Free Essay

“Anglo-Spanish Relations Deteriorated in the Years 1568 – 1588 Largely as a Result of the Actions of the English”. Assess the Validity of This View.

In: Historical Events

Submitted By francescagrey
Words 1223
Pages 5
Between the years 1558 and 1568 the decline in Anglo-Spanish relations was slow and gradual as they became less than open and cordial. This was hardly surprising given the religious differences between a Protestant England and Catholic Spain, although joint suspicion of the Guises was sufficient to keep the two powers reasonably friendly. Despite this, relations dropped markedly in 1568 as a result of the issue of sovereignty and crises that ravaged the Netherlands. It is true that Elizabeth did much to antagonise the Spanish during these years of conflict, although there are many instances where her policy towards Spain was nothing more than a reaction to circumstance. It can, therefore, be argued that Spanish actions, as well as other influencing factors such as religion, contributed significantly to the deterioration of Anglo-Spanish relations between the years 1558 and 1568.

The cracks in Anglo-Spanish relations first began to appear after the 1568 trading activity of English naval commander John Hawkins. This trading activity was perceived by the Spanish as an English attempt to break the extensive Spanish trading monopoly and therefore a direct threat to their authority and prosperity. As a result, the Spanish launched a blockade of Hawkins’ fleet. What followed was a ‘tit-for-tat’ approach to foreign policy by both Elizabeth and Philip. It may be argued that this chain of events is proof of Elizabeth’s reactionary foreign policy as a result of Spanish actions that lead to the decline in Anglo-Spanish relations. Despite this, however, it can be argued that, had Hawkins never embarked on his voyage in the first place, then the subsequent attempts at retaliation by both powers, for example the English imposition of a trade embargo with the Netherland, may have not ensued.

The effect of the embargo, however, has been subjected to a great deal of debate. Susan Doran states that, because the 1568 trade embargo did not stretch to commerce with Spain, no damage was done to Anglo-Spanish relations, only to Anglo-Dutch relations. Although Doran may be right in saying that the trade embargo briefly damaged Anglo-Dutch relations, the Netherlands were part of Philip’s Spanish Hapsburg inheritance. Surely, therefore, if there was any damage to Anglo-Dutch relations, Anglo-Spanish relations would have also been damaged too. This, therefore, provides evidence for the English contributions to the deterioration in the state of the relationship between England and Spain.

In addition to this, the 1583 attempts by Elizabeth at securing an alliance with France further contributed to the deterioration in Anglo-Spanish relations. Elizabeth, fearing diplomatic isolation, sent Walsingham to France with the proposal of an Anglo-French league. Despite being rejected by Henry III of France, this attempt at a union prompted many concerns within Philip II, who feared that Elizabeth was attempting to achieve a defensive, anti-Spanish agreement with the French. As a result, this would have undoubtedly increased Philip’s awareness of Elizabeth’s actions, of which he was now considerably more fearful, and lead to a further decline in Anglo-Spanish relations.

Moreover, Elizabeth I chose to consciously support the Portuguese pretender, Don Antonio, knowing that this would exacerbate the ill feelings of Philip II. In conjunction with her subsequent knighting of Sir Francis Drake, who plundered Spanish vessels during his circumnavigation, and the countenancing of the ill treatment of Spanish ambassadors at the English courts, Elizabeth contributed significantly to the already deteriorating relationship. These actions would have assuredly been viewed by Spain as a display of direct English animosity towards the Spanish.

Despite this, however, many other factors besides the actions of the English contributed to the decline in foreign relations, such as religion. Religion played an important role in Anglo-Spanish relations and is an issue that becomes more apparent between the years 1570 and 1580. The Papal Bull of 1570 that excommunicated Elizabeth I was an act that, despite not being initially supported by Philip II, had a great effect upon Elizabethan foreign relations. In terms of foreign policy, it isolated England from her main trading partners and meant that Elizabeth had to ally herself and England to the Protestant Princes of Germany to help combat the growing Catholic threat. This, therefore, damaged Anglo-Spanish relations even more as Philip II, being a devout Catholic, would have taken this excommunication seriously as he would not have wanted to defy the Pope nor would he want the German Princes being given support, as it threatened the stability of his Catholic lands. This, therefore, undermined Anglo-Spanish relations. The German Princes helped support the revolt in the Netherlands, ultimately helping the English to undermine Philip’s authority. This is evidence that the decline in Anglo-Spanish relations was caused by other, external factors.

