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About French System of Suffixes

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Maille
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Аффиксоиды - такие словообразовательные части слов, которые занимают промежуточное положение между корневыми и аффиксальными морфемами. Аффиксоиды – это морфемы переходного типа. Они аффиксоподобны, но не тождественны ни аффиксам, ни корням.
К ним, например, можно отнести: -vore (carnivore, herbivore,omnivore); -forme (cunéiforme, filiforme); -scopie (radioscopie,microscopie) и др.
Каждый такой аффиксоид формирует вполне самостоятельный, достаточно большой и весьма продуктивный словообразовательный тип. В этом смысле аффиксоиды очень близки аффиксам.
Выполняя функцию аффиксов, аффиксоиды не утрачивают свои смысловые связи с однокоренными словами. Для сравнения можно привести следующие примеры: аффиксоид -sphère в словах stratosphère, lithosphère, atmosphère и слова sphéricité, sphère, sphéroïde, и др., photo- в словах photographie, photosensibilité,photosynthèse. Аффиксоиды делятся на две группы: суффиксоиды и префиксоиды. К суффиксоидам относятся корневые морфемы, употребляющиеся в функции суффиксов: stom(ato)- (stomatite, estomac); -phone (électrophone, microphone); -phobe (anglophobe, acrophobe, aérophobe).
Префиксоиды – это корневые морфемы, употребляющие в функции префиксов. Например, ethno- (ethnologie, ethnolinguistique,ethnocentrisme); ant(i)- (antidote, anticorps, antigène, Antichrist).
Способность/неспособность той или иной морфемы выступать в современном русском языке как в качестве служебной, так и корневой является основным показателем разграничения аффиксоидов и аффиксов.
Суффиксоиды и префиксоиды близки к компонентам сложных слов. Они присоединяются к производящей основе при помощи соединительных гласных, поэтому некоторые дериватологи не считают необходимостью выделять эти морфемы. Другие же считают, что данные элементы уже нельзя называть корневыми морфемами. Анализ языкового материала подтверждает наше предположение о продуктивности и эффективности функционирования суффиксоидов и префиксоидов в словообразовательной системе французского языка. Так, с суффиксоидами: -mètre обнаружено 152 слова, -graphe – 84, -forme- 70, -tomie - 59, -phile – 49, - logue – 47, -culture - 44, -scope – 43, -thérapie - 42, -manie - 28, -sphère - 24, -nome - 21, -carpe -12, -phobie – 11, -vore - 11, - cycle - 11, -drome - 11, -technique - 9, -therme - 6, doxe - 3, -cosme - 2. С префиксоидами: adén – 10, aéro – 40, agro- 13, alter – 90, ambi – 81, andr - 15, anti – 319, auto – 280, biblio – 20, cardio – 13, contre -598, electro – 130, extra – 264, hydro – 147, multi – 109, psycho- 69, trans- 650 , ultra - 40 , vita- 16, zoo - 53.…...

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