last score” is more effective than telling someone to “do your best”. [A period or comma goes inside the closing quotation mark] Hard goals are more motivating than easy goals, because [Remove comma; "because" is not a conjunction] it's [A contraction ending in "s" (meaning "is") is inappropriate in academic writing--write out "it is"] [A contraction ending in "s" (meaning "is") is inappropriate in academic writing--write it out] [Contractions are inappropriate in college writing, spell out "it is" (or "it has")] much more of a payoff when you [second person] realized you [second person] have accomplished something that you [second person] have to work for. Managers must be aware of the employees’ abilities and skills for this theory to be in order for this theory to be effective. This model consists of three phases: setting the goal, obtaining goal commitment, and providing support elements. Setting the goal should be specific and challenging yet attainable. To ensure that goal setting is successful, the manager will need to make sure that staff members accept and stay committed to the goals, offering rewards will ensure that this will happen. Rewards should be increased [Passive voice ] for more difficult tasks. If employees believe that they will be well compensated [Passive voice ] for achieving a challenging goal, this will boost their motivation and enthusiasm to get it the task completed, which will [Remove comma if the following is a restrictive phrase (meaning its information is critical to the sentence--it does not merely explain the subject but rather "defines" it). If the sentence ended here, would it communicate a clear message? If not, the phrase must not be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. Check other such sentences.] reinforce acceptance of future goals (Borkowksi, 2005). Type of health care change situation where [use "which" or "in which"] model best applies: In a health care organization this model can be used [Passive voice ] to help with poor preceptor satisfaction and a high rate of graduate nurse turnover. While new graduates nurses are motivated [Passive voice ] to do their best for patients, they still require support in learning how to establish a therapeutic relationship with their patients, manage conflict, time, prioritize complex demands and recognize situations that may require additional support or resources in order to [Writing suggestion--the meaning will be the same (and less wordy) by removing "in order"] provide safe and effective care. [Sentence too long] Nursing administrators can support the integration of new nurses by knowing that these new nurses will require education, direction, support, and evaluation to ensure safe practice. The preceptor along new graduate can use Locke's Goal-Setting Theory [Do not capitalize the name of a theory unless it contains a proper noun (someone's name)] to defined clear goals and provide accurate feedback. Some goal setting options could be review [Check spelling--should this word end with "ed"?--the participle form of "review" is "reviewed"] medications commonly administered on the unit, reviewing the most common diagnose, slowly increasing workload and acuity of patients and by giving constant feedback. These goals can assist in the new graduates in their roles by promoting a sense of security and accomplishment in their performance. This goal setting steps will help decrease turnover, increased preceptor satisfaction, and reduce turnover cost (Bullock, Paris, Terhaar, 2011). Workplace development can bring a lot of [Only commercial shipments and real estate are measured in lots. To use "a lot of" to mean "many," "much," or "a large amount" is a colloquialism (not universally clear). Use another term.] changes such as new policies, new systems, causing roles and [in academic writing, if this is a series, place a comma before the final conjunction (and)] responsibilities needing to be adapted and revised. These changes will call for managers and employees to learn a new set of behaviors or to establish patterns of behavior which [Use "that" for a restrictive phrase (or place a comma before "which")] may be needed [Passive voice ] in order to [Writing suggestion--the meaning will be the same (and less wordy) by removing "in order"] successfully adapt [Doctoral rule (but good advice for any academic writer)--avoid a split infinitive; consider placing the adverb (successfully) before or after the infinitive (to adapt )--try "successfully to adapt " or "to adapt successfully" (or place "successfully" later in the sentence)] and transform to organizational change. Applying these motivation models managers can create an environment where [use "which" or "in which"] employees, feel [Style suggestion: if "felt" is used in the sense of "to believe or think," it is a cliché and vague; use a form of "believe" or "think"] secure, valued, and are [Remove comma (if the following is not an independent clause or last element in a series)] more productive.…...

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