In addition to this, it is often stated that religion was the cause for Spanish intervention in the Netherlands and therefore the subsequent decline in Anglo-Spanish relations. Philip II, the sovereign of the Netherlands, claimed that intervention in the Netherlands was necessary in order to put down the outbreak of heresy. Whether this was Philip’s true aim or not, with the decline of Anglo-Spanish relations, the Netherlands could be used by Philip as a springboard for the invasion of England owing to its close proximity. It was a constant aim of Elizabeth’s to maintain Netherlands autonomy and so, with a Spanish invasion, Dutch independence was threatened. This, too, directly threatened Elizabeth, resulting in a further deterioration in relations with Philip II and his country.

Furthermore, Elizabeth also funded the Protestants rebels in the Netherlands to help form an alliance to combat the growing Catholic threat. In the years of 1575 and 1576, Elizabeth lent £100,000 to the Dutch rebels to help them raise and supply armies in order to continue the fight with Spain. This highlights a decline in Anglo-Spanish relations because, not only was Elizabeth funding rebels in someone else’s territory, she was supporting the Protestants’ cause in Europe. These two elements together no doubt would have angered Philip and hindered Anglo-Spanish relations as Elizabeth appeared to some degree to be involving herself in someone else’s country, in this case the Netherlands, by proxy. The religious factors are ones that must be taken into account, however the Spanish had become militarily involved in the Netherlands knowing that the English might see this as potentially threatening. This would support the argument that the worsening of Anglo-Spanish relations by the English was simply reactionary.

Anglo-Spanish relations deteriorated in the years 1568 and 1588 largely as a result of the actions of the English, who had done much to antagonise the Spanish. Despite this, however, it was not only the actions of the English that contributed to the demise of the once cordial relationship. The Spanish, too, carried out many actions knowing the implications that it would have upon their foreign policy with England, such as supporting the 1569 Northern Rebellion as well as 1571 Ridolfi plot. It can, therefore, be argued that much of the English intervention was simply reactionary and a response to Spanish actions. It is clear, also, that both sides may have been motivated by religious principle. This suggests that there were other contributing elements to the demise in the relationship between the two. Therefore the statement can be attributed only some validity.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Assess the Views That Crime and Deviance Is as a Result of the Labelling Process.

...it. Labelling theorists believe that crime is as a result of interactions between people, police and the justice system. Therefore disagree that that crime is as a result of social forces such as opportunity structures. They therefore believe that the labelling process does have a direct effect on crime and deviance. Labelling theorists claim that not everyone who commits a crime is punished for it. As item A suggests, there is negative labelling on ethnic minorities such as Asians. Pilivan and Briar found that most youth arrests were made on physical cues, such as dress and appearance. They also found that anti-social behaviour order was biased against ethnic minorities. This means that crime rate would inevitably be higher among the ethnic minorities. Cicourel develops this idea and introduces the term ‘typification’ to describe the police stereotype of a typical delinquent. Therefore labelling theorists would argue that the labelling of ethnic minorities creates higher crime rates among these groups as a result of labelling. Cicourell further argues that justice is negotiable. This means that labels attached to certain groups dictate whether or not they will be accused of deviance. He gives the example of the arrest of a middle class youth who if arrested is less likely to be charged than a working class youth. Therefore Cicourell challenges the official statics as those given in item A. He argues that they lack validity and should not be relied on as a resource for......

