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Agricultural Science

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FARM MANAGEMENT

Farm management is defined as a decision-making process whereby a decision maker who may be a farmer or a manager allocates his/her limited resources among a number of competing production alternatives to meet the farmer’s goals or objectives. The second part of this definition is similar to a definition of economics, which is often defined as ‘’the allocation of scarce resources’’.

Characteristics of management

Problem –solving

Farm management problems fall into one of three types of production problems, each of which can be put into a form of a question:

1. What to produce? This problem involves selecting the combination of crops and livestock to be produced. Should the business produce only crops, only livestock or some combination? Which crops or crop rotation? Which livestock? The manager must then select from among the many alternatives that combination which will maximize profit or best meet some other goal.

2. How much to produce? Production is determined primarily by the number of inputs used and input level. A manager is faced with the problems of how much fertilizer and irrigation water to use, seeding rates, feeding levels, labour and machinery use, and determining the rates and levels for other inputs. Therefore the level of production and profit will be determined by the input levels selected.

3. How to produce? Many agricultural products can be produced in a number of ways. For example, beef can be produced with a high-grain ration or a high-roughage ration; pigs can be produced with large capital investment in buildings with little labour; crops can be produced with large machinery and little labour or smaller machinery and more labour. Therefore, a manager must select the appropriate combination of inputs which will minimize the cost of producing a given quantity of some commodity.

Characteristics of economic…...

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