Words: 1001 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

How to Assess the Validity of Online Information

...Executive summary Starting with an answer on question “Why to evaluate?” this document explains techniques and methods of evaluation of online information through two similar approaches. It does not compare and it does not suggest better way of evaluation either. However, it raises the importance of evaluation but it is up to the reader himself/herself what will do with information covered here. Introduction The World Wide Web provides information from all around the world. There is extremely wide variety of material, different in its reliability, accuracy and value. No one has to approve the content before publishing like in more traditional form (books or magazines) and everyone can publish. Internet by its nature was designed to provide unrestricted information. There are no rules or standards as far as quality of information which writer can put on the internet are concerned. This information can be found in a large variety of kinds and was created for different purposes. Each of these different kinds and purposes has various levels of quality, credibility and reliability. Purpose of this report is to discuss how to assess validity of online information and most appropriate methods of evaluation. Discussion 1. Why to evaluate online information The nature of the web itself and the fact that anyone can publish or even change content of some websites means that excellent resources reside......

Words: 2051 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Relations and Results

...formed to prepare common requirements that do not violate the individual unit's specific requirements. This involves extensive travel and increases the length of implementation. The problem with ERP packages is that they are very general and need to be configured to a specific type of business. This customization takes a long time, depending on the specific requirements of the business. For example, SAP is so complex and general that there are nearly 8000 switches that need to be set properly to make it handle the business processes in a way a company needs. The extent of customization determines the length of the implementation. The more customization needed, the longer it will take to roll the software out and the more it will cost to keep it up-to-date.  Training Employees Training and updating employees on ERP is a major challenge. People are one of the hidden costs of ERP implementation. Without proper training, about 30 percent to 40 percent of front-line workers will not be able to handle the demands of the new system.(n6) The people at the keyboard are now making important decisions about buying and selling -- important commitments of the company. They need to understand how their data affects the rest of company. Some of the decisions front-line people make with an ERP system were the responsibility of a manager earlier. It is important for managers to understand this change in their job and encourage the front-line people to be able to make those decisions......

Words: 1332 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Actions Results Swot Resume'

...Unit One Actions Results SWOT Resume' Kaplan University School of Business MT460 Management Policy and Strategy Author: Kasey Kitchens Professor: Dr. Norris February 3, 2014 Actions Results SWOT Resume' A SWOT analysis can be used to tell an employee as well as an employer whether he or she will be a good fit for the business. A SWOT analysis can be used to gain knowledge and it can be used as a way to set goals to better a person. When there is a need to identify issues or problems that an employee is willing to work hard to change those issues. It can aid someone who wants to reaffirm his or her goals as well as make a comparison to see if he or she had made any progress with the goals that were previously set. When a firm or manager is responsible for creating an action plan, a SWOT analysis can be of a great help. When one needs to transform his or her strengths and/or opportunities into actions and results should first evaluate and make sure that he or she understands the situation that they are currently dealing with, so that he or she can decide what their task is going to in order for them to achieve the desired goal. Next he or she should focus on what actions they are going to take, so that the goal can be accomplished or he or she will be able to see where the issues are as well as finding the right resolution for the problems that are occurring. When the task has been completed, it is important to evaluate the results from the action, while......

Words: 2005 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Explain and Assess This View That the Family Oppresses Its Less Powerful Members

...5 most primary functions of a family The functions which are basic in nature and which cannot be performed successfully by any other institutions are called primary essential functions of family. Under this category the family performs the following function: (1) Stable Satisfaction of Sex need: This is the Primary and essential function of family. Sex instinct is the natural urge of human being. The satisfaction of this need requires that both male and female should live together as life partners. It is the family where the husband and wife can satisfy their sex instincts easily and comfortably. Without family the satisfaction of sex need is almost socially quite impossible. A family not only satisfies but also provides the appropriate mechanism through marriage to regulate sexual behavior of husband and wife. (2) Reproduction or procreation: Reproduction or procreation is another essential function of family. The family along with regulating the sexual behavior in relation to the satisfaction of sexual needs secures a legitimate basis for procreation. Since the inception of family, it has been performing this fundamental function. This function of family contributes to the continuity of family and ultimately perpetuates the human race as a whole. (3) Protection and care of the young: Protection and care of the children is another essential function of family. It is regarded as an institution par excellence for the production and rearing of children. It is true that......

Words: 446 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Spanish Armada of 1588

...“Lizzie v. Phil” The Spanish Armada of 1588, (and other Anglo-Spanish Conflict during the Elizabethan era). Objectives: 1. After completing this work you should understand why the Armada was sent, and why it failed to invade England. You should be in a position to understand the period better as a whole and how the period contributed towards “The Making of the United Kingdom”. 2. Because of 1., above, you should be able to do well in your exams if you have a question on this topic. 3. You should have opportunity to hone and improve your research, study and presentational skills. These skills will benefit you in the future in History and in other subjects. 4. The project mark will form an important part of your next History grade. 2nd Year History project Guidelines 1. The project is down to your own research. It is “your” project. You can organise it however you feel is appropriate, but you must cover each of the different sections listed below. 2. Information can be drawn from all or none of the following sources: a) History text book issued. (This is only a very basic amount.) b) History books about the Elizabethan Navy can be consulted during lessons only (these books cannot be removed from the classroom as other sets may need to use them during the week). c) Printed material supplied by your teacher. d) The Internet (useful for information about the Spanish Raid on Mounts Bay in 1595 for example). e) Library books, encyclopaedias etc. 3.......

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Changing Views of the Contribution of Popular Spanish Resistance to Victory in the Peninsular War

...Changing views of the contribution of popular Spanish resistance to victory in the Peninsular War. The guerrillas have been viewed in a variety of different ways in the historiographical record of the Peninsular War. Until relatively recently, according to Tone, “historians have paid them scant attention” putting the focus on, according to Esdaile “great men, great armies and great battles”. This essay will explore some aspects of the guerrillas that have been the subject of debate in the historiography, focussing first on exploring who the guerrillas were and what their impact was on the war. Tone, in a study of the English language historiography and that of France and Spain identified that there was a difference in the way each treated the guerrillas. He summarised that while the British ignored the guerrillas’ role, the French overplayed the role of the church and the Spanish tended to portray the popular resistance as comprising the whole of the population. It could be argued that this reduction of three historiographic traditions to just three simple ideas is an oversimplification, but there is some justification for at least one of these ideas. To illustrate, and explain the British view, Tone cites Napier’s 1882 history of the Peninsular War as discussing the guerrillas, or partidas (the name given to guerrilla bands by the Spanish themselves) in less than glowing language. Reading the rest of the Napier, it is true that there are very few mentions of the......

Words: 5570 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Assess Feminist Views on Religion

...Assess feminist views on the role and function of religion (33 marks) Feminists regard religion as a main component in the perpetuation of patriarchy in contemporary society, it perpetuates oppressive gender roles, marginalises women and ensures male domination is retained. In terms of the structure of religious organisations, feminists point to the fact that they are male dominated, even though women often make up more of the attendees, often men will occupy the more central and sacred positions in places of worship. This reinforces the subordination of women, and their exclusion from sacred practices mirrors their continued exclusion from high ranking careers, specifically in politics, via the glass ceiling effect. Armstrong identifies women’s exclusion from priesthood in most traditional religions as undeniable evidence of marginalisation, such as in the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church. This argument is credible, the marginalisation of women is rife in religion, Islam for example, in which female Muslims are not allowed to touch the Quran whilst on their period. Holm describes this as the devaluation of women in contemporary religion. Disregarding the blatant sexism in religious structures, feminists point to the patriarchy reinforced by monotheistic religious texts, Judaism and Islam for example. The sacred texts, The Bible, Torah and Koran for example, are all written by men, featuring male gods and male prophets. On top of this male domination, the female sex......

Words: 902 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Assess the View That Social Class Differences in Educational Achievement Are the Result of Internal Processes Such as Labelling.

...Assess the view that social class differences in educational achievement are the result of internal processes such as labelling. Many sociologists would agree school processes such as labelling have an effect on a child’s educational achievement. However there are many other school processes that cause underachievement. To label someone is to attach a meaning or definition to them. For example, teachers may label a student as smart, thick, hardworking or troublemaker. Studies have shown that teachers often attach such labels regardless of the pupil’s actual ability or attitude. Instead they label pupils on the basis of stereotyped assumptions about their class background. Becker carried out an important study of labelling. He carried out interviews with 60 Chicago high school teachers. His findings were that they judged pupils according to how closely they fitted an image of the ‘ideal pupil’. Pupils work, conduct and appearance were key factors influencing teacher’s judgments. Middle class children were seen as the closest to ideal by teachers however lower working class children were seen as furthest away from it because they regarded them as badly behaved. Cicourel and Kitsuse’s study of educational councilors in an American high school shows how such labelling can disadvantage working class students. Cicourel and Kitsuse found inconsistencies in the way the councilors assessed students’ suitability for courses. Although they claimed to judge students......

Words: 1421 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

English Profeciency

...English Language Proficiency Assessment in the Nation: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PRACTICE Edited by Jamal Abedi U N I V E R S I T Y O F C A L I F O R N I A , D AV I S • S C H O O L O F E D U C A T I O N Copyright © 2007 The Regents of the University of California The work reported herein was supported in part by the National Research and Development Centers, PR/Award Number R305A050004, as administered by the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences (IES). The findings and opinions expressed in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the Institute of Education Sciences, or the U.S. Department of Education. T his study required the participation of all fifty states, their assessment directors, particularly those involved with the NCLB Title III assessments. Their cooperation and patience is much appreciated, and their dedication to educating young people is greatly admired. We cannot thank the states enough for their collaboration with this project. Many people generously contributed to the development of this report. We are especially indebted to the chapter authors for their invaluable contributions and for their patience throughout this process. Sue Rigney from the U.S. Department of Education contributed greatly to the quality of this work by providing excellent comments and suggestions. We are so grateful for her support, advice and contribution to this report. Kathleen Leos of the U.S...

Words: 115272 - Pages: 462

Premium Essay

English for Specific Purposes Validity of Reading Strategies

...English for Specific Purposes: Validity of Reading Strategies Larissa de Pinho Cavalcanti Universidade Federal de Pernambuco In Brazil, English for Specific Purposes was developed based on the need immediate linguistic knowledge for reading and understanding technical and academic texts – a purpose that remains until today. Indeed, several publications focus on the instrumental approach across different fields of knowledge, taking as its basis not only reading and its strategic competences but the learning of language structures that might contribute to an efficient reading process. On digital distance learning, the instrumental approach to ESP is yet predominant which can be explained by the novelty of the modality in the country in the sense that time to adjust to the possibilities virtual learning environments provide us with is still required. That is the context of our teaching for the Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia Educação in their distance learning program. Our paper aims at discussing the relevance of reading and reading strategies according to students’ own opinions and the theoretical considerations of KLEIMAN (2013), SOLÉ (1998) on reading as a process; JUNIOR (1999), LEFFA (1996), CHAVES (2006), on ESP and reading. Keywords: distance learning; English language; reading strategies. ESP: history, features and Brazil Learning English as a second or foreign language has become a world-wide necessity. Whether living...

Words: 5379 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

What Was the Main Reason for Deterioration of Anglo Spanish Relations 1572-88

...The deterioration of Anglo Spanish relations between 1572-88 was due to a handful of reasons, most notably, the Treaty of Nonsuch proved costly for the relations as Philip saw it as a clear declaration of war from Elizabeth. However, the deterioration cannot be pinpointed just on the Treaty of Nonsuch, war would not have broken out without key events such as Drake’s circumnavigation of the world in 1577-81, where Spain and England were effectively at war in the new world, as well as the tragic massacre of Hughenots in Paris on the 24th August 1572, named the St Bartholomew’s day massacre. Firstly, The Treaty of Nonsuch on the 10th August 1585 outlined Elizabeth’s intent to fight Philip over the Netherlands. She accepted the role of ‘Protector of Dutch Rebels’ and promised to provide up to 8,000 English troops in the Netherlands by 1587. While the troops were poorly led by Leicester and their military assistance was not significant, Philip took this signal of intent from Elizabeth as war. From this day onwards, Marquis of Santa Cruz started planning the Spanish Armada. This also led to Drake disrupting planning in April 1887 where he blew up ships in Cadiz to stall the Armada. It has been said that Elizabeth was not aware of the consequences of her actions and she did not mean to declare war, however this evidence is flimsy and her advisers would have warned her about what would happen. As we can see, war had never officially been announced before, although many spats......

Words: 1006 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Origins and Development of the English Language (Textbook)

... THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE This page intentionally left blank THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SIXTH EDITION ± ± John Algeo ± ± ± ± ± Based on the original work of ± ± ± ± ± Thomas Pyles Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States The Origins and Development of the English Language: Sixth Edition John Algeo Publisher: Michael Rosenberg Development Editor: Joan Flaherty Assistant Editor: Megan Garvey Editorial Assistant: Rebekah Matthews Senior Media Editor: Cara Douglass-Graff Marketing Manager: Christina Shea Marketing Communications Manager: Beth Rodio Content Project Manager: Corinna Dibble Senior Art Director: Cate Rickard Barr Production Technology Analyst: Jamie MacLachlan Senior Print Buyer: Betsy Donaghey Rights Acquisitions Manager Text: Tim Sisler Production Service: Pre-Press PMG Rights Acquisitions Manager Image: Mandy Groszko Cover Designer: Susan Shapiro Cover Image: Kobal Collection Art Archive collection Dagli Orti Prayer with illuminated border, from c. 1480 Flemish manuscript Book of Hours of Philippe de Conrault, The Art Archive/ Bodleian Library Oxford © 2010, 2005 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical,......

Words: 164520 - Pages: 659

Premium Essay

‘the Emergence of a Separate East German State in the Years 1945 to 1949 Was Entirely Due to the Provocative Actions of the Western Occupying Powers.’ Assess the Validity of This View.

...German state in the years 1945 to 1949 was entirely due to the provocative actions of the Western occupying powers.’ Assess the validity of this view. While Cold War tensions generally made the division of Germany, to a certain extent, an inevitability, the view that western powers were ‘entirely’ responsible for this division is highly valid. As many historians have noted, the West initiated nearly every step on the path to division. However, whether they should be totally held responsible has been highly debated as the USSR contributed to the Cold War tensions which made unification increasingly difficult, while the leaders and politicians within Germany also had a part to play. The western powers were highly significant in the division of Germany. As early as 1946 General Clay announced that the American zone was abandoning the Level-of-Industry Plan decided on by the Four Powers only a few months before, by way of allowing some industrial growth. This measure was decided out of fear of communism developing in Germany without a stable economy. By making this decision, the USSR was further distanced from the US. Following this in 1946, the announcement that the US zone would merge with other zones led to Bizonia. Although they claimed this was for purely economic reasons, France and the USSR protested what Fulbrook saw as a step towards political merging. Following the creation of Bizonia, America and Britain decided to put their plans into action for further......

Words: 1070 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

‘Sino-Soviet Relations, in the Years 1958-69, Were Undermined Primarily by Conflicting National Interests.’ How Far Do You Agree with This View?

...‘Sino-Soviet relations, in the years 1958-69, were undermined primarily by conflicting national interests.’ How far do you agree with this view? Introduction It is to a large extent that Sino-Soviet relations, in the years 1958-69, were primarily undermined by conflicting national interests. This is elucidated in factors or events such as Sino-Soviet rivalry over Mongolia, Sino-Soviet border disputes such as Damansky/Chenbao (1969), China’s reaction to the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia (1968) among many others. Nevertheless, other factors such as ideological conflict for example competing Soviet and Chinese claims for the leadership of international communism, China’s negative response to Soviet de-Stalinisation, Soviet ‘peaceful coexistence’ versus Mao’s commitment to ‘continuing revolution’ at a time when China was confronting the USA among many others undermined Sino-Soviet relations. 1. Sino-Soviet rivalry over Mongolia Sino-Soviet rivalry over Mongolia. The Chinese regarded Mongolia in their own sphere of influence, yet Stalin and Khrushchev refused to reduce their ties. Despite the Chinese signing the Treaty of Friendship with the Soviet Union in 1950, the Chinese failed to get an agreement off the Soviets, promising to limit their influence in Mongolia. Obviously, this would generate tension as the Chinese disliked how their power was limited. 2. Sino-Soviet border disputes such as Damansky/Chenbao (1969) Sino-Soviet border disputes such as......

Words: 1086 - Pages: 5